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Procedural requirements for individual dismissals


Afghanistan - 2013    

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Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

Remarks:
  • Art. 23(4) LC provides for the employer's obligation to notify the employee of his/her dismissal within 1 month but does not specify the form of such notification.

Notice period:
    • tenure ≥ 6 months
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 9 months
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 2 years
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 4 years
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 5 years
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 10 years
      • 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 20 years
      • 1 month(s).

    Pay in lieu of notice: No

    Notification to the public administration: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 25(1) LC: The employer is required to provide a list of employees who have been dismissed on any legal ground (conduct, capacity, economic reasons - see "valid grounds") to the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs or its provincial offices. This list which aims at assisting employees in job placement shall indicate the work experience, qualification, speciality, and skills of each employee.

    Notification to workers' representatives: No

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Algeria - 2019    

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    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

    Remarks:
    • Any disciplinary dismissal (summary dismissal for serious misconduct) shall be notified in writing (Art. 73-2 LRA). A prior oral interview is also required.
      The law does not specify the form of notification for dismissals based on economic grounds.
      However, under the Collective Framework Agreement (CFA) of 2006, the dismissal decision shall be notified to the employee in writing (art 66 CFA). The CFA also requires the employer to conduct an oral interview with the employee prior to any dismissal not resulting from a workforce reduction (art. 64 CFA).
      _______________________________
      Tout licenciement disciplinaire (licenciement sans préavis pour faute grave) doit être notifié par écrit (art. 73-2 LRA). Une entrevue orale préalable est également requise. La loi ne précise pas la forme de notification pour les licenciements fondés sur des motifs économiques.
      Toutefois, en vertu de la convention collective (CCT) de 2006, la décision de licenciement doit être notifiée par écrit à l'employé (art. 66 CCT). La Convention collective exige également que l'employeur tienne une entrevue orale avec l'employé avant tout congédiement ne résultant pas d'une réduction d'effectifs (art. 64 CCT).

    Notice period:
    Remarks:
    • The LRA does not specify the duration of the notice period.
      Art. 73-5 LRA provides that any employee who did not commit an act of serious misconduct is entitled to a notice period (délai-congé) whose duration must be established in collective agreements.
      However, the Collective Framework Agreements of 2006 provides for notice periods requirements as follows:
      Unless there are provisions in the law, the employment contract or collective agreements which are more favorable to the employee, upon dismissal (except for serious misconduct), any employee is entitled to a notice period which shall be at least equivalent to the probationary period set out for that position. The notice period is increased by 5 days for each year of service with the same employer up to a maximum of 30 days (art. 61 CFA).
      _____________________
      La LRA ne précise pas la durée du congé/préavis. Toutefois l'article 73-5 LRA dispose que "le licenciement ouvre droit, pour le travailleur qui n’a pas commis de faute grave, à un délai- congé dont la durée minimale est fixée dans les accords ou conventions collectifs."
      La Convention collective de 2006 établit par ailleurs que "Sauf dispositions plus favorables pour le salarié par le fait de la loi, des conventions et accords collectifs de travail ou du contrat de travail, le licenciement ouvre droit pour le salarié qui n'a pas commis de faute professionnelle grave, à un délai de préavis d'une durée au moins égale à la durée de la période d'essai fixée pour l'emploi occupé.
      Le délai de préavis est augmenté de cinq (05) jours par année d'ancienneté au service du même employeur, dans la limite de trente (30) jours" (Article 67 CFA)

      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

      Remarks:
      • Art. 73-6 LRA.

      Notification to the public administration: No

      Notification to workers' representatives: No

      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

      Approval by workers' representatives: No

      Angola - 2013    

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      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

      Remarks:
      • - Individual economic dismissal: art. 232 GLA.
        - Disciplinary dismissal: art. 52(2) GLA.

      Notice period:
      Remarks:
      • Art. 232 GLA: The period of notice for individual economic dismissals is at least 60 days for executives and high-level and medium-level technicians and 30 days for any other professional group.
        Article 244(2) GLA provides the similar rule for collective dismissals.
        No notice is required for disciplinary dismissals.
        • tenure ≥ 6 months
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 9 months
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 2 years
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 4 years
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 5 years
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 10 years
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
        • tenure ≥ 20 years
          • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
          • executives, high-level and middle-level technicians - economic dismissal - 60 day(s).

        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

        Remarks:
        • Art. 234(3) GLA: Pay in lieu of notice for individual economic dismissal.
          No notice for disciplinary dismissal.

        Notification to the public administration: Yes

        Remarks:
        • - Individual economic dismissals (= those concerning less than 5 workers):
          Notification to and authorization from the provincial office of the Ministry of Labour is required only if the employees' representatives oppose the dismissal(s). (art. 231 GLA)

          - Disciplinary dismissals: no such prior notification to the administration.

          The authorization of the General Labour Inspectorate is however, always required for any disciplinary or economic dismissal which affects a protected worker ( war veteran, minor, women covered by the maternity protection and workers with a limited occupational disability degree of 20% or above ( see arts. 227(3), 233(3), 244(3), 278, 288 GLA).

        Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

        Remarks:
        • - Individual economic dismissal (= those concerning less than 5 workers):
          The workers' representatives body shall be notified of the employer's intention to carry out the dismissals and provided with a written statement indicating in detail the reasons for the dismissal, the number of workers affected, possibility of transfer to other similar positions (art. 231 GLA).

          - Disciplinary dismissals: no such notification required. However, the employee has the right to be assisted by another employee or a member of the trade union to which he or she is affiliated during the preliminary interview (art. 50(2) GLA). If the employee is a trade union member or a workers' representative, a copy of the dismissal notice shall be sent to the trade union or the representative body concerned.

        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

        Remarks:
        • - Individual economic dismissals (= those concerning less than 5 workers): The labour administration will not be involved if the employee's representatives approve the dismissal.
          However, if the employees' representatives oppose the dismissal(s) and the employer maintain his/her decision to carry out the dismissal(s), he/she shall obtain the authorization form the provincial office of the Ministry of Labour which shall issue a decision within 10 days of the submission of the employer's request. In case the employer's request is rejected by the provincial office, the employer can still challenge the office's decision before the competent national director of industrial relations who will issue a final decision within 15 days.
          - Disciplinary dismissals: no approval by the administration.

          - The authorization of the General Labour Inspectorate is always required for any disciplinary or economic dismissal which affects a protected worker (war veteran, minor, women covered by the maternity protection and workers with a limited occupational disability degree of 20% or above ( see arts. 227(3), 233(3), 244(3), 278, 288 GLA).

        Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

        Remarks:
        • - Individual economic dismissal (= those concerning less than 5 workers):
          The workers' representatives body shall be notified of the employer's intention to carry out the dismissals and provided with a written statement indicating in detail the reasons for the dismissal, the number of workers affected, possibility of transfer to other similar positions. The employee's representatives must issue a substantiated written decision within 7 days opposing or accepting the dismissal in which they analyse the reasons and the measures invoked by the employer and may suggest practical solutions.
          If they accept the dismissal, it will be carried out according to the agreed terms.
          If they oppose the dismissal and the employer maintain his/her decision to carry out the dismissal, he/she shall obtain the authorization form the provincial office of the Ministry of Labour (art. 231 GLA).

          - Disciplinary dismissals: no approval required.

        Antigua and Barbuda - 2018    

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        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

        Remarks:
        • The LC does not specify whether the employer's notice of termination shall be written or not (see. sec. C9 LC).
          The employer is however required to furnish a written statement indicating the precise reason for the termination, upon a request by the employee within seven days of termination or notice thereof (sec. C10 LC as amended by sec. 8 LCA).

        Notice period:
        Remarks:
        • See sec. C9(3) LC.
          - The period of said advance notice shall be at least equivalent to the interval of time between the affected employee's paydays. It shall not exceed 30 days unless a longer notice period is stipulated in an employment contract.
          - With respect to an employee serving a probation period, an employer must give at least 24 hours advance notice of his intention to terminate that person's employment.
          • tenure ≥ 6 months
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 9 months
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 2 years
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 4 years
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 5 years
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 10 years
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
          • tenure ≥ 20 years
            • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).

          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

          Remarks:
          • See sec. C9(4) LC.

          Notification to the public administration: No

          Notification to workers' representatives: No

          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

          Approval by workers' representatives: No

          Argentina - 2018    

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          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

          Remarks:
          • Art. 235 LCL.

          Notice period:
          Remarks:
          • Art. 231 (b) LCL: establishes various statutory notice periods

            According to article 231 LCL this is the compulsory minimum notification period, but the parties can agree on a longer one.

            Fixed term contracts must follow article 94 LCT, according to which parties need to inform the other party of the end of the contract between 1 and 2 months before the agreed deadline, except if the contract is for the duration of less than one 1 month. If the advance notice is not observed, it will be presumed the conversion of the contract to an indeterminate one, except if an explicit renovation of the contract has been agreed.

            Please note, however, that these rules do not apply to small and medium sized companies which are defined as those companies which up to 40 employees and a maximum annual turnover of such an amount set out by a special monitory commission (Comisión Especial de Seguimiento) for each activity or sector (art. 83 SMEL).
            In those companies, the employer is only required to give an advance notice of one month to the employee, regardless of the length of service (art. 95 SMEL).
            • tenure ≥ 6 months
              • 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 9 months
              • 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 2 years
              • 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 4 years
              • 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 5 years
              • 2 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 10 years
              • 2 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 20 years
              • 2 month(s).

            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

            Remarks:
            • Art. 232 LCL.

            Notification to the public administration: No

            Remarks:
            • Decree 1043/2018 ( 12/11/2018) establishes the following temporary provisions:
              ARTÍCULO 6°.- Establécese, hasta el 31 de marzo de 2019, un procedimiento por el cual los empleadores, antes de disponer despidos sin justa causa de trabajadores con contratos de trabajo por tiempo indeterminado, deberán comunicar la decisión al MINISTERIO DE PRODUCCIÓN Y TRABAJO con una anticipación no menor a DIEZ (10) días hábiles previo a hacerla efectiva.
              ARTÍCULO 7°.- El MINISTERIO DE PRODUCCIÓN Y TRABAJO, de oficio o a petición de parte, podrá convocar al empleador y al trabajador junto con la asistencia gremial pertinente, a fin de celebrar durante el plazo fijado en el artículo 6° del presente, las audiencias que estime necesarias para considerar las condiciones en que se llevará a cabo la futura extinción laboral.
              ARTÍCULO 8°.- El incumplimiento de lo establecido en el presente capítulo dará lugar a la aplicación de las sanciones previstas en el Anexo II de la Ley N° 25.212 y sus modificatorias.
              ARTÍCULO 9°.- Exceptúase del procedimiento establecido en el presente capítulo, al personal de la Industria de la Construcción, contratado en los términos de la Ley N° 22.250.
              Source: http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/315000-319999/316286/norma.htm

            Notification to workers' representatives: No

            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

            Approval by workers' representatives: No

            Notes / Remarks
            The notice period requirements do not apply to dismissals for "just cause".
            The only procedural requirement for dismissal for "just cause" is the submission of written notice of the fact of dismissal with a clear indication of the grounds invoked for the termination of the contract. There is no legally prescribed time limit for the submission of this notice.

            Armenia - 2018    

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            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

            Remarks:
            • Art. 115 LC

            Notice period:
              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                • 35 day(s).
              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                • 42 day(s).
              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                • 60 day(s).

              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

              Remarks:
              • Art. 115 LC - in case of non-respect of the notice period, the employer must compensate the worker for each day of the notice period on the basis of worker' average wage.

              Notification to the public administration: No

              Notification to workers' representatives: No

              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

              Remarks:
              • Art. 119 provides that any elected representative of workers may be dismissed only with the prior consent of representative body of workers.

              Approval by workers' representatives: No

              Australia - 2019    

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              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

              Remarks:
              • s117(1) FWA: "an employer must not terminate an employee's employment unless the employer has given the employee written notice of the day of the termination".

              Notice period:
              Remarks:
              • Notice of termination is - together with other rights and entitlements set out in part 2.2 of the FWA - part of the new "National Employment Standards", in force since 1st January 2010.
                s117(3) establishes the statutory minimum notice periods which varies according to the length of service and the age, as follows:
                - If the employee has been continuously employed for not more than 1 year, the notice period shall be 1 week;
                - If the length of service is more than 1 year but not more than 3 years, the notice period shall be 2 weeks;
                - If the length of service is more than 3 year but not more than 5 years, the notice period shall be 3 weeks;
                - If the length of service is more than 5 years, the notice period shall be 4 weeks.

                In addition, the notice period shall be increased by 1 week if the employee is over 45 years old and has completed at least 2 years of continuous service with the employer at the end of the day the notice is given.

                However, according to s123 FWA, the provisions on notice of termination do not apply to the following employees:
                - Employees not covered by Division 11 of the FWA (both notice of termination and redundancy pay):
                "(1) (a) an employee employed for a specified period of time, for a specified task, or for the duration of a specified season;
                (b) an employee whose employment is terminated because of serious misconduct;
                (c) a casual employee;
                (d) an employee (other than an apprentice) to whom a training arrangement applies and whose employment is for a specified period of time or is, for any reason, limited to the duration of the training arrangement;
                (e) an employee prescribed by the regulations as an employee to whom this Division does not apply.
                (2) Paragraph (1)(a) does not prevent this Division from applying to an employee if a substantial reason for employing the employee as described in that paragraph was to avoid the application of this Division"
                - Other employees not covered by notice of termination provisions:
                "(3) (b) a daily hire employee working in the building and construction industry (including working in connection with the erection, repair, renovation, maintenance, ornamentation or demolition of buildings or structures); or
                (c) a daily hire employee working in the meat industry in connection with the slaughter of livestock; or
                (d) a weekly hire employee working in connection with the meat industry and whose termination of employment is determined solely by seasonal factors; or
                (e) an employee prescribed by the regulations as an employee to whom that Subdivision does not apply."
                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                  • 1 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                  • 1 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                  • employees ≤ 45 years old - 2 week(s).
                  • employees > 45 years old - 3 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                  • employees ≤ 45 years old - 3 week(s).
                  • employees > 45 years old - 4 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                  • employees ≤ 45 years old - 4 week(s).
                  • employees > 45 years old - 5 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                  • employees ≤ 45 years old - 4 week(s).
                  • employees > 45 years old - 5 week(s).
                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                  • employees ≤ 45 years old - 4 week(s).
                  • employees > 45 years old - 5 week(s).

                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                Remarks:
                • s117(2) b) FWA.

                Notification to the public administration: No

                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                Austria - 2016    

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                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                Remarks:
                • No specific form required in the legislation.

                Notice period:
                Remarks:
                • - White-collar workers:
                  Sec. 20 (2) White-collar Employees Act:
                  The notice period is 6 weeks which increases with the length of service (2 months after 2 years of service, 3 months after 5 years, 4 months after 15 years and 5 months after 25 years).

                  - Blue-collar workers:
                  The notice period is 14 days in the absence of any other arrangement: sec. 77 Commerce Regulations (for industrial workers).

                  - See also: sec. 1159 and 1159b CC: minimum 14-day notice unless the employee is paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate, in which case only one day's notice needs to be given.
                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                    • white-collar workers - 6 week(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                    • white-collar workers - 6 week(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                    • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                    • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                    • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                    • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).
                    • blue-collar workers - 14 day(s).
                    • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 day(s).

                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                  Remarks:
                  • No statutory provision.
                    ILO country profile - termination of employment - on Austria: In current court practice, when the mandatory notice period is not respected, the dismissal is treated as an "unfounded premature dismissal" and the employee is entitled to wages he would have received had the regular notice period been respected.

                  Notification to the public administration: No

                  Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                  Remarks:
                  • Sec. 105 (2) WCA
                    Prior notification to and consultation with the works council, which has 5 days to react. Whether or not the council has objected to the dismissal or has dealt with the case on time affects the possibilities to lodge an appeal, but does not prevent the dismissal from taking effects.

                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                  Azerbaijan - 2019    

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                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 75 LC provides that the employer has to comply with the employment contract in writing. No further explicit provision in the LC stating that the notification has to come in writing.

                  Notice period:
                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 77 (1) LC
                    Amendments were made on this in 2017.
                    • tenure ≥ 1 year
                      • economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                      • economic dismissal - 4 week(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                      • economic dismissal - 6 week(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                      • economic dismissal - 9 week(s).

                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                    Remarks:
                    • Art. 77 (4) LC

                    Notification to the public administration: No

                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                    Remarks:
                    • However, according to Art. 80 LC, the employer has to obtain the authorization of the trade union to dismiss a member of that trade union.

                    Bangladesh - 2017    

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                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                    Remarks:
                    • - Retrenchment: sec. 20(1) LA
                      - Dismissal (on the ground of serious misconduct): sec. 24 LA
                      - Termination by the employer with notice without a cause: sec. 26(1) LA.

                    Notice period:
                    Remarks:
                    • - In the event of a retrenchment, the employer shall give the employee one month's notice (sec. 20(1) LA).

                      - In the event of termination without cause (sec. 26 LA), the employer shall give the employee the following notice period:

                      1) For permanent workers:
                      - 120 days' notice if the worker is paid on a monthly basis;
                      - 60 days' notice to other workers.

