ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations
ILO-en-strap
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us français | español
> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex

Procedural requirements for individual dismissals


Armenia - 2018    

+ show references

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks:
  • Art. 115 LC

Notice period:
    • tenure ≥ 5 years
      • 35 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 10 years
      • 42 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 20 years
      • 60 day(s).

    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 115 LC - in case of non-respect of the notice period, the employer must compensate the worker for each day of the notice period on the basis of worker' average wage.

    Notification to the public administration: No

    Notification to workers' representatives: No

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Remarks:
    • Art. 119 provides that any elected representative of workers may be dismissed only with the prior consent of representative body of workers.

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Austria - 2016    

    + show references

    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

    Remarks:
    • No specific form required in the legislation.

    Notice period:
    Remarks:
    • - White-collar workers:
      Sec. 20 (2) White-collar Employees Act:
      The notice period is 6 weeks which increases with the length of service (2 months after 2 years of service, 3 months after 5 years, 4 months after 15 years and 5 months after 25 years).

      - Blue-collar workers:
      The notice period is 14 days in the absence of any other arrangement: sec. 77 Commerce Regulations (for industrial workers).

      - See also: sec. 1159 and 1159b CC: minimum 14-day notice unless the employee is paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate, in which case only one day's notice needs to be given.
      • tenure ≥ 6 months
        • white-collar workers - 6 week(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 9 months
        • white-collar workers - 6 week(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 2 years
        • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 4 years
        • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 5 years
        • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 10 years
        • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
      • tenure ≥ 20 years
        • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).
        • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
        • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).

      Pay in lieu of notice: No

      Remarks:
      • No statutory provision.
        ILO country profile - termination of employment - on Austria: In current court practice, when the mandatory notice period is not respected, the dismissal is treated as an "unfounded premature dismissal" and the employee is entitled to wages he would have received had the regular notice period been respected.

      Notification to the public administration: No

      Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

      Remarks:
      • Sec. 105 (2) WCA
        Prior notification to and consultation with the works council, which has 5 days to react. Whether or not the council has objected to the dismissal or has dealt with the case on time affects the possibilities to lodge an appeal, but does not prevent the dismissal from taking effects.

      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

      Approval by workers' representatives: No

      Azerbaijan - 2019    

      + show references

      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

      Remarks:
      • Art. 75 LC provides that the employer has to comply with the employment contract in writing. No further explicit provision in the LC stating that the notification has to come in writing.

      Notice period:
      Remarks:
      • Art. 77 (1) LC
        Amendments were made on this in 2017.
        • tenure ≥ 1 year
          • economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
        • tenure ≥ 5 years
          • economic dismissal - 4 week(s).
        • tenure ≥ 10 years
          • economic dismissal - 6 week(s).
        • tenure ≥ 20 years
          • economic dismissal - 9 week(s).

        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

        Remarks:
        • Art. 77 (4) LC

        Notification to the public administration: No

        Notification to workers' representatives: No

        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

        Approval by workers' representatives: No

        Remarks:
        • However, according to Art. 80 LC, the employer has to obtain the authorization of the trade union to dismiss a member of that trade union.

        Belgium - 2019    

        + show references

        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

        Remarks:
        • Art. 37 (1) and 37 (2) para. 1 ECA

        Notice period:
        Remarks:
        • Art. 37/2 § 1 ECA:
          - 2 weeks in case of a tenure of less than 3 months
          - 4 weeks in case of a tenure between 3 and less than 6 months
          - 6 weeks in case of a tenure between 6 and less than 9 months
          - 7 weeks in case of a tenure between 9 and less than 12 months
          - 8 weeks in case of a tenure between 12 and less than 15 months
          - 9 weeks in case of a tenure between 15 and less than 18 months
          - 10 weeks in case of a tenure between 18 and less than 21 months
          - 11 weeks in case of a tenure between 21 and less than 24 months
          - 12 weeks in case of a tenure between 2 and less than 3 years
          - 13 weeks in case of a tenure between 3 and less than 4 years
          - 15 weeks in case of a tenure between 4 and less than 5 years

          - Starting from 5 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 3 weeks upon commencement of every additional year;
          - Starting from 20 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 2 weeks upon commencement of every additional year;
          - Starting from 21 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 1 week upon commencement of every additional year.


          Art. 37 (2), para. 3.: The worker, the contract of whom was terminated by the employer with a notice period, may if he/she has has found another job, terminate the employment contract with reduced notice.

          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

          Remarks:
          • Art. 39 (1) ECA

          Notification to the public administration: No

          Notification to workers' representatives: No

          Remarks:
          • Except for protected workers.

          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

          Approval by workers' representatives: No

          Bulgaria - 2016    

          + show references

          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

          Remarks:
          • Art. 328 (1) LC

          Notice period:
          Remarks:
          • Art. 328 (1) together with art. 326 (2) LC
            * The notice period for termination of a contract of unlimited duration must be 30 days, unless a longer period has been agreed by the parties, but not longer than 3 months.
            *Note: the LC also provides that notice period for FTC shall amount to 3 months, but not more than the remaining period of the contract.
            • tenure ≥ 6 months
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 9 months
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 2 years
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 4 years
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 5 years
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 10 years
              • 30 day(s).
            • tenure ≥ 20 years
              • 30 day(s).

            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

            Remarks:
            • Art. 220 LC

            Notification to the public administration: No

            Notification to workers' representatives: No

            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

            Remarks:
            • However pursuant to art. 333 (1) LC, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required :
              1) when the dismissal is based on certain grounds: partial closing down of the enterprise or staff cuts, lack of the qualities required for the performance of the work, lack of qualification following changes in the requirements for the job, disciplinary dismissals
              and
              2) for workers benefiting from special protection: mothers of children under 3 years, women whose husband are serving their compulsory military service, employees with reduced capacity for work who have been reassigned and disabled persons, employees suffering from certain diseases.

              For pregnant women, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required in case of disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).

            Approval by workers' representatives: No

            Cyprus - 2012    

            + show references

            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

            Remarks:
            • Sec. 9(5) TEA.

            Notice period:
            Remarks:
            • Sec. 9 TEA.
              Notice to be given to the employee (except in cases giving rise to summary dismissal) is established according to the length of service, as follows:
              * 1 week's notice from 1 to less than 52 weeks of service;
              * 2 week's notice from 52 to less than 104 weeks of service;
              * 4 weeks' notice from 104 to less than 156 weeks of service;
              * 5 weeks' notice from 156 to less than 208 weeks of service;
              * 7 weeks' notice from 260 to less than 312 weeks of service;
              * 8 weeks' notice from 312 and more weeks of service.
              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                • 1 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                • 1 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                • 4 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                • 6 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                • 7 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                • 8 week(s).
              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                • 8 week(s).