                      2) For temporary workers (when termination is not due to the completion, cessation, abolition or discontinuance of the temporary work for which he was appointed):
                      - 30 days' notice if the temporary worker is paid on a monthly basis;
                      - 14 days' notice to other temporary workers.

                      - No statutory notice requirements for conduct and capacity-related dismissals (referred to respectively in the LA as 'dismissal' and 'discharge'), except for dismissals based on unjustified absence from the work place. (In case a worker remains absent from work without notice for at least 10 days, the employer shall serve him or her a notice to explain the reasons for the absence. If the worker does not submit a written justification for the absence or returns to work within 17 days, he or she is considered terminated, sec. 27(3A)).
                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                        • economic dismissal - 0 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                        • economic dismissal - 0 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • permanent (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 120 day(s).
                        • permanent (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 60 day(s).
                        • temporary (monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 30 day(s).
                        • temporary (non-monthly-paid) workers - termination without cause - 14 day(s).

                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                      Remarks:
                      • The employer can opt for paying the wages for the period of notice in the following cases:
                        - Retrenchment (sec. 20(1) LA)
                        - Termination by the employer without a cause (that is termination by the employer otherwise than by dismissal (conduct-related), discharge (capacity-related) or retrenchment) (sec. 26(3) LA)

                      Notification to the public administration: No

                      Remarks:
                      • Except in the event of an economic dismissal (retrenchment): sec. 20(2)b) LA, dealt below under "Procedural requirement for collective dismissals for economic reasons".
                        The Labour Inspection must be immediately notified in case of dismissals of workers due to illegal strikes. Otherwise there are no notification obligations (sec. 25(1) Labour Rules, 2015).

                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                      Remarks:
                      • Except in the event of an economic dismissal (retrenchment): sec. 20(2)b) LA, dealt below under "Procedural requirement for collective dismissals for economic reasons".

                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                      Belgium - 2019    

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                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                      Remarks:
                      • Art. 37 (1) and 37 (2) para. 1 ECA

                      Notice period:
                      Remarks:
                      • Art. 37/2 § 1 ECA:
                        - 2 weeks in case of a tenure of less than 3 months
                        - 4 weeks in case of a tenure between 3 and less than 6 months
                        - 6 weeks in case of a tenure between 6 and less than 9 months
                        - 7 weeks in case of a tenure between 9 and less than 12 months
                        - 8 weeks in case of a tenure between 12 and less than 15 months
                        - 9 weeks in case of a tenure between 15 and less than 18 months
                        - 10 weeks in case of a tenure between 18 and less than 21 months
                        - 11 weeks in case of a tenure between 21 and less than 24 months
                        - 12 weeks in case of a tenure between 2 and less than 3 years
                        - 13 weeks in case of a tenure between 3 and less than 4 years
                        - 15 weeks in case of a tenure between 4 and less than 5 years

                        - Starting from 5 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 3 weeks upon commencement of every additional year;
                        - Starting from 20 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 2 weeks upon commencement of every additional year;
                        - Starting from 21 years of tenure, the notice period is increased by 1 week upon commencement of every additional year.


                        Art. 37 (2), para. 3.: The worker, the contract of whom was terminated by the employer with a notice period, may if he/she has has found another job, terminate the employment contract with reduced notice.

                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                        Remarks:
                        • Art. 39 (1) ECA

                        Notification to the public administration: No

                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                        Remarks:
                        • Except for protected workers.

                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                        Bolivia - 2017    

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                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                        Notice period:
                        Remarks:
                        • Art. 12 of the LC provides for the following notice periods:

                          1. Labour contract with workers (”obreros"):
                          a.) 1 week of advance notice for contracts longer than one month;
                          b.) 15 days of advance notice for contracts longer than six months;
                          c.) 30 days of advance notice period for contracts longer than one year.

                          2. Labour contracts with employees ("empleados") require a notice period of 90 days if the contract has been consecutively longer than 3 months.

                          Note: the difference between “worker” and “employee” can be found in Article 2 of the Labour Code; the difference is based on the nature of the tasks for which they are contracted.

                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                          Remarks:
                          • Art. 12 of the Labour Code

                          Notification to the public administration: No

                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                          Botswana - 2018    

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                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                          Remarks:
                          • Sec. 18 (5) of the EA : Subject to the notice period specified in the employment contract, a written notice of intention to terminate the contract shall be given to the employee on a working day that will be included in the notice period. . However, it may also be given orally by either party if he is illiterate. See sec. 26 EA for conditions under which an employer may terminate an employment contract without notice.

                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                          Remarks:
                          • Sec. 19 (a) of the EA. either party to a contract of employment may terminate the contract without giving such notice by paying to the other party a sum equal to the amount of basic pay which would otherwise have accrued to the employee during the minimum lawful period of such notice.

                          Notification to the public administration: Yes

                          Remarks:
                          • Sec. 25(2) of the EA: when an employer forms an intention to terminate contracts of employment for the purpose of reducing the size of his work force, he shall forthwith give written notice of that intention to the Commissioner.

                            A "Commissioner" means in the EA the Commissioner of Labour referred to in section 3 or any person acting in or lawfully performing the functions of his office.

                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                          Brazil - 2019    

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                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                          Notice period:
                          Remarks:
                          • According to art 487 of the CLL, a party who wishes to cancel an employment contract of an indefinite duration without a just motive ("sem justo motivo") shall give notice to the other party of his or her intention as follows:
                            * eight days in advance if wages are paid weekly or at shorter intervals;
                            * thirty days in advance if wages are paid fortnightly or monthly, or if the employee's length of service in the undertaking exceeds 12 months.

                            LEI Nº 12.506, DE 11 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011, Article 1o. Parágrafo único. "Ao aviso prévio previsto neste artigo serão acrescidos 3 (três) dias por ano de serviço prestado na mesma empresa, até o máximo de 60 (sessenta) dias, perfazendo um total de até 90 (noventa) dias."

                            Note that the 8 days' notice requirement for weekly-paid workers might not be valid anymore since the adoption of the 1988 Constitution as art. 7 XXI of the Constitution provides for "a right to notice of dismissal in proportion to the length of service of at least thirty days, as provided by law".
                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 30 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 30 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 33 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 39 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 42 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 57 day(s).
                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                              • dismissal without cause ("sem justo motivo") - 87 day(s).

                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                            Remarks:
                            • Art. 487(1) CLL: If the employer fails to give due notice, the employee is entitled to his or her wages for the period of notice, and that period is always deemed to be included in the period of employment.

                            Notification to the public administration: No

                            Remarks:
                            • No prior notification as such.
                              (Art. 477 (1) was derogated by Law 13467, 2017)

                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                            Bulgaria - 2019    

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                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                            Remarks:
                            • Art. 328 (1) LC

                            Notice period:
                            Remarks:
                            • Art. 328 (1) together with art. 326 (2) LC
                              * The notice period for termination of a contract of unlimited duration must be 30 days, unless a longer period has been agreed by the parties, but not longer than 3 months.
                              *Note: the LC also provides that notice period for FTC shall amount to 3 months, but not more than the remaining period of the contract.
                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                • 30 day(s).
                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                • 30 day(s).

                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                              Remarks:
                              • Art. 220 LC

                              Notification to the public administration: No

                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                              Remarks:
                              • However pursuant to art. 333 (1) LC, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required :
                                1) when the dismissal is based on certain grounds: partial closing down of the enterprise or staff cuts, lack of the qualities required for the performance of the work, lack of qualification following changes in the requirements for the job, disciplinary dismissals
                                and
                                2) for workers benefiting from special protection: mothers of children under 3 years, women whose husband are serving their compulsory military service, employees with reduced capacity for work who have been reassigned and disabled persons, employees suffering from certain diseases.

                                For pregnant women, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required in case of disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).

                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                              Burkina Faso - 2019    

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                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                              Remarks:
                              • Art. 65 LC

                              Notice period:
                              Remarks:
                              • Art. 66 LC and 30 of the Inter-occupational Collective Agreement:
                                The notice period varies according to the category of workers, as follows:
                                * 1 month for workers paid on a monthly basis who are not executives, supervisors, technicians
                                * 8 days for workers paid on a hourly or daily basis
                                * 3 months for executives, supervisors, engineers, technicians and similar workers.
                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).
                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                  • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                  • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 3 month(s).

                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                Remarks:
                                • Art. 68 LC

                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                Remarks:
                                • Exept in the case of a dismissal of a workers' representative: Art. 314 LC.

                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                Remarks:
                                • However, such approval is mandatory in the event of a dismissal of a workers' representative: art. 314 LC.

                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                Cambodia - 2017    

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                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                Notice period:
                                Remarks:
                                • 1) For workers under a contract of unspecified duration:

                                  Art. 75 LC: The minimum period of a prior notice is set as follows:
                                  - 7 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is less than six months;
                                  - 15 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is from six months to two years;
                                  - 1 month, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer then two years and up to five years.
                                  - 2 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than five years and up to ten years.
                                  - 3 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than ten years.

                                  2) Specific rules apply to fixed term contracts.
                                  Art 73 LC: If the contract has a duration of more than six months, the worker must be informed of the expiration of the contract or of its non-renewal ten days in advance. This notice period is extended to fifteen days for contracts that have a duration of more than one year.
                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                    • 15 day(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                    • 15 day(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                    • 15 day(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                    • 1 month(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                    • 1 month(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                    • 2 month(s).
                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                    • 3 month(s).

                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 77 LC.

                                  Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 21 LC : compulsory written notification to the Ministry of Labour every time an employer hires or dismisses a worker.

                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Except for worker's representatives: art. 293 LC.

                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                  Cameroon - 2019    

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                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 34 (1) LC

                                  Notice period:
                                  Remarks:
                                  • Art. 34 LC

                                    Art. 1 of the Order No. 15 of 1993.
                                    The notice period varies according to the professional category to which the worker belongs and the length of service.

                                    * Categories I to VI and domestic workers:
                                    - less than one year of service: 15 days;
                                    - 1 to 5 years of service: 1 month;
                                    - more than 5 years of service: 2 months.

                                    * Categories VII to IX:
                                    - less than one year of service: 1 month;
                                    - 1 to 5 years of service: 2 months;
                                    - more than 5 years of service: 3 months.

                                    * Categories X to XII:
                                    - less than one year of service: 1 month;
                                    - 1 to 5 years of service: 3 months;
                                    - more than 5 years of service: 4 months.
                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 15 day(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 1 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 1 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 15 day(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 1 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 1 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 1 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 2 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 3 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 1 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 2 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 3 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 2 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 3 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 4 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 2 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 3 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 4 month(s).
                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                      • worker's categories I to VI and domestic workers - 2 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories VII to IX - 3 month(s).
                                      • worker's categories X to XII - 4 month(s).

                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Art. 36(1) LC

                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Exceptions:
                                      Notification is mandatory prior to any:
                                      * individual dismissal on economic grounds (art 40 (6) LC)
                                      * dismissal of a worker's representative (art. 130 LC).

                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Exception:
                                      Notification is mandatory prior to any individual dismissal on economic grounds: art. 40 (3) and (6) LC.

                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Exception: any dismissal of a worker's representatives shall be approved by the competent administrative authority: art. 130 LC and 40(7) LC.

                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                    Canada (Federal only) - 2012    

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                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                    Remarks:
                                    • Sec. 230(1)a) CLC.

                                    Notice period:
                                    Remarks:
                                    • Sec. 230 CLC: An employer who dismisses a worker who has worked continuously for at least three consecutive months is obliged to give the worker notice of termination in writing at least two weeks in advance, or to pay compensation in lieu of notice except when the employee is dismissed for just cause (summary dismissal) (sec. 230, CLC).
                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                        • 2 week(s).
                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                        • 2 week(s).

                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Sec. 230(1)b) CLC.

                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                      Remarks:
                                      • However, notification to the trade union is foreseen by sec. 230(2) CLC in one specific situation namely where an employee bound by a collective agreement and whose position becomes redundant is authorized to displace an employee with less seniority. In that case, the employer must give at least two weeks' notice in writing to the trade union and the employee whose position becomes redundant and post a copy of the notice in a conspicuous place within the industrial establishment in which the employee is employed. Alternately, the employer may, as a result of the redundancy of the position, terminate the employment provided that he or she gives two week's wages to the employee.

                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                      Central African Republic - 2019    

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                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 138 LC.

                                      Notice period:
                                      Remarks:
                                      • Art. 148 LC:
                                        The duration of the notice period varies according to the worker's category as follows:
                                        - 8 days for workers paid on a hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly or piece rate basis;
                                        - 1 month for workers paid on a monthly basis;
                                        - 2 months for first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise") and similar positions;
                                        - 3 months for managerial positions ("cadres").
                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                          • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                          • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                          • first-line supervisors and technicians - 2 month(s).
                                          • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 8 day(s).

                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                        Remarks:
                                        • Art. 151 LC.

                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                        Remarks:
                                        • Except in the event of a dismissal of a workers' representative for which prior authorization of the Labour Inspector is required: Art. 89 LC.

                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                        Remarks:
                                        • Except in the event of a dismissal of a worker's representatives for which prior authorization of the Labour Inspector is required: Art. 89 LC.

                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                        Chile - 2018    

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                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                        Remarks:
                                        • See art. 161 and 162 LC.

                                        Notice period:
                                        Remarks:
                                        • - Dismissal without cause (desahucio) of persons in positions of trust, representatives or certain categories of domestic workers ("trabajador de casa particular") must be carried out in writing, 30 days in advance except if the employer pays the worker cash compensation equivalent to the last monthly remuneration earned. Copy of the notice shall be sent to the relevant labour inspectorate (art. 161 LC)
                                          - Dismissal based on the requirements of the undertaking: the worker must be given notice, copied to the relevant inspectorate, at least 30 days in advance (art. 162 LC).
                                          - If the employee is dismissed for conduct-related reasons as listed in art. 160 LC then notice must be sent promptly after the occurrence of the conduct.
                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).
                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                            • economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                            • dismissal without cause ("Desahucio") - 30 day(s).

                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                          Remarks:
                                          • - Economic dismissal: art. 162 LC
                                            - Desahucio: art. 161 LC

                                          Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                          Remarks:
                                          • Notification to the Labour Inspectorate, at the time the worker receives the dismissal notice is required for any type of dismissal.
                                            * Conduct-based dismissal: art. 162
                                            * Dismissal based on the requirements of the undertaking: art. 162 LC.
                                            * Dismissal without cause in the cases established in article 161 (desahucio): art. 161 LC.

                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                          Remarks:
                                          • However, judicial authorization is required when the employer intends to dismiss workers who benefit from the "fuero laboral" (art. 174 LC - see special protection)

                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                          China - 2017    

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                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                          Remarks:
                                          • Art. 40 ECL.

                                          Notice period:
                                          Remarks:
                                          • Art. 40 ECL: The notice period shall be 30 days regardless of the job tenure.
                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                              • 30 day(s).
                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                              • 30 day(s).

                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Art. 40 ECL.

                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                            Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Art. 43 ECL.

                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                            Remarks:
                                            • However, according to art. 43 ECL, if the employer has violated the laws, administrative regulations, or provisions of the employment contract, the trade union has the right to demand that the employer rectifies the matter. The employer shall consider the trade union's opinion and notify it in writing on how it handled the matter.

                                            Comoros - 2019    

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                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                            Remarks:
                                            • Article 48 of the Labour Code

                                            Notice period:
                                            Remarks:
                                            • Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): the period of notice is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (previously: the Supreme Council of Work) to take into account, namely, worker's tenure and professional categories. No Decree has been adopted as of 2018.

                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                              Remarks:
                                              • Article 52 of the Labour Code (former art. 54). [Note: article 52 of the new LC now explicitly uses the term "compensation in lieu of notice" to refer to such payment].

                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                              Remarks:
                                              • However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                              Remarks:
                                              • However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                              Congo, Democratic Republic - 2019    

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                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                              Remarks:
                                              • Art. 76 LC.

                                              Notice period:
                                              Remarks:
                                              • Under the LC, the statutory minimum notice period is 14 days, increased by 7 days for each year of service (Art. 64).
                                                However, the Ministerial Order no 12/CAB.MIN/TPS/117/2005 dated 26 October 2005 sets out notice periods which vary according to the category of workers concerned.
                                                - For workers belonging to categories 1 to 5 (ranging from unskilled to highly skilled workers), the notice period is the same as the one set out in art. 64 LC (minimum 14 days, increased by 7 days for each completed year of service) (Art. 6 MO no 12).
                                                - For first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise"), the notice period is minimum 1 month, increased by 9 days for each completed year of service (Art. 7 MO no 12).
                                                - For managerial positions ("cadre de direction et cadre de collaboration"), the notice period is minimum 3 months, increased by 16 dyas for each completed year of service (Art. 8)
                                                [Note for the purpose of the calculation 1 month was considered as 30 days].
                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 1 month(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 14 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 1 month(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 14 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 122 day(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 48 day(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 28 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 154 day(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 66 day(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 42 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 170 day(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 75 day(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 49 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 250 day(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 110 day(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 84 day(s).
                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                  • managerial and similar positions - 410 day(s).
                                                  • first-line supervisors, technicians, engineers, executives - 210 day(s).
                                                  • worker's categories 1 to 5 - 154 day(s).