              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

              Remarks:
              • Sec. 11 TEA.

              Notification to the public administration: No

              Notification to workers' representatives: No

              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

              Approval by workers' representatives: No

              Czech Republic - 2010    

              + show references

              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

              Remarks:
              • Sec. 50(1) LC

              Notice period:
              Remarks:
              • Sec. 51 LC : "The notice shall be at least 2 months". No reference to the length of service.
                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                  • 2 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                  • 2 month(s).

                Pay in lieu of notice: No

                Notification to the public administration: No

                Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                Remarks:
                • Sec. 61 (1) LC. Notification is mandatory in both cases of ordinary dismissal and immediate termination (serious misconduct).

                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                Remarks:
                • However, according to sec. 61 (2), (3), (4) LC approval by the trade union is requested when the dismissal or the immediate termination concerns a trade union member. In the absence of consent, such dismissal is void unless ruled otherwise by the Court.

                Denmark - 2017    

                + show references

                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                Remarks:
                • Sec. 2 (7) ESEA.

                Notice period:
                Remarks:
                • Sec. 2 (2) ESEA. The notice period shall be:
                  * 1 month during the first 6 months' employment;
                  * 3 months after 6 months' employment
                  * increased by one month for every three years of service, subject to a maximum of 6 months.
                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                    • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                    • white-collar workers - 6 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                    • white-collar workers - 6 month(s).

                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                  Notification to the public administration: No

                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                  Notes / Remarks
                  With regards to blue-collar workers, the notice period is not provided in the law but in individual or collective agreements.

                  Estonia - 2017    

                  + show references

                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 95(1) ECA.

                  Notice period:
                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 97(2) ECA:
                    The notice period to be given by the employer in the event of termination of employment (referred to 'extraordinary cancellation') varies according to the employee's length of service, as follows:
                    1) less than one year of employment: at least 15 calendar days;
                    2) one to five years of employment: at least 30 calendar days;
                    3) five to ten years of employment at least 60 calendar days;
                    4) ten or more years of employment: at least 90 calendar days.

                    Note advance notice for terminating the employment of an employee during the probationary period must be at least 15 days (art 96 ECA).
                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                      • 15 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                      • 15 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                      • 30 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                      • 30 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                      • 60 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                      • 90 day(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                      • 90 day(s).

                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                    Remarks:
                    • Art. 100(5) If an employer or an employee gives advance notice of cancellation later than provided by law or a collective agreement, the employee or the employer has the right to receive compensation to the extent to which they would have had the right to obtain upon following the term of advance notice.

                    Notification to the public administration: No

                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                    Remarks:
                    • No general obligation to notify the employees' representatives except if the employer intends to dismiss an employee's representative. Art. 94 ECA provides that before terminating an employment contract with the employees' representative, an employer must seek the opinions of the trade union or the employees who elected him/her the person to represent them or the trade reasonably union. The employer is required to take that opinion reasonably into account and to provide justification if he/she disregards the employees' opinion.

                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                    Finland - 2019    

                    + show references

                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                    Remarks:
                    • Sec. 4, chap. 9, ECA: A notice on termination of an employment contract shall be delivered to the employer or its representative, or to the employee, in person. If this is not possible, the notice may be delivered by letter or electronically.
                      However, if so requested by the employee, the employer must notify the employee without delay in writing of the date of termination of the employment contract and of the grounds for termination or cancellation known by the employer to have caused the termination (sec. 5, chap.9 ECA).

                    Notice period:
                    Remarks:
                    • Section 3, Chapter 6, ECA, General notice periods
                      “Unless otherwise agreed, the notice periods to be observed by the employer are the following if the employment relationship has continued uninterruptedly:
                      1) 14 days, if the employment relationship has continued for up to one year;
                      2) one month, if the employment relationship has continued for more than one year but no more than four years;
                      3) two months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than four years but no more than eight years;
                      4) four months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than eight years but no more than 12 years;
                      5) six months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than 12 years.
                      • tenure ≥ 1 year
                        • 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                        • 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                        • 2 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                        • 4 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                        • 6 month(s).

                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                      Remarks:
                      • Sec. 4, chap. 6, ECA.

                      Notification to the public administration: No

                      Remarks:
                      • Section 3a has been repealed by Act 204/2017.

                        See also sec. 48 of the ACU, applicable only to undertakings employing at least 20 workers: When the employer proposes measures that may lead to termination (on economic grounds), he or she should also inform the employment office.

                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                      Remarks:
                      • However, according to the Act on Co-operation within Undertakings (2007), notification to worker's representatives and negotiation are compulsory when the dismissal affects a single worker provided such dismissal is based on financial and productive grounds, and the undertakings employs at least 20 workers. (see sec. 44-53 ACU)

                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                      France - 2012    

                      + show references

                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                      Remarks:
                      • Letter of notification: art. 1232-6 LC.
                        (Mandatory oral interview prior to written notification with possible representation by an adviser: art. L 1232-2 LC.)

                      Notice period:
                      Remarks:
                      • According to art. L 1234-1 of the LC, the minimum mandatory notice period (excl. in cases of serious misconduct) is the following:
                        *1 month for tenure of more than 6 months and less than 2 years.
                        *2 months for at least 2 year-tenure.
                        *For tenure of less than 6 months, the notice period is to be defined by law, collective agreements or customs of the trade.

                        Note: In case of force majeure, no obligation to respect the notice period : art. L 1234-12 LC
                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                          • 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                          • 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                          • 2 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                          • 2 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                          • 2 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                          • 2 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                          • 2 month(s).

                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                        Remarks:
                        • Art. 1234-5 LC

                        Notification to the public administration: No

                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                        Georgia - 2017    

                        + show references

                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                        Notice period:
                        Remarks:
                        • According to the art. 38 LC in terminating the labour agreement on any of the grounds stipulated by Article 37(1)(a, f, i, n) the employer shall give the employee at least 30 calendar days’ prior written notice. Besides, the employee shall be granted a severance pay of at least one month’s salary within 30 calendar days after the termination of the labour agreement. Reference to the relevant paragraphs of the art. 37 may be found under the "Valid grounds (justified dismissal)" mentioned above.

                          Pay in lieu of notice: No

                          Notification to the public administration: No

                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                          Germany - 2017    

                          + show references

                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                          Remarks:
                          • Sec. 623 CC

                          Notice period:
                          Remarks:
                          • Sec. 622 CC (applicable, unlike the PADA, to all cases of ordinary dismissals notwithstanding the size of the undertaking).
                            The notice period should be at least 4 weeks and increases according to the length of service as follows:
                            * 1 month, for at least 2 years of service;
                            * 2 months, for at least 5 years of service;
                            * 3 months, for at least 8 years of service;
                            * 4 months, for at least 10 years of service;
                            * 5 months, for at least 12 years of service;
                            * 6 months, for at least 15 years of service;
                            * 7 months, for at least 20 years of service.

                            (Note: during the probationary period (maximum 6 months), the notice period should be 2 weeks).
                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                              • 4 week(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                              • 4 week(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                              • 1 month(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                              • 1 month(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                              • 2 month(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                              • 4 month(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                              • 7 month(s).

                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                            Notification to the public administration: No

                            Remarks:
                            • Except for pregnant women, employees on parental leave or disabled employees.

                            Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                            Remarks:
                            • Sec. 102 Works Constitution Act: the works council must be consulted before every dismissal and can, on the basis of legally specified grounds, object to a dismissal.
                              However, the validity of the dismissal does not depend on the council's approval. As a consequence of the council's objection and if the employee has challenged the dismissal before the labour court, he will be entitled to continuation of employment during the pending procedure.

                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                            Remarks:
                            • Except for pregnant women, employees on parental leave or disabled employees.

                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                            Remarks:
                            • Sec. 102 Works Constitution Act: the works council must be consulted before every dismissal and can, on the basis of legally specified grounds, object to a dismissal.
                              However, the validity of the dismissal does not depend on the council's approval. As a consequence of the council's objection and if the employee has challenged the dismissal before the labour court, he will be entitled to continuation of employment during the pending procedure.

                            Greece - 2017    

                            + show references

                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                            Remarks:
                            • Art. 1 Act 2112/1920


                            Notice period:
                            Remarks:
                            • The statutory notice periods for dismissing white-collar workers were shortened in 2012 by the Act 4093/2012 (art. IA para. 12 sec. 1):
                              - For employees who have served from 12 completed months to two years, one month's notice is required before dismissal;
                              - For employees who have served from two to five years, two months' notice is required before dismissal;
                              - For employees who have served from five to 10 years, three months' notice is required before dismissal; and;
                              - For employees who have served 10 years or more, four months' notice is required before dismissal.

                              [Prior to the reform, the notice periods were set , as follows:
                              - 1 month for employees who have worked for at least 12 months but not more than 2 years;
                              - 2 months for employees who have worked for at least 2 years but not more than 5 years;
                              - 3 months for employees who have worked for at least 5 years but not more than 10 years;
                              - 4 months for employees who have worked for at least 10 years but not more than 15 years;
                              - 5 months for employees who have worked for at least 15 years but not more than 20 years;
                              - 6 months for employees who have worked for over 20 years

                              - No notice period to be observed in order to dismiss a blue-collar worker, they are only entitled to severance pay.
                              • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                • white-collar workers - 1 month(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).

                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                              Remarks:
                              • Act No. 2112/1920, art. 3.

                              Notification to the public administration: Yes

                              Remarks:
                              • The employer has the obligation to inform the OAED (Greek Manpower Employment Organization) within 8 days from the date of the dismissal (art. 9 Act No. 3198/1955).

                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                              Remarks:
                              • Except for workers enjoying a special protection.

                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                              Hungary - 2017    

                              + show references

                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                              Remarks:
                              • Sec. 66 LC (in former LC sec. 89)

                              Notice period:
                              Remarks:
                              • Sec 68 LC (in former LC sec.92 LC)provides for a minimum notice period of 30 days, which may be extended by:
                                * 5 days after 3 years of service;
                                * 15 days after 5 years of service;
                                * 20 days after 8 years of service;
                                * 25 days after 10 years of service;
                                * 30 days after 15 years of service;
                                * 40 days after 18 years of service;
                                * 60 days after 20 years of service.
                                New in 2012
                                The new Labour Code does not provide any more for maximum notice period of one year. Also, the new LC states that by the agreement of the parties notice periods of 5 days after 3 years of service and 15 days after 5 years of service, can be extended up to 6 months (Sec. 69(3) LC).
                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                  • 30 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                  • 30 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                  • 30 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                  • 35 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                  • 45 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                  • 55 day(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                  • 90 day(s).

                                Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                Remarks:
                                • However, in case of dismissal of an elected trade union representatives, prior consent of the higher ranking trade union body is requested: 273(1) LC (in former LC sec. 28 (1)).

                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                Remarks:
                                • However, in case of dismissal of an elected trade union representatives, prior consent of the higher ranking trade union body is requested: 273(1) LC (in former LC sec. 28 (1)).

                                Italy - 2017    

                                + show references

                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                Remarks:
                                • Art. 2 Act 604/1966: as amended by art. 1.37 of the Act 92/2012.

                                  As from Act 92/2012, reason of termination must be provided within the termination letter when the termination letter is served. Before Act 92/2012, the employee could request the justification within 15 days from the notification and the employer had 7 days to reply.

                                Notice period:
                                Remarks:
                                • The length of the notice period is normally governed by collective agreements according to the employee's length of service and category.
                                  See also art. 2118 CC.

                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 2118 Civil Code

                                  Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Since 2012, pursuant to Art.7, Law 604/1966 as amended by Art. 1.40 of Act 92/2012, employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production work unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located, have to notify public bodies (Direzione Territoriale del Lavoro) when a dismissal for justified objective reason is contemplated, in order to attempt an amicable settlement between the parties.

                                    Art. 7.4 of decree 76/2013 specified that this does not apply to dismissal connected to absence for work because of illness or injury or to other similar cases.

                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                  Kazakhstan - 2019    

                                  + show references

                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 53 of the Labour Code

                                  Notice period:
                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that the notice period shall be one month unless otherwise provided for in the collective agreement.

                                    However, each of the grounds for contract termination outlined in Article 52 LC has its own procedure outlined in Article 53. One month notice is not applicable to all of the grounds. Notice period varies from 10 calendar days to 15 working days to 1 month. Some instances do not indicate on notice period (e.g. medical conditions, grounds for alcoholics).

                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that with the written consent of the worker the termination can be made effective before the expiration of the notice period.

                                      Again not applicable to all situations (see above 'notice period').

                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Update as of 2016: Article 18 (2) of the Trade Union Law provides that the trade union can submit an opinion regarding the termination of the contract of its members.