                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                Remarks:
                                                • Art. 63 LC.

                                                Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                Remarks:
                                                • The LC only requires the employer to notify the administration in event of an economic dismissal (art. 78 LC).
                                                  New in April 2010:
                                                  However, the new Ministerial Order No. 006/CAB/PVPM/ETPS/2010 regulating the procedures for reporting hiring and termination of a worker of 1 st April 2010 provides that the employer shall report any termination of a worker for whatever reasons to the regional office of the labour inspection and the regional office of the national employment agency within 48 hours (art. 1). Note that the same procedure applies to hiring a worker.

                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                Remarks:
                                                • Except in case of economic dismissals (art. 78 LC).

                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                Cyprus - 2012    

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                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                Remarks:
                                                • Sec. 9(5) TEA.

                                                Notice period:
                                                Remarks:
                                                • Sec. 9 TEA.
                                                  Notice to be given to the employee (except in cases giving rise to summary dismissal) is established according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                  * 1 week's notice from 1 to less than 52 weeks of service;
                                                  * 2 week's notice from 52 to less than 104 weeks of service;
                                                  * 4 weeks' notice from 104 to less than 156 weeks of service;
                                                  * 5 weeks' notice from 156 to less than 208 weeks of service;
                                                  * 7 weeks' notice from 260 to less than 312 weeks of service;
                                                  * 8 weeks' notice from 312 and more weeks of service.
                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                    • 1 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                    • 1 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                    • 4 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                    • 6 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                    • 7 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                    • 8 week(s).
                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                    • 8 week(s).

                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • Sec. 11 TEA.

                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                  Czech Republic - 2010    

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                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • Sec. 50(1) LC

                                                  Notice period:
                                                  Remarks:
                                                  • Sec. 51 LC : "The notice shall be at least 2 months". No reference to the length of service.
                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                      • 2 month(s).

                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • Sec. 61 (1) LC. Notification is mandatory in both cases of ordinary dismissal and immediate termination (serious misconduct).

                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • However, according to sec. 61 (2), (3), (4) LC approval by the trade union is requested when the dismissal or the immediate termination concerns a trade union member. In the absence of consent, such dismissal is void unless ruled otherwise by the Court.

                                                    Côte d'Ivoire - 2019    

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                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • Art. 18.4 LC.

                                                    Notice period:
                                                    Remarks:
                                                    • L'article 1 du Décret No. 96-200 établit ce qui suit:
                                                      Sous réserve de dispositions plus favorables prévues par convention collective ou contrat de travail, la durée du préavis visé à l’article (...) du Code du Travail est fixée pour l’ensemble des travailleurs comme suit:
                                                      1) Travailleurs payés à l’heure, à la journée, à la semaine ou à la quinzaine et classés dans les cinq premières catégories :
                                                      • 8 jours, jusqu’à 6 mois d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 15 jours, de 6 mois à 1 an d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 1 mois, de 1 an à 6 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 2 mois, de 6 ans à 11 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 3 mois, de 11 ans à 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise
                                                      • 4 mois, au-delà de 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;

                                                      2) Travailleurs payés au mois et classés dans les cinq premières catégories :
                                                      • 1 mois, jusqu’à 6 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 2 mois, de 6 ans à 11 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 3 mois, de 11 ans à 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;
                                                      • 4 mois, au-delà de 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise.

                                                      3) Travailleurs classés en 6ème catégorie et au-delà :
                                                      • 3 mois, jusqu’à 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise
                                                      • 4 mois, au-delà de 16 ans d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise ;

                                                      4) Travailleurs de toutes catégories frappés d’une incapacité permanente partielle estimée à plus de 40 %.

                                                      Délai normal de préavis jusqu’à 6 mois d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise;
                                                      Deux fois le délai normal de préavis après 6 mois d’ancienneté dans l’entreprise.
                                                      _________________________
                                                      In English:
                                                      Art. 1 Decree N°96-200, 7 March 1996 reads as follows:

                                                      1) Monthly-paid workers belonging to categories 1 to 5, the length of the notice period is:
                                                      - up to 6 years of service: 1 month;
                                                      - 6 to 11 years of service: 2 months;
                                                      - 11 to 16 years of service: 3 months;
                                                      - above 16 years of service: 4 months.

                                                      2) Monthly-paid workers belonging to categories 5 to 10:
                                                      - up to 16 years of service: 3 months;
                                                      - above 16 years of service: 4 months.

                                                      3) Workers paid on a hourly, daily, weekly and fortnightly basis:
                                                      - up to 6 months of service: 8 days;
                                                      - between 6 months and 1 year of service: 15 days;
                                                      - 1 to 6 years of service: 1 month;
                                                      - 6 to 11 years of service: 2 months;
                                                      - 11 to 16 years of service: 3 months;
                                                      - above 16 years of service: 4 months.

                                                      Notice period is doubled for workers having at least 6 months of service and suffering from permanent partial disabilities (over 40%).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 1 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 1 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 1 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 1 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 1 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 2 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 3 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 2 month(s).
                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 1 to 5) - 4 month(s).
                                                        • monthly paid workers (categories 6 to 10) - 4 month(s).
                                                        • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers - 4 month(s).

                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • L'article 18.7 du Code du travail dispose que "toute rupture de contrat à durée indéterminée, sans préavis ou sans que le délai de préavis ait été intégralement observé, emporte obligation, pour la partie responsable, de verser à l'autre une indemnité dont le montant correspond à la rémunération et aux avantages de toute nature dont aurait bénéficié le travailleur durant le délai de préavis qui n'a pas été effectivement respecté. (...)".

                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Sauf dans le cas du licenciement d'un délégué du personnel (Art. 61.8 LC) ou dans le cas d'un licenciement pour motif économique de plus d'un travailleur (art. 18.11 et seq. LC).
                                                        _____________
                                                        In English:
                                                        Except in the case of a dismissal of a workers' representative (Art. 61.8 LC) or in the case of a dismissal for economic reason of more than one worker (Art. 18.11 et seq. LC).

                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Sauf dans le cas d'un licenciement pour motif économique de plus d'un travailleur (art. 18.11 et seq. LC).
                                                        _____________
                                                        In English:
                                                        Except in the case of a dismissal for economic reason of more than one worker (Art. 18.11 et seq. LC).

                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Sauf dans le cas du licenciement d'un délégué du personnel (Art. 61.8 LC).
                                                        _____________
                                                        In English:
                                                        Except in the case of a dismissal of a workers' representative (Art. 61.8 LC).

                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                      Denmark - 2017    

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                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Sec. 2 (7) ESEA.

                                                      Notice period:
                                                      Remarks:
                                                      • Sec. 2 (2) ESEA. The notice period shall be:
                                                        * 1 month during the first 6 months' employment;
                                                        * 3 months after 6 months' employment
                                                        * increased by one month for every three years of service, subject to a maximum of 6 months.
                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                          • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                          • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                          • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                          • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                          • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                          • white-collar workers - 6 month(s).
                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                          • white-collar workers - 6 month(s).

                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                        Notes / Remarks
                                                        With regards to blue-collar workers, the notice period is not provided in the law but in individual or collective agreements.

                                                        Egypt - 2017    

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                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • Art. 110 LL.

                                                        Notice period:
                                                        Remarks:
                                                        • As regards the termination of an open-ended employment contract, either party shall observe a notice period which varies according to the employer's length of service as follows:
                                                          - 2 months if the worker's uninterrupted period of service with the employer is less than 10 years, and
                                                          - 3 months if that period exceeds 10 years (Art. 111 LL).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                            • 3 month(s).
                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                            • 3 month(s).

                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • See art. 118 LL.

                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Before dismissing a worker on disciplinary grounds (listed in art. 69 LL), the employer needs to submit a request to the Labour Court which shall decide on the worker's dismissal within 15 days from the date of the first session (art. 71 LL, as amended in 2008). [Note that prior to the adoption on the 2008 amendment, the decision to dismiss a worker as a sanction for serious misconduct was not taken by the Labour Court but a special committee established by the 2003 LL for these purposes and which consisted on two judges, the head of the concerned Directorate of Manpower or his/her representative, a representative of the Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions; and a member of a concerned employers' organisation).

                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                          Notes / Remarks
                                                          - Under the LL, as amended in 2008, there is a special procedure for dismissal on disciplinary grounds.
                                                          Where a worker is accused of an offence for which the appropriate disciplinary penalty is dismissal, the employer must, before deciding to dismiss him/her, submit a request to do so to the Labour Court which can either grant authorization or refuse the dismissal. The decision shall be taken within 15 days. (art. 68, 69, 71 LL as amended in 2008).
                                                          - This procedure is not applicable to a dismissal based on the worker's inefficiency which is governed by specific regulations (see art. 110 LL)

                                                          El Salvador - 2010    

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                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Art. 55 LC: The dismissal must be communicated to the worker by the employer or by his/her representatives, otherwise it is considered null and void, except when a written letter of dismissal signed by the employer or his/her representatives is delivered to the employee.

                                                            However, note art. 60. At the end of any contract, whatever the cause that motivated its termination, the employer must give written notice to the employee expressing: 1) starting and termination date of its work 2) type of work undertaken 3) last salary earned.
                                                            If the worker demands so, it can also include: 4) description of the worker’s efficiency and behaviour 5) reason of termination of contract.
                                                            Note that: it is not the official notification of the worker’s dismissal, it is rather a complementary document to the end of the contract.

                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • However, prior authorization from the competent jurisdictional authority is required for the dismissal of a worker covered by trade union immunity (art. 248 LC and 47 of the Constitution).

                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                          Notes / Remarks
                                                          There are no statutory notice periods to be observed in the event of dismissal.

                                                          Estonia - 2017    

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                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Art. 95(1) ECA.

                                                          Notice period:
                                                          Remarks:
                                                          • Art. 97(2) ECA:
                                                            The notice period to be given by the employer in the event of termination of employment (referred to 'extraordinary cancellation') varies according to the employee's length of service, as follows:
                                                            1) less than one year of employment: at least 15 calendar days;
                                                            2) one to five years of employment: at least 30 calendar days;
                                                            3) five to ten years of employment at least 60 calendar days;
                                                            4) ten or more years of employment: at least 90 calendar days.

                                                            Note advance notice for terminating the employment of an employee during the probationary period must be at least 15 days (art 96 ECA).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                              • 15 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                              • 15 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                              • 30 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                              • 30 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                              • 60 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                              • 90 day(s).
                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                              • 90 day(s).

                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • Art. 100(5) If an employer or an employee gives advance notice of cancellation later than provided by law or a collective agreement, the employee or the employer has the right to receive compensation to the extent to which they would have had the right to obtain upon following the term of advance notice.

                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • No general obligation to notify the employees' representatives except if the employer intends to dismiss an employee's representative. Art. 94 ECA provides that before terminating an employment contract with the employees' representative, an employer must seek the opinions of the trade union or the employees who elected him/her the person to represent them or the trade reasonably union. The employer is required to take that opinion reasonably into account and to provide justification if he/she disregards the employees' opinion.

                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                            Ethiopia - 2013    

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                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • Art. 34 (1) LP.

                                                            Notice period:
                                                            Remarks:
                                                            • Art. 35 1) LP:
                                                              The notice period varies according to the length of service or the ground for dismissal, as follows:
                                                              - 1 month if the length of service does not exceed 1 year;
                                                              - 2 months if the length of service is between 1 and 9 years;
                                                              - 3 months if the length of service exceeds 9 years;
                                                              OR:
                                                              - 2 months when the contract is terminated due to reduction of the workforce.

                                                              Note: The notice period for terminating a fixed-term contract shall be agreed upon by the parties (art. 35 2) LP).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 3 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                • non economic dismissal - 3 month(s).
                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • See art. 44 (under the section concerning "Effects of the unlawful termination of contract of employment): non-compliance by the employer with the notice requirements shall only result in the payment by the employer of wages in lieu of the notice period.

                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                              Finland - 2019    

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                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • Sec. 4, chap. 9, ECA: A notice on termination of an employment contract shall be delivered to the employer or its representative, or to the employee, in person. If this is not possible, the notice may be delivered by letter or electronically.
                                                                However, if so requested by the employee, the employer must notify the employee without delay in writing of the date of termination of the employment contract and of the grounds for termination or cancellation known by the employer to have caused the termination (sec. 5, chap.9 ECA).

                                                              Notice period:
                                                              Remarks:
                                                              • Section 3, Chapter 6, ECA, General notice periods
                                                                “Unless otherwise agreed, the notice periods to be observed by the employer are the following if the employment relationship has continued uninterruptedly:
                                                                1) 14 days, if the employment relationship has continued for up to one year;
                                                                2) one month, if the employment relationship has continued for more than one year but no more than four years;
                                                                3) two months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than four years but no more than eight years;
                                                                4) four months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than eight years but no more than 12 years;
                                                                5) six months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than 12 years.
                                                                • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                  • 14 day(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                  • 2 month(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                  • 4 month(s).
                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                  • 6 month(s).

                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • Sec. 4, chap. 6, ECA.

                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • Section 3a has been repealed by Act 204/2017.

                                                                  See also sec. 48 of the ACU, applicable only to undertakings employing at least 20 workers: When the employer proposes measures that may lead to termination (on economic grounds), he or she should also inform the employment office.

                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • However, according to the Act on Co-operation within Undertakings (2007), notification to worker's representatives and negotiation are compulsory when the dismissal affects a single worker provided such dismissal is based on financial and productive grounds, and the undertakings employs at least 20 workers. (see sec. 44-53 ACU)

                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                France - 2012    

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                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • Letter of notification: art. 1232-6 LC.
                                                                  (Mandatory oral interview prior to written notification with possible representation by an adviser: art. L 1232-2 LC.)

                                                                Notice period:
                                                                Remarks:
                                                                • According to art. L 1234-1 of the LC, the minimum mandatory notice period (excl. in cases of serious misconduct) is the following:
                                                                  *1 month for tenure of more than 6 months and less than 2 years.
                                                                  *2 months for at least 2 year-tenure.
                                                                  *For tenure of less than 6 months, the notice period is to be defined by law, collective agreements or customs of the trade.

                                                                  Note: In case of force majeure, no obligation to respect the notice period : art. L 1234-12 LC
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                    • 2 month(s).

                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • Art. 1234-5 LC

                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                  Gabon - 2019    

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                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • Art. 51 LC, as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010: written notification to attend an oral interview.
                                                                    Art. 53 LC: dismissal letter.

                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                  • According to art. 65 LC, the statutory minimum notice period varies according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                                    - up to 1 year of service: 15 days;
                                                                    - from 1 to 3 years of service: 1 month;
                                                                    - from 3 to 5 years of service: 2 months;
                                                                    - from 5 to 10 years of service: 3 months;
                                                                    - from 10 to 15 years of service: 4 months;
                                                                    - from 15 to 20 years of service: 5 months;
                                                                    - from 20 to 30 years of service: 6 months.
                                                                    Above 30 years, an increase of 10 days per year of length of service is granted.
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                      • 15 day(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                      • 15 day(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                      • 1 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                      • 3 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                      • 4 month(s).
                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                      • 6 month(s).

                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • Art. 69 LC.

                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • Except for any:
                                                                      * Individual dismissal based on economic grounds: Art. 56 LC;
                                                                      * Dismissal of a pregnant woman and women on maternity leave: Art. 170 LC;
                                                                      * Dismissal of a workers' representative: Art. 294 LC.

                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • However, such notification is mandatory in case of any individual dismissal based on economic grounds: Art. 59 LC.

                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • However, approval by the administration is required for any:
                                                                      * Individual dismissal based on economic grounds: Art. 56 LC;
                                                                      * Dismissal of a pregnant woman and women on maternity leave: Art. 170 LC;
                                                                      * Dismissal of a workers' representative: Art. 294 LC.

                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                    Georgia - 2017    

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                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                    • According to the art. 38 LC in terminating the labour agreement on any of the grounds stipulated by Article 37(1)(a, f, i, n) the employer shall give the employee at least 30 calendar days’ prior written notice. Besides, the employee shall be granted a severance pay of at least one month’s salary within 30 calendar days after the termination of the labour agreement. Reference to the relevant paragraphs of the art. 37 may be found under the "Valid grounds (justified dismissal)" mentioned above.

                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                      Germany - 2017    

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                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Sec. 623 CC

                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                      • Sec. 622 CC (applicable, unlike the PADA, to all cases of ordinary dismissals notwithstanding the size of the undertaking).
                                                                        The notice period should be at least 4 weeks and increases according to the length of service as follows:
                                                                        * 1 month, for at least 2 years of service;
                                                                        * 2 months, for at least 5 years of service;
                                                                        * 3 months, for at least 8 years of service;
                                                                        * 4 months, for at least 10 years of service;
                                                                        * 5 months, for at least 12 years of service;
                                                                        * 6 months, for at least 15 years of service;
                                                                        * 7 months, for at least 20 years of service.

                                                                        (Note: during the probationary period (maximum 6 months), the notice period should be 2 weeks).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                          • 4 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                          • 4 week(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                          • 2 month(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                          • 4 month(s).
                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                          • 7 month(s).