                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                    Kyrgyzstan - 2019    

                                    + show references

                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Art. 85 LC

                                    Notice period:
                                    Remarks:
                                    • Art. 85 LC
                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 85 LC

                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 85 LC

                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 85 LC

                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 84 LC: The employer is not entitled to dismiss any workers' representative without prior approval by the relevant body representing workers of the enterprise.

                                      Luxembourg - 2012    

                                      + show references

                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                      Remarks:
                                      • See art. L 124-3 LC
                                        Specific article concerning employers having at least 150 employees: art. L 124-2 LC.

                                      Notice period:
                                      Remarks:
                                      • According to art. L 121-5 (2) LC, the statutory notice period is:
                                        *2 months for a tenure of less than 5 years
                                        *4 months from 5 years until 10 years of service
                                        *6 months over 10 years of service
                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                          • 2 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                          • 2 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                          • 2 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                          • 2 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                          • 4 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                          • 6 month(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                          • 6 month(s).

                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                        Remarks:
                                        • Art. L 124-6 LC.

                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                        Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of - 2017    

                                        + show references

                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                        Remarks:
                                        • Art. 74(1) LRA. See also art. 85 LRA.

                                        Notice period:
                                        Remarks:
                                        • Art. 88 (2) LRA stipulates that in the case of an individual dismissal or in the case of a dismissal of a small number of workers, the statutory minimum notice period is one month. The individual employment contract or a collective agreement may stipulate a longer period of notice. However, it cannot exceed 3 months. If the dismissals affect more than 150 employees or 5% of total number of workers, the notice period is two months. (Art. 88.2 LRA)
                                          The LRA provides a list of justified grounds for termination without notice and these include: unjustified absence from work for three consecutive days or 5 days within one year, misuse of sick leave; failure to comply with the workplace regulations on health, safety and environmental protection, use of alcohol and drugs, robbery at the workplace or negligence causing damages to the employer, disclosure of business, official or state secrets (art. 82 LRA).
                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                            • 1 month(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                            • 1 month(s).

                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                          Remarks:
                                          • The employer and the employee may agree on the payment of a lump sum instead of observing the notice period.

                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                          Remarks:
                                          • However, such notification is required in order to dismiss a trade union representative (art. 200(3) LRA).

                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                          Remarks:
                                          • No general approval required. However, in order to dismiss a trade union representative, the employer shall first obtain the prior approval of the trade union. In case the trade union does not approve the dismissal, such approval can be obtained through a court decision (art. 200 LRA).

                                          Moldova, Republic of - 2017    

                                          + show references

                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                          Remarks:
                                          • Art. 184 LC

                                          Notice period:
                                          Remarks:
                                          • Art. 184 LC.
                                            Notice period varies according to the ground for dismissal:
                                            * 2 months minimum in case of dismissal based on economic grounds (enterprise liquidation or staff reduction
                                            * 1 month minimum for dismissals based on the worker's capacity (health condition or insufficient qualifications)
                                            * No mandatory notice when dismissal follows infringements of the employee's work responsibilities.
                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Except in case of dismissal of a trade union member or representatives (art. 87 LC).

                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Except for:
                                              * a dismissal of trade union members on certain grounds,
                                              * any dismissal of trade union representatives (art 87 LC).

                                            Montenegro - 2017    

                                            + show references

                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Art. 143c(1)(2) LL.
                                              Note: following the 2011 amendments, the relevant article numbers have changed but not their content.

                                            Notice period:
                                            Remarks:
                                            • New in December 2011: The notice period has been extended to 30 days (instead of 15 days under the 2008 LL): art. 144(1) LL.
                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                • 30 day(s).
                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                • 30 day(s).

                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                              Remarks:
                                              • Art. 144(2)(3) LL.

                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                              Remarks:
                                              • Except in the event of a disciplinary dismissal of a trade union member (see art. 143b(4) LL - introduced in the LL in December 2011)

                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                              Netherlands - 2019    

                                              + show references

                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                              Remarks:
                                              • Art. 7:672(1) CC: Notice of termination shall be given at the end of the month, unless another day has been designated for this purpose by written agreement or by custom (so called “aanzegdag”).

                                              Notice period:
                                              Remarks:
                                              • Since the 2015 reform, the employer can no longer choose which procedure to follow.

                                                Article 7:669 CC establishes the procedure to be followed. The employer may terminate the employment contract if there are reasonable grounds for doing so and redeployment of the employee within a reasonable period, whether or not by means of training, to another suitable position is not possible or would not be logical.

                                                The statutory minimum notice period to be respected depends on the worker's length of service, as follows (Art. 7:672(2) CC):
                                                * less than 5 years of service: 1 month
                                                * between 5 and less than 10 years: 2 months
                                                * between 10 and less than 15 years: 3 months
                                                * 15 years or more years: 4 months
                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                  • 2 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                  • 3 month(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                  • 4 month(s).

                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                Remarks:
                                                • If an employee is terminated before the notice period ends, the employer must pay him or her the wage he or she would have received until the end of the notice period, Art. 7:672 (10) CC.

                                                  The court can decide to lower this compensation payment, if it considers this to be fair in view of the circumstances, on the understanding that the compensation may not be less than the monetary wage over the notice period referred to in Art. 7:672 (2) CC, nor less than the monetary wage for three months.

                                                Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                Remarks:
                                                • If an employer intends to dismiss an employee, (except in case of summary dismissal), he shall either first turn to the Court to obtain the judicial rescission of the contract, in case of dismissals based on the employee’s conduct or capacity (Art. 7:671a CC) or to an administrative body: the UWV WERKbedrijf (former CWI) (Art. 7:671a CC), in case of economic dismissals or dismissals based on long-term sicknesses.
                                                  On the procedure to be followed, see Art. 7:671a and 7:671b CC.

                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                Remarks:
                                                • Approval by the administration is required only if the employer has to turn to the UWV WERKbedrijf (former CWI) to obtain a dismissal permit (see above, Art. 7:671a CC). On the procedure to be followed, see Art. 7:671a CC.
                                                  Alternatively he must turn to the Court to obtain the judicial rescission of the contract (see Art. 7:671b CC

                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                Norway - 2017    

                                                + show references

                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                Remarks:
                                                • Art. 15-4(1) WEA.

                                                Notice period:
                                                Remarks:
                                                • Art. 15-3 WEA states that unless otherwise stipulated in collective pay agreement, the notice period shall be one month.
                                                  Before notice has been given, an agreement on a shorter period of notice may only be concluded between the employer and the employee's elected representatives at undertakings bound by a collective pay agreement. Furthermore, shorter notice periods may be provided for in the regulations issued by the Ministry for participants in labour market schemes.

                                                  The same article further provides for the following notice periods:

                                                  *if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for at least five consecutive years: at least two months' notice;
                                                  * if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for at least ten consecutive years: at least three months' notice;
                                                  *if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for more than ten consecutive years:
                                                  a) at least four months if the employee is 50 years old,
                                                  b) at least five months if the employee is above 55 years old,
                                                  c) at least 6 months if the employee is above 60 years old.
                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                    • employee < 50 years old - 3 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 50 years old - 4 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 55 years old - 5 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 60 years old - 6 month(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                    • employee < 50 years old - 3 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 50 years old - 4 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 55 years old - 5 month(s).
                                                    • employees ≥ 60 years old - 6 month(s).

                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • However, Art. 15-5(1) WEA states that if the notice is invalid, the employee may claim compensation.

                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • Art. 15-1 WEA states that prior to the dismissal with notice the employer shall, to the extent that it is practically possible, discuss the matter with the employee and the employees representatives, unless the employee opposes such consultations.
                                                    As a result of an amendment to art. 15-1 introduced in 2009 by Act n°39 of 19 June 2009 (in force since January 1st, 2010), art. 15-1 specifies that "the discussions must concern both the grounds for dismissal and any selection between two or more employees regarding who is to be dismissed."

                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                  Portugal - 2014    

                                                  + show references

                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • Any dismissal decision shall be in writing.
                                                    (see art. 357(3) LC - disciplinary dismissals, art. 378(1) LC - dismissal for unsuitability, art. 371(2) - individual redundancy, and art. 363(1) - collective dismissals)

                                                  Notice period:
                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • The employer must observe a notice period before dismissing an employee in the following cases:
                                                    - dismissal for unsuitability (art. 378 LC)
                                                    - elimination of the post (individual redundancy)(art. 371 LC)
                                                    - collective dismissals for economic reasons (art. 363 LC).

                                                    There is no notice requirement when the dismissal is based on the misconduct of the employee.

                                                    The notice period is set according to the worker's seniority, as follows:
                                                    - 15 days if the length of service is less than 1 years,
                                                    - 30 days if the length of service is at least 1 year but less than 5 years;
                                                    - 60 days is the length of service is at least 5 years but less than 10 years;
                                                    - 75 days from at least 10 years of service.

                                                    The LC also provides for specific notice periods in the following cases:

                                                    *Probationary period:
                                                    During the probationary period, either party can terminate the contract without notice. As an exception, during that period, advance notice is required after a certain time has elapsed:
                                                    - if the probationary period has lasted more than 60 days, the employer is required to observe a 7-day notice.
                                                    - if the probationary period has lasted more than 120 days, the employer is required to observe a 15-day notice (art. 114(2) LC).

                                                    *Service commission agreements:
                                                    A service commission agreement (see above under "workers' categories excluded") which can be concluded with certain categories of workers (mainly those exercising managerial functions) can be terminated without cause provided that the notice requirements are observed. Depending on the period of service under such contract, notice period shall be 30 days (less than 2 years) or 60 days (2 years or more). (see arts. 163 LC).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                      • 15 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                      • 15 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                      • 60 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                      • 75 day(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                      • 75 day(s).

                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • The LC does not allow for pay in lieu of notice in the event of an individual dismissal.

                                                      (Please note that for collective dismissals, art. 363(4) provides that if the employer does not comply the notice period, the employment contract will not terminate immediately but only at the expiry of the statutory notice period (as if notice requirements have been observed) and the employer has to pay compensation equal to the salary corresponding to the missing period of notice. This rule also applies to dismissal for unsuitability (art. 372 LC).

                                                    Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • There is no general requirement to notify the administration in the event of a disciplinary dismissal (except for the dismissal of protected workers (i.e pregnant women or workers on parental leave - see above).

                                                      However, the administration is always notified in the event of dismissal for unsuitability of the worker or individual redundancy since a copy of the dismissal decision shall be sent to the relevant services of the Ministry of Labour (art. 378(2) and 371 (3) LC).

                                                      In addition, in case of individual redundancy, the administration may be involved at an earlier stage (and not only at the time of the final decision). Indeed, in the course of the consultation procedure, the workers' representatives or the workers affected (and the trade union if a union member is affected by the dismissal) may, within 3 working days, after the initial communication request the intervention of the Labour inspection. If such request is made, the Labour inspection will verify compliance with the applicable statutory requirements and present a report within 7 days of the reception of the request (art. 370 (2) and (3) LC).

                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • Intervention of workers' representatives is required in all types of individual dismissals.

                                                      - Unsuitability:
                                                      Mandatory notification to the employee and the union if the employee is a union representative of the need to terminate the contact based on justified motives, the changes introduced in the workplace, the results of the training and the adaptation period. Lastly, the employer must prove that there are no other positions available in the company compatible with the employee's qualification (art. 376(1) LC).

                                                      As from Law 23/2012 the works council (or in its absence the inter-trade union committee) will be informed after 3 days of the notification to an employee who is not a worker representative (this communication had to be notified directly to the works council before this reform).

                                                      The works council (together with the employee concerned and the trade union, if applicable) has 10 days to issue a reasoned opinion (art. 377 LC).

                                                      Within 5 days after the 10-day period has elapsed, the employer shall issue a substantiated decision, the a copy of which shall be submitted to the employees¿ representatives (art. 378 LC).

                                                      - Disciplinary dismissal:
                                                      Disciplinary dismissals are always preceded by a formal disciplinary process involving the worker's representatives. A copy of the written statement detailing the reasons for dismissal based on specific facts (statement of guilt - "nota de culpa") shall be submitted to the works council, (and a trade union in case of dismissal of a trade union representative) (art. 353-2 LC) which can within 5 days, submit its (non-binding) opinion on the proposed dismissal (art. 356(5) LC).
                                                      The final dismissal decision shall also be communicated to the works council (and the trade union, if applicable). (art. 357(6) LC)
                                                      However, the intervention of the works council in disciplinary dismissal does is not applicable in enterprises with less than 10 workers (art. 358(1) LC)

                                                      - Elimination of the post (redundancy):
                                                      Mandatory notification to the works council (or in its absence the inter-trade union committee) and the union if the employee is a union representative of the necessity to eliminate the position and consequently to terminate the employment contract as well as the reasons behind this decision (art. 369 LC).
                                                      The workers' representatives and the employee have 10 days to reply to the proposed dismissal and may within 3 days from the employer's communication request the intervention of the Labour Inspection (art. 370 LC)
                                                      Five days after the 10 day period has elapsed, the employer may issue his decision in writing indicating the reasons for the elimination of the post and other elements such as the impossibility to find alternative adequate employment and proof that the selection criteria has been duly observed if objections have been made. A copy of that decision is to be sent to the employee concerned, the worker's representatives and the relevant services of the Ministry of Labour (art. 371 LC)

                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                    Romania - 2017    

                                                    + show references

                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • - Dismissal for objective reasons: art. 62 LC (on disciplinary dismissal, see also art. 268 on the procedural requirements applicable to disciplinary dismissals).
                                                      - Dismissal for subjective reasons:art. 74 LC.