                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Except for pregnant women, employees on parental leave or disabled employees.

                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Sec. 102 Works Constitution Act: the works council must be consulted before every dismissal and can, on the basis of legally specified grounds, object to a dismissal.
                                                                          However, the validity of the dismissal does not depend on the council's approval. As a consequence of the council's objection and if the employee has challenged the dismissal before the labour court, he will be entitled to continuation of employment during the pending procedure.

                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Except for pregnant women, employees on parental leave or disabled employees.

                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Sec. 102 Works Constitution Act: the works council must be consulted before every dismissal and can, on the basis of legally specified grounds, object to a dismissal.
                                                                          However, the validity of the dismissal does not depend on the council's approval. As a consequence of the council's objection and if the employee has challenged the dismissal before the labour court, he will be entitled to continuation of employment during the pending procedure.

                                                                        Ghana - 2013    

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                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Art. 17(3) LA: Notice of termination must be in writing.

                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                        • Art. 17 (1), (2) LA:
                                                                          * The notice period varies according to the length of the contract as follows:
                                                                          - 1 month's notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of 3 years or more;
                                                                          - 2 weeks' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of less than 3 years;
                                                                          - 7 days' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract from week to week.
                                                                          * A contract of employment determinable at the will of the party may be terminated at the close of anyday without notice.

                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Art. 17 (1) and 18 (4) LA.

                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                          Greece - 2019    

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                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • Art. 1 Act 2112/1920


                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                          • The statutory notice periods for dismissing white-collar workers were shortened in 2012 by the Act 4093/2012 (art. IA para. 12 sec. 1):
                                                                            - For employees who have served from 12 completed months to two years, one month's notice is required before dismissal;
                                                                            - For employees who have served from two to five years, two months' notice is required before dismissal;
                                                                            - For employees who have served from five to 10 years, three months' notice is required before dismissal; and;
                                                                            - For employees who have served 10 years or more, four months' notice is required before dismissal.

                                                                            [Prior to the reform, the notice periods were set , as follows:
                                                                            - 1 month for employees who have worked for at least 12 months but not more than 2 years;
                                                                            - 2 months for employees who have worked for at least 2 years but not more than 5 years;
                                                                            - 3 months for employees who have worked for at least 5 years but not more than 10 years;
                                                                            - 4 months for employees who have worked for at least 10 years but not more than 15 years;
                                                                            - 5 months for employees who have worked for at least 15 years but not more than 20 years;
                                                                            - 6 months for employees who have worked for over 20 years

                                                                            - No notice period to be observed in order to dismiss a blue-collar worker, they are only entitled to severance pay.
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                              • white-collar workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                              • white-collar workers - 2 month(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                              • white-collar workers - 3 month(s).
                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                              • white-collar workers - 4 month(s).

                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • Act No. 2112/1920, art. 3.

                                                                            Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • The employer has the obligation to inform the OAED (Greek Manpower Employment Organization) within 8 days from the date of the dismissal (art. 9 Act No. 3198/1955).

                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • Except for workers enjoying a special protection.

                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                            Honduras - 2012    

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                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • Art. 117 LC: The party which unilaterally terminate the employment contract must give the other party a written notice. However, if the contract was concluded orally, the notice of termination can also be delivered orally. In any cases, the notice must indicate the reason for terminating the employment contract.


                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                            • According to art. 116 LC, either party can terminate an employment contract of indefinite duration provided that advance notice is given.
                                                                              The statutory notice period varies according to the worker's length of service, as follows:
                                                                              - 24 hours, if the length of service is less than 3 months;
                                                                              - 1 week if the length of service is between 3 and 6 months;
                                                                              - 2 weeks if the length of service is between 6 and 1 year;
                                                                              - 1 month if the length of service is between 1 and 2 years;
                                                                              - 2 months if the length of service is more than 2 years.
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                • 2 week(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                • 2 week(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                • 2 month(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                • 2 month(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                • 2 month(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                • 2 month(s).
                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                • 2 month(s).

                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • See arts. 116 and 118 LC.

                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • Except in the event of a dismissal of a protected worker (pregnant women and members of the board of directors of a trade union) whose dismissal must be authorized by a labour judge and/or the labour inspector (see arts. 124, 144, 145, 516 LC).

                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                              Hungary - 2019    

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                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • • Sec. 22(3) of the LC

                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                              • • Sec 69 LC provides for a notice period of 30 days, which, in case of dismissal by the employer, shall be extended by:
                                                                                * 5 days after 3 years of service;
                                                                                * 15 days after 5 years of service;
                                                                                * 20 days after 8 years of service;
                                                                                * 25 days after 10 years of service;
                                                                                * 30 days after 15 years of service;
                                                                                * 40 days after 18 years of service;
                                                                                * 60 days after 20 years of service.

                                                                                By agreement of the parties the notice periods referred to in Subsections (1)-(2) may be extended by up to six months (LC, sec. 68(3)). The period of notice for the termination of a fixed-term employment relationship by notice may not go beyond the fixed term. (LC, sec. 68(5))
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                  • 30 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                  • 30 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                  • 30 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                  • 35 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                  • 45 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                  • 55 day(s).
                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                  • 90 day(s).

                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                • • See above: protection of workers’ representatives against dismissals.

                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                • • See above: protection of workers’ representatives against dismissals.

                                                                                India - 2019    

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                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                • Sec. 13 MOS
                                                                                  Also IDA – section 25F (chapter V-A) and 25N (chapter V-B)

                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                • Sec. 13(1) MOS states that permanent monthly paid workers are entitled to one month's notice, while other types of permanent workers shall be given two week's notice.

                                                                                  Sec. 9 of IDA sets one month's notice for employer who proposes to retrench workers.

                                                                                  Also, Sec. 25N IDA states that(applies in case of retrenchment to establishments with 100 or more workers):
                                                                                  (1) No workman employed in any industrial establishment to which this Chapter applies, who has been in continuous service for not less than one year under an employer shall be retrenched by that employer until,
                                                                                  (a) the workman has been given three months' notice in writing indicating the reasons for retrenchment and the period of notice has expired, or the workman has been paid in lieu of such notice, wages for the period of the notice; and

                                                                                  Sec. 25F (applies in case of retrenchment to establishments with 50 or more workers) provides that before retrenching an employee employed for a period of continuous period of not less than one year he/she must be has been given one months notice in writing.

                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Sec. 13(1) MSO provides for the one month's pay in lieu for the monthly rated worker and two month's pay in lieu for other workers under the permanent contract. Workers under fixed term contract, probationary period or badli are not entitled to pay in lieu (sec. 13(2) MSO)

                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Sec. 25N IDA (applicable only to industries with 100 or more workers) prescribes for the prior permission of the appropriate Government in case of the retrenchment of the worker who has been in continuous service with the employer for not less than one year.

                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                  Indonesia - 2019    

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                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Before terminating the employment relationship, an employer is required to negotiate with the workers' organization concerned, or with the non-unionised worker directly, with a view to reaching agreement.
                                                                                    Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase

                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase.

                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Art. 151(2) requires that termination be negotiated.
                                                                                    Negotiation will involve the worker's representative only if the employee belongs to a trade union (art. 151 (2) MA). If not, the negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase.

                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • Art. 151(2) requires that termination be negotiated.
                                                                                    Negotiation will involve the worker's representative only if the employee belongs to a trade union (art. 151 (2) MA). If not, the negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

                                                                                  Notes / Remarks
                                                                                  The Indonesian termination system is not based on notice but on prior bipartite negotiations and if they fail, on mediation by the administration and eventually judicial settlement.

                                                                                  Iran, Islamic Republic of - 2010    

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                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • No specific form prescribed in the LC.
                                                                                    Note however that termination of employment for continued violations of disciplinary rules requires previous written warnings (sec. 27 LC).

                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                  • No statutory notice period to be observed.

                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                    • However, notification to the Ministry of Labour is compulsory in the event of a dismissal of a foreign worker, see sec. 125 LC:
                                                                                      "Sec. 125. Where, whatever the circumstances, an employment relationship between a foreign citizen and an employer is terminated, the employer shall notify the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs thereof within 15 days. The foreign citizen shall surrender his work permit to the said Ministry against a receipt within 15 days. If necessary, the Ministry shall request the appropriate authorities to expel the foreign citizen from the country."

                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                    • No general obligation to obtain the prior approval of the administration.
                                                                                      However, the dismissal of an employee on the ground of continuous violations of the disciplinary rules or for negligence in performing his/her duties requires the assenting opinion of the Board of Inquiry and in units not covered by the Islamic Labour Council Act, or where no Islamic Labour Council or Guild Society has been set up or where there is no workers' representative.
                                                                                      Note that Islamic Labour Council must be established in workplaces engaged in production, industries, agriculture and services having over 35 permanent employees.
                                                                                      "The Board of Inquiry is composed of:
                                                                                      * (1) one representative of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs;
                                                                                      * (2) one representative of the workers to be selected and appointed by the Provincial Coordination Council of the Islamic Labour Councils;
                                                                                      * (3) one representative of the managers of industries, to be selected by the Provincial Centre of Employers' Guild Societies. (sec. 158 LC)"
                                                                                      Therefore, in cases where disciplinary dismissals are subject to the approval of the Board of Inquiry, the administration plays a role in authorizing the dismissal through the participation of one representative of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs in the Board.

                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                    • Termination on the ground of continued violations of disciplinary rules ground or for negligent performance requires the agreement of the Islamic Labour Council or the Guild Society. In units not covered by the Islamic Labour Council Act, or where no Islamic Labour Council or Guild Society has been set up or where there is no workers' representative, the termination of an employment contract shall be subject to the agreement of the Board of Inquiry (sec. 27 LC)
                                                                                      Note that Islamic Labour Councils must be established in workplaces engaged in production, industries, agriculture and services having more than 35 permanent employees.

                                                                                    Italy - 2017    

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                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                    • Art. 2 Act 604/1966: as amended by art. 1.37 of the Act 92/2012.

                                                                                      As from Act 92/2012, reason of termination must be provided within the termination letter when the termination letter is served. Before Act 92/2012, the employee could request the justification within 15 days from the notification and the employer had 7 days to reply.

                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                    • The length of the notice period is normally governed by collective agreements according to the employee's length of service and category.
                                                                                      See also art. 2118 CC.

                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                      • Art. 2118 Civil Code

                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                      • Since 2012, pursuant to Art.7, Law 604/1966 as amended by Art. 1.40 of Act 92/2012, employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production work unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located, have to notify public bodies (Direzione Territoriale del Lavoro) when a dismissal for justified objective reason is contemplated, in order to attempt an amicable settlement between the parties.

                                                                                        Art. 7.4 of decree 76/2013 specified that this does not apply to dismissal connected to absence for work because of illness or injury or to other similar cases.

                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                      Japan - 2019    

                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                      • No statutory provision on the form of notice.

                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                      • Art. 20 (1) LSA: at least 30 days advance notice.

                                                                                        However, in accordance with art. 21 LSA, this rule does not apply to the following workers:
                                                                                        * workers employed on a daily basis if they have worked for less than one month;
                                                                                        * workers employed for a specific period not exceeding two months;
                                                                                        * seasonal workers employed for a specific period not exceeding four months; and
                                                                                        * workers during a trial period if they have worked for less than 14 days.

                                                                                        In addition, an employer is exempt from obligations pursuant to article 20 LSA if the continued operation of the undertaking becomes impossible because of a natural disaster or some other unavoidable cause or in the event of dismissal for reasons attributable to the employee. In such cases, an employer is obliged to obtain administrative approval from the head of the local Labour Standards Inspection Office (art. 20 (3) LSL).

                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).
                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                          • 30 day(s).

                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                        • Art. 20(1) LSA.

                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                        • No statutory obligation. However, prior consultation may be foreseen in a collective agreement between the employer and a trade union.

                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                        • Except for a dismissal without notice which is allowed if the continued operation of the undertaking becomes impossible because of a natural disaster or some other unavoidable cause or in the event of dismissal for reasons attributable to the employee. In such cases, an employer is obliged to obtain administrative approval from the head of the local Labour Standards Inspection Office. (art. 20 (3) LSL).

                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                        Jordan - 2019    

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                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                        • Art. 23 A) LL: "If one of the parties has intended to terminate the unlimited period work contract, then he shall notify the other party in writing of his intention of terminating the contract before one month at least, the notification shall not be cancelled except by the approval of both parties."

                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                        • Art. 23 A) LL: If one of the parties intends to terminate the employment contract, he or she shall notify the other party of his or her intention in writing at least one month in advance.
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                            • 1 month(s).

                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                          • Art. 23 C) LL: "If the notification was provided by the employer, then the employer may exempt the employee from working during the period of notification [...] the employee shall be entitled to his/her wage for the period of notification in all such cases."

                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                          Kazakhstan - 2019    

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                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                          • Art. 53 of the Labour Code

                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                          • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that the notice period shall be one month unless otherwise provided for in the collective agreement.

                                                                                            However, each of the grounds for contract termination outlined in Article 52 LC has its own procedure outlined in Article 53. One month notice is not applicable to all of the grounds. Notice period varies from 10 calendar days to 15 working days to 1 month. Some instances do not indicate on notice period (e.g. medical conditions, grounds for alcoholics).

                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                            • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that with the written consent of the worker the termination can be made effective before the expiration of the notice period.

                                                                                              Again not applicable to all situations (see above 'notice period').

                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                            • Update as of 2016: Article 18 (2) of the Trade Union Law provides that the trade union can submit an opinion regarding the termination of the contract of its members.

                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                            Korea, Republic of - 2019    

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                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                            • Art. 27 LSA

                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                            • Art. 26 LSA: The notice period shall be 30 days regardless of the length of service.

                                                                                              However, exceptionally, notice may not be given to workers who have been employed: 1) on a daily basis for less than three consecutive months; 2) for a fixed period not exceeding two months; 3) as a monthly-paid worker for less than six months; 4) for seasonal work for a fixed period not exceeding six months; 5) as a worker in a probationary period (art. 35 LSA).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).
                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                • 30 day(s).

                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                              • Art. 26 LSA

                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                              • Except in case of dismissal for managerial reasons: art. 24 LSA.

                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                              Kyrgyzstan - 2019    

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                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                              • Art. 85 LC

                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                              • Art. 85 LC
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 85 LC

                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 85 LC

                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 85 LC

                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 84 LC: The employer is not entitled to dismiss any workers' representative without prior approval by the relevant body representing workers of the enterprise.

                                                                                                Lesotho - 2019    

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                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 65 LC: notice to terminate a contract may be either oral or written.

                                                                                                  (See also art. 69 LC: The employer shall provide a written statement of the reason for dismissal either before dismissal, at the time of dismissal or within four weeks of the dismissal having taken effect).

                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                • Art. 63 LC.
                                                                                                  Statutory notice period is set according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                  * 1 or more years of service: 1 month's notice;
                                                                                                  * more than 6 months and less than 1 year: a fortnight's notice;
                                                                                                  * less than 6 months: 1 week's notice.
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                    • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                    • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                  • Art. 64 LC

                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                  Luxembourg - 2019    

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                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                  • See art. L 124-3 LC
                                                                                                    No legal requirement for employers with fewer than 150 employees to hold an interview with the employee before dismissal.
                                                                                                    Specific article concerning employers having at least 150 employees: art. L 124-2 LC.
                                                                                                    ________
                                                                                                    Art. L. 124-3 du Code du travail:
                                                                                                    (1) L’employeur qui décide de licencier doit, sous peine d’irrégularité pour vice de forme, notifier le licenciement au salarié par lettre recommandée à la poste. Toutefois, la signature apposée par le salarié sur le double de la lettre de licenciement vaut accusé de réception de la notification.
                                                                                                    Art. L. 124-2 du Code du travail (tel qu'amendé par la loi du 23 juillet 2015):
                                                                                                    (1) Lorsque l’employeur qui occupe cent cinquante salariés au moins envisage de licencier un salarié, il doit, avant toute décision, convoquer l’intéressé par lettre recommandée ou par écrit dûment certifié par un récépissé en lui indiquant l’objet de la convocation ainsi que la date, l’heure et le lieu de l’entretien. Copie de la lettre de convocation doit être adressée à la délégation du personnel. La lettre ou l’écrit de convocation à l’entretien préalable doivent informer le salarié qu’il a le droit de se faire assister lors de l’entretien préalable par un salarié de son choix appartenant au personnel de l’entreprise ou par un représentant d’une organisation syndicale représentative sur le plan national représentée au sein de la délégation du personnel de l’établissement. (...)
                                                                                                    (2) Au cours de l’entretien, l’employeur ou son représentant est tenu d’indiquer le ou les motifs de la décision envisagée et de recueillir les explications du salarié ainsi que les observations de la personne qui l’assiste. (...)