                                                    Notice period:
                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • See art. 75 LC(former art. 73), as amended by Act No. 40/2011:
                                                      When the dismissal is based on the following grounds:
                                                      - physical or mental inability to work;
                                                      - professional inadequacy;
                                                      - redundancy (objective reasons);
                                                      the employees shall now have the right to a notice of at least 20 working days [instead of 15 days previously].
                                                      This does not apply to the dismissal of worker under a probationary period, when the dismissal is based on professional inadequacy.
                                                      No notice shall be observed when the dismissal is based on disciplinary grounds.
                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                        • 20 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                        • 20 day(s).

                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                                                        However, notification is requested in some specific cases as provided by art. 64 LC:
                                                        Before carrying out a dismissal based on professional inadequacy or on mental or physical disability, the employer must offer the employee other vacant positions within the company, which are compatible with his/her professional background or, with the work capacity, as established by the occupational health doctor. When no such vacancy is available, the employer must inform the competent territorial employment agency an request its support for redeploying the employee.

                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                      Russian Federation - 2019    

                                                      + show references

                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Article 84-1 of the Labour Code

                                                      Notice period:
                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Article 180 LC provides that the employees should be notified no less than two months if the reason for the dismissal is liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise.

                                                        Moreover:
                                                        • if a fixed-term contract for a period of up to 2 months is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 3 calendar days for the reasons of expiry of the contract (Article 79 LC) and for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise (Article 292 LC);
                                                        • if a seasonal work contract is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 7 calendar days (Article 296 LC)
                                                        • if the employee is a migrant worker or a stateless person, a notice regarding the termination of the contract for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise reasons must be sent not less than 3 calendar days before the dismissal (Article 327.6 LC)
                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                          • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • Article 180 of the Labour Code provides on the pay in lieu of notice in case of dismissals for economic reasons.

                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • Article 82 of the Labour Code: in case of termination of employment for economic reasons or for worker's conduct or performance, an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

                                                        Serbia - 2017    

                                                        + show references

                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • Art. 185 LL.

                                                        Notice period:
                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • Art. 189 LL foresees a notice period only for those employees dismissed for lack of performance, i.e. qualifications and skills.
                                                          Notice period is minimum 1 month and maximum 3 months depending on the "duration of the insurance period" (period for which the employee has paid contributions for the retirement insurance), as follows:
                                                          - 1 month for up to 10 years of insurance period;
                                                          - 2 months for 10-20 years of insurance period;
                                                          - 3 months over 20 years of insurance period.

                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Art. 189 LL

                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Exception: Trade union must be notified in case of dismissal of trade union member: art. 181 LL.

                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                          Slovakia - 2012    

                                                          + show references

                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Sec. 61 (1) LC.

                                                          Notice period:
                                                          NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • New as of September 2011: The provision on the notice period has been amended by Act 257/2011.
                                                            (See sec. 62 LC, as amended).

                                                            Prior to the entry into force of the Act 257/2011 in September 2011, the notice period for any dismissal (regardless of the grounds) was 2 months or 3 months in the event the employment relashionship has lasted at least five years.

                                                            In the current version of the LC (Sept. 2011), the minimum notice period has been reduced (from 2 to 1 month) and the notice period now also varies according the the grounds of dismissal as follows:

                                                            1) For employee with less than 1 year of service, regardless of the reason for dismissal, the notice period is 1 month.
                                                            2) If the employment relationship was terminated due to:
                                                            a) the dissolution or relocation of the enterprise (or part thereof) or ;
                                                            b) redundancy arising from organisational changes or;
                                                            c) because the employee has a medical condition that caused a long-term loss of his/her ability to perform his/her work,
                                                            the notice period is
                                                            - 2 months, if the employee' length of service is at least 1 year and less than 5 years;
                                                            - 3 months, if the employee' length of service is at least 5 years.
                                                            2) If the dismissal is based on any other lawful grounds, the length of the notice period is 2 months if the employee's length of service is at least 1 year.

                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 1 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 1 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 2 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 2 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).

                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                            NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • New as of Sept. 2011: Under the previous LC (2009 consolidated version), there was no statutory right to pay in lieu of notice and the notice period had to be observed. The amendments introduced by Act 257/2011, in force since 1 September 2011 do not as such expressly introduce a right to pay in lieu of notice. However, they do modify the rules on severance pay entitlements. When an employee is terminated on the grounds of the winding-up of the employer or its relocation or on the grounds of redundancy or based on the loss of his/her medical ability to carry out work, he/she is now entitled to either notice or severance pay but no longer both.

                                                              If an employee is given notice for the above mentioned reasons, the employee has the right to ask the employer to terminate employment relationship by agreement before the start of the notice period and the employer must comply with this request. In such cases, the employee must be entitled to a severance allowance equal to not less than his/her average monthly earnings multiplied by the number of months of the notice period (sec. 76(2) LC).
                                                              Where, on the other hand, there is no agreed termination, the employee is not entitled to any severance pay and the statutory notice periods apply.
                                                              Lastly, if upon agreement, the employee continues to work for only a part of the notice period, he/she will be entitled to some severance payment for the time he/she has not worked (sec. 76(3) LC).

                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                            NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • New in Sept. 2011
                                                              Act 257/2011 amending the LC and effective as of Sept. 2011, deleted former sec. 74 LC which provided for mandatory notification to and negotiation with employee's representatives prior to any termination (both termination with notice and immediate termination).
                                                              Therefore, intervention of the worker's representatives in any dismissal no longer required.

                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • However, prior approval by the relevant office of labour, social affairs and family is required in the event of a disabled employee: sec. 66 LC.

                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • However, pursuant to sec. 240 8) LC: "The employer may give notice to or terminate immediately the employment of a member of the relevant trade union body, a member of a works council or a works trustee only with the prior consent of these employees' representatives".

                                                            Slovenia - 2012    

                                                            + show references

                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • Art. 86 (1) ERA

                                                            Notice period:
                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • Art. 92 ERA (as amended in 2007) establishes statutory minimum notice periods that vary according to the reason for dismissal and the length of service as follows:

                                                              If the contract is terminated by the employer, then the notice periods are
                                                              - 30 days if the length of service is less than 5 years;
                                                              - 45 days if the length of service is at least 5 years;
                                                              - 60 days if the length of service is at least 15 years;
                                                              - 120 days if the length of service is at least 25 years.