                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                  • According to art. L 124-3 LC, the statutory notice period is:
                                                                                                    *2 months for a tenure of less than 5 years
                                                                                                    *4 months from 5 years until 10 years of service
                                                                                                    *6 months over 10 years of service
                                                                                                    Art. 124-7 LC provides that these notice periods can be extended when the employer has less than 20 employees. In that case, the employer may opt either for the payment of the severance pay referred to in Art. 124-7 (1) or for an extension of the notice periods as established by Art. 124-7 (2).
                                                                                                    ________________
                                                                                                    Art. L. 124-3 du Code du travail
                                                                                                    (1) L’employeur qui décide de licencier doit, sous peine d’irrégularité pour vice de forme, notifier le licenciement au salarié par lettre recommandée à la poste. Toutefois, la signature apposée par le salarié sur le double de la lettre de licenciement vaut accusé de réception de la notification.
                                                                                                    (2) En cas de licenciement d’un salarié à l’initiative de l’employeur, le contrat de travail prend fin:
                                                                                                    - à l’expiration d’un délai de préavis de deux mois pour le salarié qui justifie auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de services continus inférieure à cinq ans;
                                                                                                    - à l’expiration d’un délai de préavis de quatre mois pour le salarié qui justifie auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de services continus comprise entre cinq ans et moins de dix ans;
                                                                                                    - à l’expiration d’un délai de préavis de six mois pour le salarié qui justifie auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de services continus de dix ans au moins.

                                                                                                    L'article 124-7(2) du Code du travail prévoit que l’employeur occupant moins de vingt salariés peut opter dans la lettre de licenciement soit pour le versement des indemnités visées au paragraphe (1) de l'art. 124-7, soit pour la prolongation des délais de préavis visés à l’article L. 124-3 qui, dans ce cas, sont portés:
                                                                                                    – à cinq mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de cinq années au moins;
                                                                                                    – à huit mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de dix années au moins;
                                                                                                    – à neuf mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de quinze années au moins;
                                                                                                    – à douze mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de vingt années au moins;
                                                                                                    – à quinze mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de vingt-cinq années au moins;
                                                                                                    – à dix-huit mois pour le salarié justifiant auprès du même employeur d’une ancienneté de service continus de trente années au moins.
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                      • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                      • 4 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                      • 6 month(s).
                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                      • 6 month(s).

                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                    • Art. L. 124-6 LC:
                                                                                                      La partie qui résilie le contrat à durée indéterminée sans y être autorisée par l’article L. 124-10 ou sans respecter les délais de préavis visés aux articles L. 124-4 et L. 124-5 est tenue de payer à l’autre partie une indemnité compensatoire de préavis égale au salaire correspondant à la durée du préavis ou, le cas échéant, à la partie de ce délai restant à courir.

                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of - 2017    

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                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                    • Art. 74(1) LRA. See also art. 85 LRA.

                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                    • Art. 88 (2) LRA stipulates that in the case of an individual dismissal or in the case of a dismissal of a small number of workers, the statutory minimum notice period is one month. The individual employment contract or a collective agreement may stipulate a longer period of notice. However, it cannot exceed 3 months. If the dismissals affect more than 150 employees or 5% of total number of workers, the notice period is two months. (Art. 88.2 LRA)
                                                                                                      The LRA provides a list of justified grounds for termination without notice and these include: unjustified absence from work for three consecutive days or 5 days within one year, misuse of sick leave; failure to comply with the workplace regulations on health, safety and environmental protection, use of alcohol and drugs, robbery at the workplace or negligence causing damages to the employer, disclosure of business, official or state secrets (art. 82 LRA).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                      • The employer and the employee may agree on the payment of a lump sum instead of observing the notice period.

                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                      • However, such notification is required in order to dismiss a trade union representative (art. 200(3) LRA).

                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                      • No general approval required. However, in order to dismiss a trade union representative, the employer shall first obtain the prior approval of the trade union. In case the trade union does not approve the dismissal, such approval can be obtained through a court decision (art. 200 LRA).

                                                                                                      Madagascar - 2019    

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                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                      • Art. 21 LC and Art. 4 of Decree No 2007-009 of 9 January 2007 establishing the conditions and the duration of the notice period to be observed when terminating an employment contract of indefinite duration.

                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                      • The notice period is regulated by Decree 2007-009.
                                                                                                        The statutory minimum notice period is set according to the length of service and varies according to the workers' category. For the purpose of calculating the notice period, workers are divided into 5 groups (see Art. 2 Decree 2007-009).

                                                                                                        - Group I covers mainly unskilled blue collar workers, workers performing work which requires limited skills or professional experience, and employees performing tasks which only require limited training.
                                                                                                        - Group II includes skilled blue-collar workers and employees with skills and experience but whose work does not involve any specific responsibility.
                                                                                                        - Group III includes highly skilled blue-collar workers with limited responsibility, qualified employees with extensive professional training whose work involves taking initiative and exercising specific responsibilities, and junior executives.
                                                                                                        - Group IV includes engineers and highly qualified technicians and employees exercising supervisory, coordination or managerial functions.
                                                                                                        - Group V covers those workers who do not fall within the previous category, which mainly includes top executives.

                                                                                                        The notice periods are set as follows:
                                                                                                        * Length of service < 8 days:
                                                                                                        Group I: 1 day; Group II: 2 days; Group III: 3 days; Group IV: 4 days; Group V: 5 days.
                                                                                                        * Length of service < 3 months:
                                                                                                        Group I: 3 days; Group II: 8 days; Group III: 15 days; Group IV: 1 month; Group V: 1 month.
                                                                                                        * Length of service < 1 year:
                                                                                                        Group I: 8 days; Group II: 15 days; Group III: 1 month; Group IV: 1.5 months; Group V: 3 months.
                                                                                                        * Length of service > 1 year:
                                                                                                        Group I: 10 days; Group II: 1 month; Group III: 1.5 months; Group IV: 2.5 months; Group V: 4 months.
                                                                                                        * Length of service > 3 years: additional 2 days per year of service
                                                                                                        * Length of service > 5 years:
                                                                                                        Group I: 1 month; Group II: 1.5 months; Group III: 2 months; Group IV: 3 months: Group V: 6 months.
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 10 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 75 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 4 month(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 18 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 38 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 53 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 83 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 128 day(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 6 month(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 6 month(s).
                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                          • Workers' category I - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category II - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category III - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category IV - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                          • Workers' category V - 6 month(s).

                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                        • Art. 18 LC and Art. 9 Decree No 2007-009 of 9 January 2007 establishing the conditions and the duration of the notice period to be observed when terminating an employment contract of indefinite duration.

                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                        • However, when an employer intends to dismiss a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council, he or she shall obtain the authorization to do so from the Labour Inspector (see Arts. 152, 156 and 165 LC).

                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                        • However, when an employer intends to dismiss a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council, he or she shall obtain the authorization to do so from the Labour Inspector (see Arts. 152, 156 and 165 LC).

                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                        Malawi - 2019    

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                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                        • Art. 29(1) EA

                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                        • Art. 29 (1) EA: Notice period for terminating a contract for an unspecified period of time varies between 1 day and one month depending on the frequency of pay and/or the length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                          1) workers paid on a monthly basis: 1 month's notice;
                                                                                                          2) workers paid on a fortnightly basis:
                                                                                                          - 1 fortnight's notice for less than 5 years of service
                                                                                                          - 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service;
                                                                                                          3) workers paid on a weekly basis:
                                                                                                          - 1 week's notice for less than 2 years of service
                                                                                                          - 1 fortnight's notice between 2 and less than 5 years of service
                                                                                                          - 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service;
                                                                                                          4) workers paid on a hourly basis:
                                                                                                          - 1 day's notice for less than 6 months of service
                                                                                                          - 1 week notice between 6 months and less than 2 years of service
                                                                                                          - 1 fortnight's notice between 2 and less than 5 years of service
                                                                                                          - 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service.

                                                                                                          Art. 29 (3) EA: The minimum period of notice in respect of a contract of employment for a specified period of time shall be 14 days.
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly paid workers - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                            • hourly or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly paid workers - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                            • hourly or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).
                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                            • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                            • fixed-term workers - 14 day(s).

                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                          • Art. 30 (2) EA

                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                          Malaysia - 2018    

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                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                          • Sec. 12 (4) EA.

                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                          • Sec. 12 (2) EA lays down statutory minimum notice periods applicable to all dismissals, including those for operational reasons, but except dismissals for misconduct, as follows:
                                                                                                            - 4 weeks for employees with less than 2 years of service;
                                                                                                            - 6 weeks for employees with 2 to 5 years of service;
                                                                                                            - 8 weeks for employees with more than 5 years of service.
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                              • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                              • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                              • 6 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                              • 6 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                              • 8 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                              • 8 week(s).
                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                              • 8 week(s).

                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                            • Sec. 13 (1) EA.

                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                            Mexico - 2010    

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                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                            • Art. 47 FLA: written notification with the effective date of the dismissal and the reasons for dismissal. If the worker refuses such notification, the employer shall inform the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration.
                                                                                                              If the employer fails to observe this requirement, the dismissal can be considered unjustified.

                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                            • No statutory minimum notice period.
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).
                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                • 0 month(s).

                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                              • However, when the employee fails to accept the dismissal notification, the employer shall notify the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration (art. 47 FLA).

                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                              Moldova, Republic of - 2017    

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                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                              • Art. 184 LC

                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                              • Art. 184 LC.
                                                                                                                Notice period varies according to the ground for dismissal:
                                                                                                                * 2 months minimum in case of dismissal based on economic grounds (enterprise liquidation or staff reduction
                                                                                                                * 1 month minimum for dismissals based on the worker's capacity (health condition or insufficient qualifications)
                                                                                                                * No mandatory notice when dismissal follows infringements of the employee's work responsibilities.
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                  • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                • Except in case of dismissal of a trade union member or representatives (art. 87 LC).

                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                • Except for:
                                                                                                                  * a dismissal of trade union members on certain grounds,
                                                                                                                  * any dismissal of trade union representatives (art 87 LC).

                                                                                                                Mongolia - 2017    

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                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                • This can be inferred from art. 43.3 LC: the employer shall provide the dismissed employee with the dismissal decision.

                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                • The employer is required to give at least one month's notice to any employee who has been dismissed on the following grounds:
                                                                                                                  - failure to meet the job requirements due to the lack of professional qualifications or skills or for health reasons; or
                                                                                                                  - dissolution of a branch or a unit of the undertaking, reduction of the number of employees, elimination of a position within the company. (art. 40.5 LC)
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                    • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                  Montenegro - 2017    

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                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                  • Art. 143c(1)(2) LL.
                                                                                                                    Note: following the 2011 amendments, the relevant article numbers have changed but not their content.

                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                  • New in December 2011: The notice period has been extended to 30 days (instead of 15 days under the 2008 LL): art. 144(1) LL.
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                      • 30 day(s).

                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                    • Art. 144(2)(3) LL.

                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                    • Except in the event of a disciplinary dismissal of a trade union member (see art. 143b(4) LL - introduced in the LL in December 2011)

                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                    Morocco - 2019    

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                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                    • * Disciplinary dismissal, mandatory procedural requirements:
                                                                                                                      Prior oral interview with possible representation by a workers' representative followed by a written decision: Art. 62 and 63 LC
                                                                                                                      *Art. 44 LC applicable to any dismissal.

                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                    • Art. 1 of the Decree n°2-04-469 of 29 December 2004 : notice period varies according to the category of workers and the length of service as follows:
                                                                                                                      1) For white collars and blue collars
                                                                                                                      - less than one year of service: 8 days;
                                                                                                                      - 1 to 5 years of service: 1 month:
                                                                                                                      - more than 5 years of service: 2 months.

                                                                                                                      2) For managerial and similar positions:
                                                                                                                      - less than one year of service: 1 month;
                                                                                                                      - 1 to 5 years of service: 2 months;
                                                                                                                      - more than 5 years: 3 months.
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • white-collars and blue-collars - 2 month(s).

                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Art. 51 LC

                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Disciplinary dismissals: Art. 64 LC.
                                                                                                                        Individual economic dismissals: Art. 67 LC.

                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Except in case of an individual economic dismissal: Art. 66 LC.

                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Except in case of individual dismissal on economic grounds (Art. 67 LC) and dismissal of worker's representatives (Art. 457 LC).

                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                      Namibia - 2019    

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                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Sec. 30(3) LA provides that notice of termination must be given in writing, stating the reasons for termination, if the termination is by the employer, and the date on which the notice is given, which may be:
                                                                                                                        (a) on any working day in respect of an employee who has been employed for four weeks or less
                                                                                                                        (b) on or before the last working day of the week in respect of an employee has been employed for more than four weeks but less than a year; and
                                                                                                                        (c) on the first or the 15th of the month in respect of an employee who has been employed for over a year.

                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                      • Sec. 30(1) LA set forth statutory minimum notice periods according to the employee's length of service, as follow:
                                                                                                                        - one day, if the employee has been employed for four weeks or less;
                                                                                                                        - one week, if the employee has been employed for more than four weeks but not more than one year;
                                                                                                                        - one month, if the employee has been employed for more than one year.

                                                                                                                        An employer and an employee may agree to a longer notice period provided that it is of equal duration for both parties (sec. 30(2) LA)
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                          • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                          • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                        • Sec. 31(1) LA provides that instead of giving an employee notice in terms of section 30, an employer may pay the employee the remuneration the employee would have received, if the employee had worked during the period of notice.

                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                        • Except in the event of redundancy (see under "Collective dismissals for economic reasons"): art. 34 LA.

                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                        • Except in the event of redundancy (see under "Collective dismissals for economic reasons"): art. 34 LA.

                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                        Netherlands - 2019    

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                                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                        • Art. 7:672(1) CC: Notice of termination shall be given at the end of the month, unless another day has been designated for this purpose by written agreement or by custom (so called “aanzegdag”).

                                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                        • Since the 2015 reform, the employer can no longer choose which procedure to follow.

                                                                                                                          Article 7:669 CC establishes the procedure to be followed. The employer may terminate the employment contract if there are reasonable grounds for doing so and redeployment of the employee within a reasonable period, whether or not by means of training, to another suitable position is not possible or would not be logical.

                                                                                                                          The statutory minimum notice period to be respected depends on the worker's length of service, as follows (Art. 7:672(2) CC):
                                                                                                                          * less than 5 years of service: 1 month
                                                                                                                          * between 5 and less than 10 years: 2 months
                                                                                                                          * between 10 and less than 15 years: 3 months
                                                                                                                          * 15 years or more years: 4 months
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                            • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                            • 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                            • 4 month(s).

                                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                          • If an employee is terminated before the notice period ends, the employer must pay him or her the wage he or she would have received until the end of the notice period, Art. 7:672 (10) CC.

                                                                                                                            The court can decide to lower this compensation payment, if it considers this to be fair in view of the circumstances, on the understanding that the compensation may not be less than the monetary wage over the notice period referred to in Art. 7:672 (2) CC, nor less than the monetary wage for three months.

                                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                          • If an employer intends to dismiss an employee, (except in case of summary dismissal), he shall either first turn to the Court to obtain the judicial rescission of the contract, in case of dismissals based on the employee’s conduct or capacity (Art. 7:671a CC) or to an administrative body: the UWV WERKbedrijf (former CWI) (Art. 7:671a CC), in case of economic dismissals or dismissals based on long-term sicknesses.
                                                                                                                            On the procedure to be followed, see Art. 7:671a and 7:671b CC.

                                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                          • Approval by the administration is required only if the employer has to turn to the UWV WERKbedrijf (former CWI) to obtain a dismissal permit (see above, Art. 7:671a CC). On the procedure to be followed, see Art. 7:671a CC.
                                                                                                                            Alternatively he must turn to the Court to obtain the judicial rescission of the contract (see Art. 7:671b CC

                                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                          New Zealand - 2019    

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                                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                          • The ERA does not require that the dismissal notification be in writing. The form of the notification can be specified in an employment contract.
                                                                                                                            However, any dismissed employee has the right to request a written statement indicating the reasons for the dismissal, within 60 days after the dismissal or within 60 days after the employee has become aware of the dismissal, whichever is the later. The employer shall provide such statement within 14 days after the request (art. 120 ERA).

                                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                          • No specific period of notice is required by statute. Notice requirement is a matter for contract. Where notice is specified under the contract of employment or under a collective agreement, failure to provide such notice will be treated as a factor evidencing an unjustified dismissal. Moreover, failure to give the requisite notice is also a breach of contract which is actionable by a claim for breach of contract or by arrears of wages claim. Where notice is not specified in the contract, the adjudicatory bodies will determine what constitutes reasonable notice in the circumstances.

                                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                            • Pay in lieu of notice is not required by statute. However, pay in lieu of notice clauses can be stipulated in the employment contract.

                                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                            Notes / Remarks
                                                                                                                            An employer is required to adhere to the requirements of procedural fairness and reasonableness and the principles of natural justice in order for a dismissal to be justified. See Sec. 103A ERA.
                                                                                                                            Procedural fairness is assessed by the court on a case-by-case basis.