                                                              If the employer terminates the contract due to the worker's conduct (other than that entailing summary dismissal), then the notice period is one month.

                                                              [Note that prior to the 2007 amendment, the LC distinguished between dismissals for economic reasons and dismissal for reasons of incapacity and provided for higher notice periods for economic dismissals, as follows:
                                                              - Less than 5 years of service: 30 days (business reasons) / 30 days (incapacity).
                                                              - At least 5 years of service: 45 days (business reasons) / 45 days (incapacity).
                                                              - At least 15 years of service: 75 days (business reasons) / 60 days (incapacity).
                                                              - At least 25 years of service: 150 days (business reasons) / 120 days (incapacity).]
                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 45 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 45 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 60 day(s).
                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).

                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • Art. 94 ERA

                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • However, in both cases of ordinary and summary dismissal of a trade union member, if so requested by the worker, the employer is required to notify the said union: art. 84 ERA.
                                                                The trade union can oppose termination according to the modalities laid down in art. 85 ERA.

                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • As a general rule. approval by worker's representatives is not required.

                                                                However, when dismissal concerns a trade union member, the trade union may oppose termination for absence of substantiated reason or violation of procedural requirements. As a result of such opposition, the effects of dismissals are suspended until the court or an arbitrator has ruled on the matter (art. 85 ERA).
                                                                Furthermore, worker's and trade union representatives enjoy special protection and cannot be dismissed without prior consent of the body they represent. (art. 113 ERA).

                                                              Spain - 2019    

                                                              + show references

                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • - Dismissal based on objective reasons: art. 53(1)a) ET.
                                                                - Disciplinary dismissal: art. 55(1) ET.

                                                              Notice period:
                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • As a result of Law Act 35/2010, the notice period to be observed in the event of dismissal for an objective cause (e.g economic reasons, capacity-related reasons - see 'valid grounds') is now reduced to 15 days (instead of 30 days) (see art. 53(1)c) ET).
                                                                With respect to disciplinary dismissal, no notice is required.

                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                  • 15 day(s).

                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • As a result of law 35/2010, if the employer fails to observe the notice requirements, he or she shall be liable to pay compensation in an amount equivalent to the period of notice that was not given (art. 53(4) ET).

                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • No general obligation to notify the worker's representatives in the event of dismissal.
                                                                  However, notification is required in the following cases:
                                                                  - In the event of objective dismissal based on technical, organizational, economic or production-related grounds which is not part of a pattern of collective dismissal, copy of the notice of dismissal shall be given to the worker's representatives (art. 53(1)c) ET).
                                                                  - Where a trade unions member or trade union representative is dismissed by way of disciplinary dismissal (art. 55 (1) ET - see also above "worker's enjoying special protection")

                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                Sweden - 2017    

                                                                + show references

                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • Sec. 8 EPA: “Notice of termination by the employer must be given in writing”.

                                                                Notice period:
                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • Sec. 11 EPA:
                                                                  - The minimum notice period is 1 month.
                                                                  - The notice period shall be:
                                                                  * 2 months for tenure of at least 2 years but less than 4 years;
                                                                  * 3 months for tenure of at least 4 years but less than 6 years;
                                                                  * 4 months for tenure of at least 6 years but less than 8 years;
                                                                  * 5 months for tenure of at least 8 years but less than 10 years;
                                                                  * 6 months for tenure of at least 10 years.
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                    • 3 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                    • 3 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                    • 6 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                    • 6 month(s).

                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • Exception as provided in sec. 30 EPA: “An employer who wishes to summarily dismiss an employee or to give notice terminating employment for reasons relating to the employee personally, shall inform the employee of this in advance. Information concerning termination shall be given at least two weeks in advance. Information concerning summary dismissal shall be given at least one week in advance. If the employee is a union member, the employer shall notify the local organisation of employees to which the employee belongs at the same time as notice is given to the employee. The employee and the local organisation of employees to which the employee belongs are entitled to consultations with the employer concerning the measure to which the information and the notice relate. This shall apply provided that such consultations are requested not more than one week after information or notice was given. Where such consultations have been requested, the employer may not give notice of termination or summarily dismiss the employee until the consultations have been concluded”. (available at: http://www.government.se/4ac87e/contentassets/b58069e2c0f24aa6be53d8932de85d86/sfs-198280-employment-protection-act)

                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                  Switzerland - 2013    

                                                                  + show references

                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • However, according to Art. 335 (2) CO, the party giving notice should state the reason for terminating employment in writing if requested by the other party.
                                                                    The same rule applies in case of dismissal with immediate effect : art. 337 CO.

                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • 1) For ordinary dismissals:
                                                                    According to art. 335c CO, the general rule on the notice period is the following:
                                                                    *1 month during the first year of service;
                                                                    *2 months between 2 and 9 years of service;
                                                                    *3 months over 9 years of service.

                                                                    These timeframes can be modified by written agreement, collective agreement but shall not be less than 1 month.
                                                                    Exceptions to this rule are permitted only during the first year of service and if set by a collective agreement (art. 335c (2) CO).

                                                                    2) Specific rules apply to FTC:
                                                                    No notice period is prescribed except for FTC concluded for up to 10 years (art. 334 (1) CO).
                                                                    For FTC concluded for more than 10 years, a notice period of 6 months should be respected by either party (art. 334 (2) CO).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                      • 1 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                      • 1 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                      • 3 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                      • 3 month(s).

                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                    Tajikistan - 2016    

                                                                    + show references

                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • Art. 45 LC

                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • Art. 45 (1) LC: Employer must in written form let the worker know about employers' intentions to terminate the labour contract.
                                                                      - The worker should be notified no less than two months prior to the termination of the contract if the reason for that termination is the liquidation of the organization or the termination of the activity of the employer (individual, reduction in the number or staff of employees);
                                                                      - The worker should be notified no less than a month prior to the termination of the contract if the reason for that termination is due to worker’s lack of qualifications or for health reasons.
                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                        • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).

                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • In this case according to the Art. 45 LC the employee shall be paid the compensation in the amount not lower than the average daily wage for each day remaining before the expiration.

                                                                      Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Update as of 2016: Art. 45 (4) LC states that the employer must notify relevant authorities on labour on impending dismissal of employees by indicating their qualification and salary.

                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Update as of 2016: Art. 44 LC: Workers representatives should be notified at least 2 weeks before the termination of the contract.

                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Update as of 2016: Art. 44 LC does not clearly state that the employer cannot proceed with the termination of the contract without workers representatives' approval. The article, however, sets procedural clarity for notification/coordination between the parties.
                                                                        The employer must notify workers representatives two weeks in advance (Art 44(1)); the workers representatives must reply back in 10 days (Art 44 (2)); the employer has a right to terminate the contract not later than one month after receiving the agreement of the workers representatives.
                                                                        So technically the employer should get the agreement from workers representatives. However, it does not say what happens if workers representatives do not agree.

                                                                      Turkey - 2019    

                                                                      + show references

                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Art. 19 LA provides that the notice of termination for employees, who are covered by the job security provision, shall be given by the employer in written form. Besides, the employer is obliged to specify the ground of termination clearly and definitely.
                                                                        [Art. 19 LA also requires the employer to allow an employee under a contract with an indefinite duration to defend himself against the allegations made against him or her in the event of dismissal for reasons related to the worker's conduct or performance].

                                                                        The notice form for the termination of employees excluded from the job security provisions is not specified.

                                                                        The 2012 Code of Obligations -that regulates the contract of workers not covered by the Labour Act- provides that, in relation to termination of employment related to the marketing facilities agreements, if the commission paid to the employee comprises at least one-fifth of the salary and the commission is influenced by seasonal fluctuations, the employer is entitled to terminate the employment contract as of the expiration of the former season with two months' notice prior to the start of the new season. At the same time, the employee is also entitled to terminate the contract with two months' notice before the start of the new season if he or she has worked until the end of the former season and also continued to work after the season. Nevertheless, the new Code of obligations doesn't provide any specific form of notification to the worker to be dismissed.

                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Art. 17 LA:
                                                                        The notice period to be observed by the employer before terminating a contract of indefinite duration varies according to the employee's length of service, as follows:
                                                                        - 2 weeks if the employee has been employed for less than 6 months;
                                                                        - 4 weeks if the employee has been employed for at least 6 months but less that one-and-a-half years;
                                                                        - 6 weeks if the employee has been employed for at least one-and-a-half years but less than 3 years;
                                                                        - 8 weeks if the employee has been employed for more than 3 years.
                                                                        These are minimum periods and may be increased by contracts between the parties.
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                          • 2 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                          • 4 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                          • 6 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                          • 8 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                          • 8 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                          • 8 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                          • 8 week(s).

                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Art. 11 LA.

                                                                        Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • According Art. 9 of the Code of Social Insurance and Universal Health, the Presidency of the Social Security Institution shall be notified by the employer within maximum ten days after termination of the employment contract.
                                                                          Note: This notification obligation also applies to any recruitment.

                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                        Notes / Remarks
                                                                        The notice requirements apply to both employees covered by the job security provisions (termination with a valid reason) and those not covered by such provisions (no justification required).
                                                                        As mentioned above, the job security provision applies to employees who fulfil all the following criteria:the employee is engaged for an indefinite period, and; the employee has worked for at least 6 months, and; the employee works in an establishment with at least 30 employees.
                                                                        When terminating a contract for a just cause ("breaking of the contract) for reasons related to health, misconduct, force majeure, arrest and custody, as listed in Art. 25, the employer does not have to observe any notice requirements.

                                                                        Turkmenistan - 2019    

                                                                        + show references

                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Art. 44 LC

                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                            • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                            • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Art. 44(2) LC

                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives

                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

                                                                          United Kingdom - 2019    

                                                                          + show references

                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • No specific form required for dismissal notification.
                                                                            The ERA only provides for the right to a written statement of the reasons for dismissal upon request (sec. 92).

                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Sec. 86 ERA establishes minimum notice periods according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                                            - one week, if the employee has been continuously employed for at least 1 month but less than two years;
                                                                            - one week for each year of continuous employment if the period of continuous employment is between two and 12 years; and
                                                                            - 12 weeks if the period of continuous employment is 12 years or more.
                                                                            No notice needs to be given if the employee has been employed for less than 1 month.
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                              • 1 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                              • 1 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                              • 2 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                              • 4 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                              • 5 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                              • 10 week(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                              • 12 week(s).

                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • There is no statutory right to pay in lieu of notice. However, a pay in lieu of notice clause can be inserted in the employment contract or it may be paid to cover any potential damages for breach of contract
                                                                              See also sec. 88 (1) a) ERA that provides that "If an employee has normal working hours under the contract of employment in force during the period of notice and during any part of those normal working hours the employee is ready and willing to work but no work is provided for him by his employer (...) the employer is liable to pay the employee for the part of normal working hours a sum not less than the amount of remuneration for that part of normal working hours calculated at the average hourly rate of remuneration produced by dividing a week's pay by the number of normal working hours."

                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                            Uzbekistan - 2019    

                                                                            + show references

                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • Art. 102 LC

                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • Art. 102 LC provides for the following notice period: 2 months in cases of the termination due to changes in technology, production and labor organization, reduced volumes of work that resulted in changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, or in connection with the liquidation of the company as well as in connection with reaching the retirement age when the employee has the right to receive the state pension; 2 weeks when the termination occurred due to employees' incapability to perform the work because of lack of qualifications or health status; 3 days when terminated due to the employee's own culpable conduct (a single gross or a systematic violation of labour discipline).

                                                                              However, art. 102 also states that the two-month and three-day notice period may be replaced by corresponding compensation at the employer's discretion. The two-week notice stipulated above shall not be given when an employment agreement is terminated due to the employee's inability to perform the duties of his or her job for health reasons where there is a medical certificate confirming that the job is contraindicated to the employee. In this case, the employee shall be paid compensation in the amount of two weeks' wages.
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 2 month(s).
                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 3 day(s).
                                                                                • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 2 week(s).

                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • According to the Art. 102 LC in cases of termination of employment by the employer the notice period can be replaced with the monetary compensation corresponding to the duration of notice, at the employer's discretion.

                                                                              Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • Art. 102 LC states that the employer is obliged to inform the local authority of labour, not later than two months before the termination, on the upcoming dismissal and to provide data of each employee, indicating his profession, qualifications and wages

                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • Art. 101 LC

                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • Art. 101 LC states that the termination of the employment contract by the employer is not allowed without the prior consent of the trade union committee or other representative body of employees, in the case when the obligation for such consent is provided by collective agreement.

                                                                                The trade union committee or other representative body of employees must notify the employer in writing of its decision within ten days of receipt of the written submission on the intention of termination.
                                                                                An employer may terminate an employment contract within one month from the date of the trade union's committee or other representative's body of employees decision to consent to the termination of employment.