                                                                                                                            Section 103A ERA -Test of justification:
                                                                                                                            (1) For the purposes of section 103(1)(a) and (b), the question of whether a dismissal or an action was justifiable must be determined, on an objective basis, by applying the test in subsection (2).
                                                                                                                            (2) The test is whether the employer’s actions, and how the employer acted, were what a fair and reasonable employer could have done in all the circumstances at the time the dismissal or action occurred.
                                                                                                                            (3) In applying the test in subsection (2), the Authority or the court must consider—
                                                                                                                            (a) whether, having regard to the resources available to the employer, the employer sufficiently investigated the allegations against the employee before dismissing or taking action against the employee; and
                                                                                                                            (b) whether the employer raised the concerns that the employer had with the employee before dismissing or taking action against the employee; and
                                                                                                                            (c) whether the employer gave the employee a reasonable opportunity to respond to the employer’s concerns before dismissing or taking action against the employee; and
                                                                                                                            (d) whether the employer genuinely considered the employee’s explanation (if any) in relation to the allegations against the employee before dismissing or taking action against the employee.
                                                                                                                            (4) In addition to the factors described in subsection (3), the Authority or the court may consider any other factors it thinks appropriate.

                                                                                                                            Niger - 2019    

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                                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                            • See Art. 84 LC (economic dismissals) and Art. 90 (2) LC (summary dismissal). No such specific requirement for any other dismissal in the LC (except as concerns workers' representatives, see above)
                                                                                                                              However, Art. 28 of the 1972 Inter-occupational Collective Agreement specifically requires that notification be written.

                                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                            • No specified duration in the LC (see Art. 88 LC).

                                                                                                                              However,the 1972 Inter-occupational Collective Agreement in Appendix No 1. establishes the duration of the notice period according to the worker's category, as follows:
                                                                                                                              - 1 month for monthly paid workers;
                                                                                                                              - 8 days for hourly, daily or weekly paid workers;
                                                                                                                              - 1 month for first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise") and technicians;
                                                                                                                              - 3 months for engineers, executives and senior executives.
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                • first-line supervisors and technicians - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • engineers, executives and top executives - 3 month(s).

                                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Art. 90 LC

                                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Except in case of a dismissal of a workers' representative (Art. 227 and 228 LC) and of an economic dismissal (Art. 80 LC).

                                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Except in case of an economic dismissal (Art. 80 LC).

                                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Except in case of a dismissal of a workers' representative: Art. 227 and 228 LC.
                                                                                                                                * See also: Articles 472-475 of the Implementing Decree N° 2017-682/PRN/MET/PS of August 2017 concerning the dismissal of workers' representatives.

                                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                              Nigeria - 2013    

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                                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Sec. 11(3) LA: Any notice for a period of one week or more shall be in writing.

                                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                              • Sec. 11(2) LA sets out statutory minimum notice periods as follows:
                                                                                                                                * for less than three months of service, one day;
                                                                                                                                * for three months to two years of service, one week;
                                                                                                                                * for two to five years of service, two weeks; and
                                                                                                                                * for more than five years of service, one month.
                                                                                                                                The above periods are statutory minima which can be improved upon by collective agreements or contracts of employment.
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                  • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                  • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                                                                                  • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                  • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                  • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                • Sec. 11(6) LA.

                                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                Norway - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                • Art. 15-4(1) WEA.

                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                • Art. 15-3 WEA states that unless otherwise stipulated in collective agreement, the notice period shall be one month.
                                                                                                                                  Before notice has been given, an agreement on a shorter period of notice may only be concluded between the employer and the employee's elected representatives at undertakings bound by a collective pay agreement. Furthermore, shorter notice periods may be provided for in the regulations issued by the Ministry for participants in labour market schemes.

                                                                                                                                  The same article further provides for the following notice periods:

                                                                                                                                  *if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for at least five consecutive years: at least two months' notice;
                                                                                                                                  * if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for at least ten consecutive years: at least three months' notice;
                                                                                                                                  *if the employee has been employed in the same undertaking for more than ten consecutive years:
                                                                                                                                  a) at least four months if the employee is 50 years old,
                                                                                                                                  b) at least five months if the employee is above 55 years old,
                                                                                                                                  c) at least 6 months if the employee is above 60 years old.
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                    • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                    • employee < 50 years old - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 50 years old - 4 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 55 years old - 5 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 60 years old - 6 month(s).
                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                    • employee < 50 years old - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 50 years old - 4 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 55 years old - 5 month(s).
                                                                                                                                    • employees ≥ 60 years old - 6 month(s).

                                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                  • However, Art. 15-5(1) WEA states that if the notice is invalid, the employee may claim compensation.

                                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                  • Except for planned collective dismissals (see below).

                                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                  • Art. 15-1 WEA states that prior to the dismissal with notice the employer shall, to the extent that it is practically possible, discuss the matter with the employee and the employees representatives, unless the employee opposes such consultations.
                                                                                                                                    As a result of an amendment to art. 15-1 introduced in 2009 by Act n°39 of 19 June 2009 (in force since January 1st, 2010), art. 15-1 specifies that "the discussions must concern both the grounds for dismissal and any selection between two or more employees regarding who is to be dismissed."

                                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                  Panama - 2010    

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                                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                  • Art. 214 LC.

                                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                  • No statutory notice periods to be observed.

                                                                                                                                    However, there is an exception for some specific categories of workers to which the "just cause" rule does not apply. Those workers can be dismissed without just cause provided that the employer gives 30 days' prior notice or pay the corresponding amount in addition to a payment amounting to compensation for unfair dismissal.
                                                                                                                                    This rule applies to those workers with less than two years' uninterrupted service; domestic employees; permanent employees of small agricultural, fishing or manufacturing undertakings; seafarers serving on board vessels operating on international routes; apprentices; workers in retail sales establishments and in undertakings with five or fewer workers, except in the case of insurance establishments or real estate (art. 212 LC).

                                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                    • Except for those workers listed in art. 212 LC to which the "just cause" requirement does not apply.

                                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                    • Except for dismissals (individual and collective) on economic grounds: art. 215-216 LC Procedural requirements applicable to such dismissals are dealt with under the theme "Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons".

                                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                    • Except for dismissals (individual and collective) on economic grounds: art. 216 LC Procedural requirements applicable to such dismissals are dealt with under the theme "Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons".
                                                                                                                                      For dismissals based on any other authorized ground, the employer has the option of applying to the labour courts for prior authorization to dismiss. Such judicial authorization is however not compulsory.

                                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                    Notes / Remarks
                                                                                                                                    As a general rule, the employer is not required to observe statutory notice period under the Panamanian labour legislation.
                                                                                                                                    Depending on the reasons for dismissal, before proceeding to dismissal, the employer has either the obligation to obtain authorization from the labour administration (in case of an economic dismissal) or the option of applying to the labour courts for prior authorization to dismiss when dismissal is based on any other authorized ground.

                                                                                                                                    Peru - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                    • Art. 32 LPCL

                                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                    • See art. 31 LPCL:
                                                                                                                                      - The employer must give the worker a reasonable period of written notice, of not less than six calendar days in case of misconduct, so that the worker can present a written defense to any charges brought against him or her.
                                                                                                                                      - If the worker is guilty of flagrant serious misconduct where it would be unreasonable to require the employer to continue the employment relationship, no notice is required.
                                                                                                                                      - In the event of allegations related to capacity of the worker or errors, the employer must give a notice of at least 30 days in order for the employee to prove his or her professional capacities and correct any error.
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 6 day(s).
                                                                                                                                        • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 30 day(s).

                                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                      Philippines - 2013    

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                                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                      • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

                                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                      • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                                                                                                                                        - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                                                                                                                                        - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                                                                                                                                        There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                                                                                                                                        The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                        • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                                                                                                                                          - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                                                                                                                                          ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                                                                                                                                          - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                        • Art. 283 LC: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

                                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                        Portugal - 2014    

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                                                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                        • Any dismissal decision shall be in writing.
                                                                                                                                          (see art. 357(3) LC - disciplinary dismissals, art. 378(1) LC - dismissal for unsuitability, art. 371(2) - individual redundancy, and art. 363(1) - collective dismissals)

                                                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                        • The employer must observe a notice period before dismissing an employee in the following cases:
                                                                                                                                          - dismissal for unsuitability (art. 378 LC)
                                                                                                                                          - elimination of the post (individual redundancy)(art. 371 LC)
                                                                                                                                          - collective dismissals for economic reasons (art. 363 LC).

                                                                                                                                          There is no notice requirement when the dismissal is based on the misconduct of the employee.

                                                                                                                                          The notice period is set according to the worker's seniority, as follows:
                                                                                                                                          - 15 days if the length of service is less than 1 years,
                                                                                                                                          - 30 days if the length of service is at least 1 year but less than 5 years;
                                                                                                                                          - 60 days is the length of service is at least 5 years but less than 10 years;
                                                                                                                                          - 75 days from at least 10 years of service.

                                                                                                                                          The LC also provides for specific notice periods in the following cases:

                                                                                                                                          *Probationary period:
                                                                                                                                          During the probationary period, either party can terminate the contract without notice. As an exception, during that period, advance notice is required after a certain time has elapsed:
                                                                                                                                          - if the probationary period has lasted more than 60 days, the employer is required to observe a 7-day notice.
                                                                                                                                          - if the probationary period has lasted more than 120 days, the employer is required to observe a 15-day notice (art. 114(2) LC).

                                                                                                                                          *Service commission agreements:
                                                                                                                                          A service commission agreement (see above under "workers' categories excluded") which can be concluded with certain categories of workers (mainly those exercising managerial functions) can be terminated without cause provided that the notice requirements are observed. Depending on the period of service under such contract, notice period shall be 30 days (less than 2 years) or 60 days (2 years or more). (see arts. 163 LC).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                            • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                            • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                            • 60 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                            • 75 day(s).
                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                            • 75 day(s).

                                                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                          • The LC does not allow for pay in lieu of notice in the event of an individual dismissal.

                                                                                                                                            (Please note that for collective dismissals, art. 363(4) provides that if the employer does not comply the notice period, the employment contract will not terminate immediately but only at the expiry of the statutory notice period (as if notice requirements have been observed) and the employer has to pay compensation equal to the salary corresponding to the missing period of notice. This rule also applies to dismissal for unsuitability (art. 372 LC).

                                                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                          • There is no general requirement to notify the administration in the event of a disciplinary dismissal (except for the dismissal of protected workers (i.e pregnant women or workers on parental leave - see above).

                                                                                                                                            However, the administration is always notified in the event of dismissal for unsuitability of the worker or individual redundancy since a copy of the dismissal decision shall be sent to the relevant services of the Ministry of Labour (art. 378(2) and 371 (3) LC).

                                                                                                                                            In addition, in case of individual redundancy, the administration may be involved at an earlier stage (and not only at the time of the final decision). Indeed, in the course of the consultation procedure, the workers' representatives or the workers affected (and the trade union if a union member is affected by the dismissal) may, within 3 working days, after the initial communication request the intervention of the Labour inspection. If such request is made, the Labour inspection will verify compliance with the applicable statutory requirements and present a report within 7 days of the reception of the request (art. 370 (2) and (3) LC).

                                                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                          • Intervention of workers' representatives is required in all types of individual dismissals.

                                                                                                                                            - Unsuitability:
                                                                                                                                            Mandatory notification to the employee and the union if the employee is a union representative of the need to terminate the contact based on justified motives, the changes introduced in the workplace, the results of the training and the adaptation period. Lastly, the employer must prove that there are no other positions available in the company compatible with the employee's qualification (art. 376(1) LC).

                                                                                                                                            As from Law 23/2012 the works council (or in its absence the inter-trade union committee) will be informed after 3 days of the notification to an employee who is not a worker representative (this communication had to be notified directly to the works council before this reform).

                                                                                                                                            The works council (together with the employee concerned and the trade union, if applicable) has 10 days to issue a reasoned opinion (art. 377 LC).

                                                                                                                                            Within 5 days after the 10-day period has elapsed, the employer shall issue a substantiated decision, the a copy of which shall be submitted to the employees¿ representatives (art. 378 LC).

                                                                                                                                            - Disciplinary dismissal:
                                                                                                                                            Disciplinary dismissals are always preceded by a formal disciplinary process involving the worker's representatives. A copy of the written statement detailing the reasons for dismissal based on specific facts (statement of guilt - "nota de culpa") shall be submitted to the works council, (and a trade union in case of dismissal of a trade union representative) (art. 353-2 LC) which can within 5 days, submit its (non-binding) opinion on the proposed dismissal (art. 356(5) LC).
                                                                                                                                            The final dismissal decision shall also be communicated to the works council (and the trade union, if applicable). (art. 357(6) LC)
                                                                                                                                            However, the intervention of the works council in disciplinary dismissal does is not applicable in enterprises with less than 10 workers (art. 358(1) LC)

                                                                                                                                            - Elimination of the post (redundancy):
                                                                                                                                            Mandatory notification to the works council (or in its absence the inter-trade union committee) and the union if the employee is a union representative of the necessity to eliminate the position and consequently to terminate the employment contract as well as the reasons behind this decision (art. 369 LC).
                                                                                                                                            The workers' representatives and the employee have 10 days to reply to the proposed dismissal and may within 3 days from the employer's communication request the intervention of the Labour Inspection (art. 370 LC)
                                                                                                                                            Five days after the 10 day period has elapsed, the employer may issue his decision in writing indicating the reasons for the elimination of the post and other elements such as the impossibility to find alternative adequate employment and proof that the selection criteria has been duly observed if objections have been made. A copy of that decision is to be sent to the employee concerned, the worker's representatives and the relevant services of the Ministry of Labour (art. 371 LC)

                                                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                          Romania - 2017    

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                                                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                          • - Dismissal for objective reasons: art. 62 LC (on disciplinary dismissal, see also art. 268 on the procedural requirements applicable to disciplinary dismissals).
                                                                                                                                            - Dismissal for subjective reasons:art. 74 LC.

                                                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                          • See art. 75 LC(former art. 73), as amended by Act No. 40/2011:
                                                                                                                                            When the dismissal is based on the following grounds:
                                                                                                                                            - physical or mental inability to work;
                                                                                                                                            - professional inadequacy;
                                                                                                                                            - redundancy (objective reasons);
                                                                                                                                            the employees shall now have the right to a notice of at least 20 working days [instead of 15 days previously].
                                                                                                                                            This does not apply to the dismissal of worker under a probationary period, when the dismissal is based on professional inadequacy.
                                                                                                                                            No notice shall be observed when the dismissal is based on disciplinary grounds.
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).
                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                              • 20 day(s).

                                                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                            • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                                                                                                                                              However, notification is requested in some specific cases as provided by art. 64 LC:
                                                                                                                                              Before carrying out a dismissal based on professional inadequacy or on mental or physical disability, the employer must offer the employee other vacant positions within the company, which are compatible with his/her professional background or, with the work capacity, as established by the occupational health doctor. When no such vacancy is available, the employer must inform the competent territorial employment agency an request its support for redeploying the employee.

                                                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                            Russian Federation - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                            • Article 84-1 of the Labour Code

                                                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                            • Article 180 LC provides that the employees should be notified no less than two months if the reason for the dismissal is liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise.

                                                                                                                                              Moreover:
                                                                                                                                              • if a fixed-term contract for a period of up to 2 months is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 3 calendar days for the reasons of expiry of the contract (Article 79 LC) and for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise (Article 292 LC);
                                                                                                                                              • if a seasonal work contract is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 7 calendar days (Article 296 LC)
                                                                                                                                              • if the employee is a migrant worker or a stateless person, a notice regarding the termination of the contract for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise reasons must be sent not less than 3 calendar days before the dismissal (Article 327.6 LC)
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 1 year
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                              • Article 180 of the Labour Code provides on the pay in lieu of notice in case of dismissals for economic reasons.

                                                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                              • Article 82 of the Labour Code: in case of termination of employment for economic reasons or for worker's conduct or performance, an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

                                                                                                                                              Rwanda - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                              • Art. 24 LL provides that a notice of termination must be given in writing to the interested concerned party and must specify the reasons for the dismissal. However, Art. 29 provides that the notice is not required if so agreed between the parties.

                                                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                              • Art. 24LL: The notice period shall be at least:
                                                                                                                                                - 15 days if the worker has worked for less than a year;
                                                                                                                                                - 1 month if the worker has workers for a period of one year or more.

                                                                                                                                                No notice period shall apply to a worker on probation.

                                                                                                                                                Art. 28(2) LL provides that where a fixed term contract is terminated due to gross negligence, the party causing the contract to be terminated shall notify the same to the other party within fourty eight (48) hours.
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                  • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                  • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                • • Art. 25 provides that any contract termination without notice or without having fully observed the notice period results in the party responsible for termination paying the other party the compensation provided for by this Law.

                                                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                • No general obligation to notify the administration of any dismissal. This only applies in case of the dismissal of a worker for economic and technological reasons (art. 34 LL - see below under collective dismissals).

                                                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                Saint Lucia - 2011    

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                                                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                • The form of the notice of termination to be given to the employee is not specified in the CSA.

                                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                • In the event of a contract of employment for an indefinite period, which is any contract of more than twelve continuous weeks, the period of notice to be given by an employer to an employee shall be not less than (sec. 6(1) and 6(3) CSA):
                                                                                                                                                  - one week's notice, if the period of continuous employment is more than twelve weeks but less than two years;
                                                                                                                                                  - two weeks' notice, if the period of continuous employment is two years or more but less than five years;
                                                                                                                                                  - four weeks' notice, if the period of continuous employment is five years or more but less than ten years; and
                                                                                                                                                  - six weeks' notice, if the continuous period of employment is more than ten years.
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                    • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                    • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                    • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                    • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                    • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                    • 6 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                    • 6 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                  • Sec. 6(5) CSA.

                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                  Saudi Arabia - 2017    

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                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                  • Art. 75 LL.

                                                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                  • Art 75 LL: the notice period shall be at least 60 days for monthly paid workers and 30 days for the others.
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                      • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • non-monthly paid workers - 15 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                    • Art. 76 LL.

                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                    Senegal - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                    • Art. L50 LC

                                                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                    • No specified duration in the Labour Code.
                                                                                                                                                      However, art 23 of the Inter-occupational Collective Agreements establishes specific duration of the notice period according to the worker's category.
                                                                                                                                                      For non-executive monthly paid workers,the notice period is 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                      The duration of the notice period is 3 months for executives and similar workers. For blue collar-workers and permanent staff paid on a hourly, daily or weekly basis, notice period varies according to the worker's category and length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                      * Less than one year of service: 8 days (categories 1 to 4) / 15 days (categories 5 to 7)
                                                                                                                                                      * From 1 to 5 years of service: 15 days (categories 1 to 4) / 15 days (categories 5 to 7)
                                                                                                                                                      * More than 5 years: 1 month (categories 1 to 4) / 1 month (categories 5 to 7)
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 4) - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 5 to 7) - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 4) - 8 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 5 to 7) - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 7) - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 7) - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 7) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 7) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                        • managerial and similar positions - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily, weekly paid blue-collar workers (categories 1 to 7) - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • Art. L53 LC

                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • Except in case of an individual dismissal based on economic grounds (art. L60 to L62 LC) and any dismissal of a workers' representative (art. L214 LC).

                                                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • Except in case of an individual dismissal based on economic grounds: art. L60 and 62 LC.

                                                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • However, approval is mandatory prior to the dismissal of a workers' representative: art. L214 LC.

                                                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                      Serbia - 2017    

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                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 185 LL.

                                                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 189 LL foresees a notice period only for those employees dismissed for lack of performance, i.e. qualifications and skills.
                                                                                                                                                        Notice period is minimum 1 month and maximum 3 months depending on the "duration of the insurance period" (period for which the employee has paid contributions for the retirement insurance), as follows:
                                                                                                                                                        - 1 month for up to 10 years of insurance period;
                                                                                                                                                        - 2 months for 10-20 years of insurance period;
                                                                                                                                                        - 3 months over 20 years of insurance period.

                                                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 189 LL

                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                        • Exception: Trade union must be notified in case of dismissal of trade union member: art. 181 LL.

                                                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                        Singapore - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                        • Sec. 10 (5) EA.

                                                                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                        • Notice periods are governed by the terms of the contract (sec. 10 (2) EA), and it is only in the absence of such a stipulation that the statutory notice periods apply.
                                                                                                                                                          Sec. 10 (3) EA establishes statutory minimum notice periods as follows:
                                                                                                                                                          - one day for less than 26 weeks' service;
                                                                                                                                                          - one week for 26 weeks to less than two years' service;
                                                                                                                                                          - two weeks for two to less than five years' service;
                                                                                                                                                          - four weeks for five or more years' service.
                                                                                                                                                          ______________________
                                                                                                                                                          Notice of termination of contract
                                                                                                                                                          10.—(1) Either party to a contract of service may at any time give to the other party notice of his intention to terminate the contract of service.
                                                                                                                                                          (2) The length of such notice shall be the same for both employer and employee and shall be determined by any provision made for the notice in the terms of the contract of service, or, in the absence of such provision, shall be in accordance with subsection (3).
                                                                                                                                                          (3) The notice to terminate the service of a person who is employed under a contract of service shall be not less than — (a) one day’s notice if he has been so employed for less than 26 weeks; (b) one week’s notice if he has been so employed for 26 weeks or more but less than 2 years; (c) 2 weeks’ notice if he has been so employed for 2 years or more but less than 5 years; and (d) 4 weeks’ notice if he has been so employed for 5 years or more.
                                                                                                                                                          (4) This section shall not be taken to prevent either party from waiving his right to notice on any occasion.
                                                                                                                                                          (5) Such notice shall be written and may be given at any time, and the day on which the notice is given shall be included in the period of the notice.

                                                                                                                                                          Dismissal
                                                                                                                                                          14 EA.—(1) An employer may after due inquiry dismiss without notice an employee employed by him on the grounds of misconduct inconsistent with the fulfilment of the express or implied conditions of his service except that instead of dismissing an employee an employer may —
                                                                                                                                                          (a) instantly down-grade the employee; or
                                                                                                                                                          (b) instantly suspend him from work without payment of salary for a period not exceeding one week.
                                                                                                                                                          (2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where a relevant employee considers that he has been dismissed without just cause or excuse
                                                                                                                                                          his employer, he may, within one month of the dismissal, make representations in writing to the Minister to be reinstated in his former employment.
                                                                                                                                                          (2A) For the purposes of subsection (2), a relevant employee means —
                                                                                                                                                          (a) an employee employed in a managerial or an executive position —
                                                                                                                                                          (i) who is dismissed with notice; or
                                                                                                                                                          (ii) who is dismissed without notice but receives payment of any salary in lieu of notice, after having served that employer for at least 12 months in any position (whether or not a managerial or an executive position);
                                                                                                                                                          (b) an employee employed in a managerial or an executive position who is dismissed without notice and without salary in lieu of such notice; or
                                                                                                                                                          (c) an employee not employed in a managerial or an executive position.
                                                                                                                                                          (3) The Minister may, before making a decision on any such representations, by writing under his hand request the
                                                                                                                                                          commissioner to inquire into the dismissal and report whether in his opinion the dismissal is without just cause or excuse.
                                                                                                                                                          (4) If, after considering the report made by the Commissioner under subsection (3), the Minister is satisfied that the employee has been dismissed without just cause or excuse, he may, notwithstanding any rule of law or agreement to the contrary —
                                                                                                                                                          (a) direct the employer to reinstate the employee in his former employment and to pay the employee an amount that is equivalent to the wages that the employee would have earned
                                                                                                                                                          had he not been dismissed by the employer; or (b) direct the employer to pay such amount of wages as compensation as may be determined by the Minister, and the employer shall comply with the direction of the Minister. (...)
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                            • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                            • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                            • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                            • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                            • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                            • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                            • 4 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                          • Sec. 11 (1) EA.

                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                          Slovakia - 2012    

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                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                          • Sec. 61 (1) LC.

                                                                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                          NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                          • New as of September 2011: The provision on the notice period has been amended by Act 257/2011.
                                                                                                                                                            (See sec. 62 LC, as amended).

                                                                                                                                                            Prior to the entry into force of the Act 257/2011 in September 2011, the notice period for any dismissal (regardless of the grounds) was 2 months or 3 months in the event the employment relashionship has lasted at least five years.

                                                                                                                                                            In the current version of the LC (Sept. 2011), the minimum notice period has been reduced (from 2 to 1 month) and the notice period now also varies according the the grounds of dismissal as follows:

                                                                                                                                                            1) For employee with less than 1 year of service, regardless of the reason for dismissal, the notice period is 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                            2) If the employment relationship was terminated due to:
                                                                                                                                                            a) the dissolution or relocation of the enterprise (or part thereof) or ;
                                                                                                                                                            b) redundancy arising from organisational changes or;
                                                                                                                                                            c) because the employee has a medical condition that caused a long-term loss of his/her ability to perform his/her work,
                                                                                                                                                            the notice period is
                                                                                                                                                            - 2 months, if the employee' length of service is at least 1 year and less than 5 years;
                                                                                                                                                            - 3 months, if the employee' length of service is at least 5 years.
                                                                                                                                                            2) If the dismissal is based on any other lawful grounds, the length of the notice period is 2 months if the employee's length of service is at least 1 year.

                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                              • non economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on economic reasons and health grounds - 3 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                            NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • New as of Sept. 2011: Under the previous LC (2009 consolidated version), there was no statutory right to pay in lieu of notice and the notice period had to be observed. The amendments introduced by Act 257/2011, in force since 1 September 2011 do not as such expressly introduce a right to pay in lieu of notice. However, they do modify the rules on severance pay entitlements. When an employee is terminated on the grounds of the winding-up of the employer or its relocation or on the grounds of redundancy or based on the loss of his/her medical ability to carry out work, he/she is now entitled to either notice or severance pay but no longer both.

                                                                                                                                                              If an employee is given notice for the above mentioned reasons, the employee has the right to ask the employer to terminate employment relationship by agreement before the start of the notice period and the employer must comply with this request. In such cases, the employee must be entitled to a severance allowance equal to not less than his/her average monthly earnings multiplied by the number of months of the notice period (sec. 76(2) LC).
                                                                                                                                                              Where, on the other hand, there is no agreed termination, the employee is not entitled to any severance pay and the statutory notice periods apply.
                                                                                                                                                              Lastly, if upon agreement, the employee continues to work for only a part of the notice period, he/she will be entitled to some severance payment for the time he/she has not worked (sec. 76(3) LC).

                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                            NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • New in Sept. 2011
                                                                                                                                                              Act 257/2011 amending the LC and effective as of Sept. 2011, deleted former sec. 74 LC which provided for mandatory notification to and negotiation with employee's representatives prior to any termination (both termination with notice and immediate termination).
                                                                                                                                                              Therefore, intervention of the worker's representatives in any dismissal no longer required.

                                                                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • However, prior approval by the relevant office of labour, social affairs and family is required in the event of a disabled employee: sec. 66 LC.

                                                                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • However, pursuant to sec. 240 8) LC: "The employer may give notice to or terminate immediately the employment of a member of the relevant trade union body, a member of a works council or a works trustee only with the prior consent of these employees' representatives".

                                                                                                                                                            Slovenia - 2012    

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                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • Art. 86 (1) ERA

                                                                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                            • Art. 92 ERA (as amended in 2007) establishes statutory minimum notice periods that vary according to the reason for dismissal and the length of service as follows:

                                                                                                                                                              If the contract is terminated by the employer, then the notice periods are
                                                                                                                                                              - 30 days if the length of service is less than 5 years;
                                                                                                                                                              - 45 days if the length of service is at least 5 years;
                                                                                                                                                              - 60 days if the length of service is at least 15 years;
                                                                                                                                                              - 120 days if the length of service is at least 25 years.

                                                                                                                                                              If the employer terminates the contract due to the worker's conduct (other than that entailing summary dismissal), then the notice period is one month.

                                                                                                                                                              [Note that prior to the 2007 amendment, the LC distinguished between dismissals for economic reasons and dismissal for reasons of incapacity and provided for higher notice periods for economic dismissals, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                              - Less than 5 years of service: 30 days (business reasons) / 30 days (incapacity).
                                                                                                                                                              - At least 5 years of service: 45 days (business reasons) / 45 days (incapacity).
                                                                                                                                                              - At least 15 years of service: 75 days (business reasons) / 60 days (incapacity).
                                                                                                                                                              - At least 25 years of service: 150 days (business reasons) / 120 days (incapacity).]
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal not based on conduct - 60 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                              • Art. 94 ERA

                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                              • However, in both cases of ordinary and summary dismissal of a trade union member, if so requested by the worker, the employer is required to notify the said union: art. 84 ERA.
                                                                                                                                                                The trade union can oppose termination according to the modalities laid down in art. 85 ERA.

                                                                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                              • As a general rule. approval by worker's representatives is not required.

                                                                                                                                                                However, when dismissal concerns a trade union member, the trade union may oppose termination for absence of substantiated reason or violation of procedural requirements. As a result of such opposition, the effects of dismissals are suspended until the court or an arbitrator has ruled on the matter (art. 85 ERA).
                                                                                                                                                                Furthermore, worker's and trade union representatives enjoy special protection and cannot be dismissed without prior consent of the body they represent. (art. 113 ERA).

                                                                                                                                                              South Africa - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                              • See sec. 37(4) BCEA: Notice of termination must be given in writing and explained orally to an employee who is not able to understand it.

                                                                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                              • Sec. 37(1) BCEA establishes minimum notice periods to be observed by the employer when he or she intends to dismiss an employee, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                - 1 week's notice if the employee has been employed for 6 months or less,
                                                                                                                                                                - 2 week's notice if the employee has been employed for more than 6 months but not more than 1 year;
                                                                                                                                                                - 4 weeks if the employee has been employed for one year or more (or is a farm or domestic workers employed for more than 6 months)
                                                                                                                                                                Collective agreements only provide shorter notice periods than those stipulated by the BCEA for workers with more than 1 year of service. In such cases, the notice period can be reduced to 2 weeks (sec. 37(2) BCEA).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                  • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                  • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                  • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                  • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                  • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                  • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                  • 4 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                • Sec. 38 BCEA.

                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                • Except for individual dismissals based on operational requirements (see sec. 189 LRA).
                                                                                                                                                                  See also sec. 4(2) of the Code of Good Practice on Dismissal - schedule 8 of the LRA: Disciplinary proceedings against a trade union representative should not be instituted without first informing and consulting the union.

                                                                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                Spain - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                • - Dismissal based on objective reasons: art. 53(1)a) ET.
                                                                                                                                                                  - Disciplinary dismissal: art. 55(1) ET.

                                                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                • As a result of Law Act 35/2010, the notice period to be observed in the event of dismissal for an objective cause (e.g economic reasons, capacity-related reasons - see 'valid grounds') is now reduced to 15 days (instead of 30 days) (see art. 53(1)c) ET).
                                                                                                                                                                  With respect to disciplinary dismissal, no notice is required.

                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                    • 15 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                  • As a result of law 35/2010, if the employer fails to observe the notice requirements, he or she shall be liable to pay compensation in an amount equivalent to the period of notice that was not given (art. 53(4) ET).

                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                  • No general obligation to notify the worker's representatives in the event of dismissal.
                                                                                                                                                                    However, notification is required in the following cases:
                                                                                                                                                                    - In the event of objective dismissal based on technical, organizational, economic or production-related grounds which is not part of a pattern of collective dismissal, copy of the notice of dismissal shall be given to the worker's representatives (art. 53(1)c) ET).
                                                                                                                                                                    - Where a trade unions member or trade union representative is dismissed by way of disciplinary dismissal (art. 55 (1) ET - see also above "worker's enjoying special protection")

                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                  Sri Lanka - 2013    

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                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                  • - No specific form expressly required for individual termination other than by way of retrenchment. There is a prior approval mechanism by the Labour Commissioner upon application by the employer.
                                                                                                                                                                    The TEWA does not specify the form of the employer's application, however it stipulates that a copy of that application shall be communicated to the workman concerned who shall be afforded the opportunity to be heard.
                                                                                                                                                                    The decision of the Labour commissioner granting or refusing dismissal must be in writing and must be communicated to both the employer and the employee (sec. 2 TEWA)
                                                                                                                                                                    - Under the IDA, when contemplating termination by way of retrenchment, the employer is required to give the employee notice of such intention in writing (sec. 31 F IDA).

                                                                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                  • - No statutory notice period to be observed under the TEWA. Termination of employment of workers covered by the TEWA for any reason other than disciplinary is subject to the prior approval the Labour Commissioner (sec. 2(1) TEWA) . The decision to grant or refuse approval shall be made within 2 months from the date of receipt of the application (sec. 11 of Industrial Disputes (Hearing and Determination of Proceedings) (Special Provisions) Act, No. 13 of 2003)
                                                                                                                                                                    - Under the IDA, those employees not covered by the TEWA, who are not seasonal employees and work for an establishment of more than 15 workers, and who have been employed for more than a year (sec. 31E IDA), are entitled to one month's notice in writing of any retrenchment. The employer may not effect the dismissal until the expiry of two months after notice has been given, unless an agreement to the contrary has been reached with the worker or his or her representative (sec. 31G IDA). The application of this provision has been limited since the enactment of the TEWA which also applies to retrenchment and specifically provides that provisions of the IDA on retrenchment do not apply to any worker covered by the TEWA.
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 0 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 0 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                      • economic dismissal not covered by the TEWA - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                    • - Any termination (other than for disciplinary reasons): see sec. 2 TEWA: prior approval mechanism by the Labour Commissioner if the employer has not obtained the prior consent of the employee in writing.
                                                                                                                                                                      - In the event of retrenchment of any employee not covered by the TEWA, who has been employed for more than a year, who is not a seasonal employee and works for an establishment of more than 15 workers, the employer must send a copy of the written notice to the Labour Commissioner (sec. 31F IDA).

                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                    • - No mandatory notification. However, art. 17A TEWA provides for the possibility for the employee who is a trade union member to be represented by a trade union officer in any proceedings before the Labour Commissioner.
                                                                                                                                                                      - In the event of retrenchment of a trade union member (when the TEWA does not apply), notice shall be sent to that trade union. art. 31F IDA

                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                    • - Any termination (other than for disciplinary reasons): see sec. 2 TEWA: prior approval mechanism by the Labour Commissioner if the employer has not obtained the prior consent of the employee in writing. The Labour Commissioner shall decide on the employer's application within 2 months from the date of receipt (sec. 11 of Industrial Disputes (Hearing and Determination of Proceedings) (Special Provisions) Act, No. 13 of 2003).

                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                    Sweden - 2017    

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                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                    • Sec. 8 EPA: “Notice of termination by the employer must be given in writing”.

                                                                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                    • Sec. 11 EPA:
                                                                                                                                                                      - The minimum notice period is 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                                      - The notice period shall be:
                                                                                                                                                                      * 2 months for tenure of at least 2 years but less than 4 years;
                                                                                                                                                                      * 3 months for tenure of at least 4 years but less than 6 years;
                                                                                                                                                                      * 4 months for tenure of at least 6 years but less than 8 years;
                                                                                                                                                                      * 5 months for tenure of at least 8 years but less than 10 years;
                                                                                                                                                                      * 6 months for tenure of at least 10 years.
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                        • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                        • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                        • 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                        • 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                        • 6 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                        • 6 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                      • Exception as provided in sec. 30 EPA: “An employer who wishes to summarily dismiss an employee or to give notice terminating employment for reasons relating to the employee personally, shall inform the employee of this in advance. Information concerning termination shall be given at least two weeks in advance. Information concerning summary dismissal shall be given at least one week in advance. If the employee is a union member, the employer shall notify the local organisation of employees to which the employee belongs at the same time as notice is given to the employee. The employee and the local organisation of employees to which the employee belongs are entitled to consultations with the employer concerning the measure to which the information and the notice relate. This shall apply provided that such consultations are requested not more than one week after information or notice was given. Where such consultations have been requested, the employer may not give notice of termination or summarily dismiss the employee until the consultations have been concluded”. (available at: http://www.government.se/4ac87e/contentassets/b58069e2c0f24aa6be53d8932de85d86/sfs-198280-employment-protection-act)

                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                      Switzerland - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                      • However, according to Art. 335 (2) CO, the party giving notice should state the reason for terminating employment in writing if requested by the other party.
                                                                                                                                                                        The same rule applies in case of dismissal with immediate effect : art. 337 CO.

                                                                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                      • 1) For ordinary dismissals:
                                                                                                                                                                        According to art. 335c CO, the general rule on the notice period is the following:
                                                                                                                                                                        *1 month during the first year of service;
                                                                                                                                                                        *2 months between 2 and 9 years of service;
                                                                                                                                                                        *3 months over 9 years of service.

                                                                                                                                                                        These timeframes can be modified by written agreement, collective agreement but shall not be less than 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exceptions to this rule are permitted only during the first year of service and if set by a collective agreement (art. 335c (2) CO).

                                                                                                                                                                        2) Specific rules apply to FTC:
                                                                                                                                                                        No notice period is prescribed except for FTC concluded for up to 10 years (art. 334 (1) CO).
                                                                                                                                                                        For FTC concluded for more than 10 years, a notice period of 6 months should be respected by either party (art. 334 (2) CO).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                          • 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                          • 3 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                        • However, frequently the employer decides to release the dismissed employee from the obligation to work during the notice period. The release from the obligation to work is a unilateral legal act, exercised by the employer by virtue of his right to give directives and instructions, within the meaning of Article 321d CO. The release from the obligation to work does not imply the end of the employment relationship. The contract shall continue to have effect until the end of the notice period.

                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                        Syrian Arab Republic - 2013    

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                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 56 (a) LL: Either the employer or the worker may terminate the unspecified-term contract provided they send the other party written notice prior to termination.

                                                                                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 56 a) 1) LL: Notice shall be sent two months prior to termination.
                                                                                                                                                                          In the event of termination of a disabled worker, the notice period shall be doubled (art. 140 LL).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                            • 2 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                          • - Art. 56(b) LL: The party terminating the employment contract without notice or before the completion of the notice period shall pay the other party compensation equal to the wage of the worker for the whole or remaining duration of the notice period, unless the worker is dispensed from the notice period.
                                                                                                                                                                            - Art. 60 LL: Employers may dispense workers from working during the notice period and consider their service uninterrupted until the end of the notice period, with all accruing effects, in particular the amount of wages for the notice period.

                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                          Tajikistan - 2016    

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                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                          • Art. 45 LC

                                                                                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                          • Art. 45 (1) LC: Employer must in written form let the worker know about employers' intentions to terminate the labour contract.
                                                                                                                                                                            - The worker should be notified no less than two months prior to the termination of the contract if the reason for that termination is the liquidation of the organization or the termination of the activity of the employer (individual, reduction in the number or staff of employees);
                                                                                                                                                                            - The worker should be notified no less than a month prior to the termination of the contract if the reason for that termination is due to worker’s lack of qualifications or for health reasons.
                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                              • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • In this case according to the Art. 45 LC the employee shall be paid the compensation in the amount not lower than the average daily wage for each day remaining before the expiration.

                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • Update as of 2016: Art. 45 (4) LC states that the employer must notify relevant authorities on labour on impending dismissal of employees by indicating their qualification and salary.

                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • Update as of 2016: Art. 44 LC: Workers representatives should be notified at least 2 weeks before the termination of the contract.

                                                                                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • Update as of 2016: Art. 44 LC does not clearly state that the employer cannot proceed with the termination of the contract without workers representatives' approval. The article, however, sets procedural clarity for notification/coordination between the parties.
                                                                                                                                                                              The employer must notify workers representatives two weeks in advance (Art 44(1)); the workers representatives must reply back in 10 days (Art 44 (2)); the employer has a right to terminate the contract not later than one month after receiving the agreement of the workers representatives.
                                                                                                                                                                              So technically the employer should get the agreement from workers representatives. However, it does not say what happens if workers representatives do not agree.

                                                                                                                                                                            Tanzania, United Republic of - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • Art. 41(3) ELRA provides that notice of termination shall be in writing.

                                                                                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                            • Art. 41(1) ELRA: if a contract of employment can be terminated on notice, the required period of notice is at least:
                                                                                                                                                                              * 7 days if given in the first month of employment and after that;
                                                                                                                                                                              * 28 days if the employee is employed on a monthly basis;
                                                                                                                                                                              * 4 days if the employee is employed on a daily or weekly basis.
                                                                                                                                                                              A longer notice period may be agreed upon by the parties, provided that the notice period is of equal duration for the employer and employee.
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                • monthly paid workers - 28 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                • daily or weekly paid workers - 4 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                              • Art. 41(5) ELRA provides that instead of giving an employee notice of termination, an employer may pay the employee the remuneration that the employee would have received if the employee had worked during the notice period.

                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                              • Except in the event of termination based on operational requirements (retrenchment): art. 38(1) ELRA.

                                                                                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                              Thailand - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                              • Notification to the worker to be dismissed: oral or written
                                                                                                                                                                                Art. 17 LPA, as amended by LPA-No.2 of 2008 (art. 8): The prior notice of termination can be given in writing.

                                                                                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                              • -Dismissal not based on economic reasons:
                                                                                                                                                                                See art. 17 LPA, as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 8): " Where the period is not specified in the contract of employment, an employer or an employee may terminate the contract by giving advance notice in writing to the other party at or before any due date of wage payment in order to take effect on the following due date of wage payment, with no requirement for advance notice of more than 3 months".
                                                                                                                                                                                Therefore, if a worker is paid on a monthly basis, the notice period shall be at least 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                                                See also art. 582 CCC.
                                                                                                                                                                                - Dismissal for economic reasons:
                                                                                                                                                                                According to art. 121 LPA, the employer shall give at least a 60-day notice to the labour inspection when he or she intends to terminate an employee due to the restructuring of the work unit, the production process, or the distribution or provision of services, resulting from the introduction or change of machinery or technology.

                                                                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                o Economic dismissal – 60 days
                                                                                                                                                                                o Monthly paid workers – non-economic dismissal – 1 month
                                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 60 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • monthly paid workers - non economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                • See art. 17(3) as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 8) and art. 121 LPA (economic dismissals). See also art. 582(2) CCC.

                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                • However, the Labour Relations Act requires the approval of the Labour Court when the employer intends to dismiss (and otherwise punish or reduce wages of) a member of an employees' committee (art. 52 LRA).
                                                                                                                                                                                  Such committees are set up by employees in establishments employing at least 50 employees (art. 45 LRA).

                                                                                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                Tunisia - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                • Art. 14bis LC.

                                                                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                • Employers and employees are required to give one month's notice in writing. If there are provisions which result from a contractual or collective agreement, general practice or vested rights that require a longer period of notice, these provisions are applied (art. 14bis LC). For example, the period of notice for journalists (art. 398 LC) and commercial travellers and sales representatives (art. 410 LC) varies between one and three months.
                                                                                                                                                                                  _________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                  Les employeurs et les employés sont tenus de donner un préavis écrit d'un mois. L'article 14bis du Code du travail dispose que "le préavis de rupture du contrat de travail à durée indéterminée est notifié par lettre recommandée adressée à l'autre partie un mois avant la rupture du contrat (...) le tout sans préjudice des prescriptions plus avantageuses pour le travailleur résultant de dispositions spéciales prévues par l'accord des parties, la convention collective ou l'usage."
                                                                                                                                                                                  Par exemple, le délai de préavis pour les journalistes (art. 398 LC) et les voyageurs commerciaux et représentants commerciaux (art. 410 LC) varie entre un et trois mois.
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                    • 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                  • The LC is silent with respect to pay in lieu of notice.
                                                                                                                                                                                    However, art. 16 of the CFA stipulates that, in the event notice is not observed, the amount of compensation to be paid must at least be equal to wages payable for the length of notice period or for the remaining period of notice (art. 16 FCA).
                                                                                                                                                                                    ___________________________
                                                                                                                                                                                    Le Code du travail ne fait pas référence à l'indemnité compensatoire de préavis. Toutefois, l'art. 16 de la Convention Collective (1973) stipule que' "en cas d'inobservation du délai - congé par la partie qui a pris l'initiative de la rupture, l'indemnité sera au moins égale au salaire effectif correspondant à la -durée du délai - congé ou à la période du délai - congé restant à courir."

                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Except for protected workers.
                                                                                                                                                                                    __________________
                                                                                                                                                                                    Sauf pour les catégories de travailleurs protégés

                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Except for protected workers.
                                                                                                                                                                                    __________________
                                                                                                                                                                                    Sauf pour les catégories de travailleurs protégés

                                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Turkey - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Art. 19 LA provides that the notice of termination for employees, who are covered by the job security provision, shall be given by the employer in written form. Besides, the employer is obliged to specify the ground of termination clearly and definitely.
                                                                                                                                                                                    [Art. 19 LA also requires the employer to allow an employee under a contract with an indefinite duration to defend himself against the allegations made against him or her in the event of dismissal for reasons related to the worker's conduct or performance].

                                                                                                                                                                                    The notice form for the termination of employees excluded from the job security provisions is not specified.

                                                                                                                                                                                    The 2012 Code of Obligations -that regulates the contract of workers not covered by the Labour Act- provides that, in relation to termination of employment related to the marketing facilities agreements, if the commission paid to the employee comprises at least one-fifth of the salary and the commission is influenced by seasonal fluctuations, the employer is entitled to terminate the employment contract as of the expiration of the former season with two months' notice prior to the start of the new season. At the same time, the employee is also entitled to terminate the contract with two months' notice before the start of the new season if he or she has worked until the end of the former season and also continued to work after the season. Nevertheless, the new Code of obligations doesn't provide any specific form of notification to the worker to be dismissed.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Art. 17 LA:
                                                                                                                                                                                    The notice period to be observed by the employer before terminating a contract of indefinite duration varies according to the employee's length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                    - 2 weeks if the employee has been employed for less than 6 months;
                                                                                                                                                                                    - 4 weeks if the employee has been employed for at least 6 months but less that one-and-a-half years;
                                                                                                                                                                                    - 6 weeks if the employee has been employed for at least one-and-a-half years but less than 3 years;
                                                                                                                                                                                    - 8 weeks if the employee has been employed for more than 3 years.
                                                                                                                                                                                    These are minimum periods and may be increased by contracts between the parties.
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 6 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 8 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 8 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 8 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                      • 8 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Art. 11 LA.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                    • According Art. 9 of the Code of Social Insurance and Universal Health, the Presidency of the Social Security Institution shall be notified by the employer within maximum ten days after termination of the employment contract.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Note: This notification obligation also applies to any recruitment.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Notes / Remarks
                                                                                                                                                                                    The notice requirements apply to both employees covered by the job security provisions (termination with a valid reason) and those not covered by such provisions (no justification required).
                                                                                                                                                                                    As mentioned above, the job security provision applies to employees who fulfil all the following criteria:the employee is engaged for an indefinite period, and; the employee has worked for at least 6 months, and; the employee works in an establishment with at least 30 employees.
                                                                                                                                                                                    When terminating a contract for a just cause ("breaking of the contract) for reasons related to health, misconduct, force majeure, arrest and custody, as listed in Art. 25, the employer does not have to observe any notice requirements.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Turkmenistan - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Art. 44 LC

                                                                                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                        • non economic dismissal - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 44(2) LC

                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives

                                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Uganda - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 58(2) EA: establishes a requirement for written notice of termination, which must be in a form and language that the employee it relates to can be reasonably expected to understand.

                                                                                                                                                                                        In addition, according to Art. 66 EA, the employer must conduct a preliminary hearing with the employee and another person of his or her choice before reaching a decision to dismiss that employee on the grounds of misconduct or poor performance. During, this hearing, the employer shall explain to the employee the reasons for which he or she is considering dismissing him or her.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 58(3) EA: Statutory minimum notice period are established according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                        - at least 2 weeks, for a period of service of more than 6 months but less than 1 year;
                                                                                                                                                                                        - at least 1 month, for a period of service of more than 12 months but less than 5 years;
                                                                                                                                                                                        - at least 2 months, for a period of service of more than 5 months but less than 10 years;
                                                                                                                                                                                        - at least 3 months, for a period of service of 10 years or more.
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 3 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                          • 3 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 58(5) EA.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                        • No general obligation to notify the worker's representatives. However, prior to any dismissal on the grounds of misconduct or poor performance, the employer must explain the reason for the planned dismissal to the employee, and the employee is entitled to have another person of his/her choice present during the explanation. Before reaching a decision on the dismissal, the employer must hear and consider any representation the employee and the person chosen by him/her, if any, may make (sec. 66(1) and (2) EA).

                                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                        United Arab Emirates - 2013    

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 117 FLLR.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Art. 117 FLLR provides that either party may terminate a contract of unlimited duration for a valid reason at any time provided that written notice is given to the other party at least 30 days prior to termination.
                                                                                                                                                                                          In respect of employees paid on a daily-basis, the period of notice is as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                          - one week in the employee has worked for more than six months but less than one year;
                                                                                                                                                                                          - two weeks if the employee has worked for at least one year;
                                                                                                                                                                                          - one month if the employee has worked for at least five years.
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                          • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                            • 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • workers paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate - 1 month(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                          Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Art. 119 FLLR.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Notification is however required in the event of a dismissal of national employees (which only account for a small percentage of the workforce in the private sector). Under art.1.3 of the Ministerial Resolution No. 176 of 2009 "Restricting the Dismissal of UAE National Employees", the dismissal of a UAE national in unlawful if the employer failed to inform the Ministry of Labour at least 30 days prior to the dismissal or fails to comply with the Ministry's instructions within the designated times.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                          United Kingdom - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                          • No specific form required for dismissal notification.
                                                                                                                                                                                            The ERA only provides for the right to a written statement of the reasons for dismissal upon request (sec. 92).

                                                                                                                                                                                          Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                          Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sec. 86 ERA establishes minimum notice periods according to the length of service, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                            - one week, if the employee has been continuously employed for at least 1 month but less than two years;
                                                                                                                                                                                            - one week for each year of continuous employment if the period of continuous employment is between two and 12 years; and
                                                                                                                                                                                            - 12 weeks if the period of continuous employment is 12 years or more.
                                                                                                                                                                                            No notice needs to be given if the employee has been employed for less than 1 month.
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 2 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 4 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 5 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 10 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                            • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                              • 12 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                            • There is no statutory right to pay in lieu of notice. However, a pay in lieu of notice clause can be inserted in the employment contract or it may be paid to cover any potential damages for breach of contract
                                                                                                                                                                                              See also sec. 88 (1) a) ERA that provides that "If an employee has normal working hours under the contract of employment in force during the period of notice and during any part of those normal working hours the employee is ready and willing to work but no work is provided for him by his employer (...) the employer is liable to pay the employee for the part of normal working hours a sum not less than the amount of remuneration for that part of normal working hours calculated at the average hourly rate of remuneration produced by dividing a week's pay by the number of normal working hours."

                                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                            United States - 2017    

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                            • As a general matter, there is no legislative requirement for notice of any kind when an employer dismisses an individual employee. Such notice requirements may be incorporated into a private contract of employment or a collective-bargaining agreement for employees represented by a union.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                            Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                            • There is no legislative requirement in regard to notice of termination for an individual employee, regardless the employee's tenure. However, collective-bargaining agreements and private employment contracts may contain such provisions.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Uzbekistan - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Art. 102 LC

                                                                                                                                                                                              Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                              Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Art. 102 LC provides for the following notice period: 2 months in cases of the termination due to changes in technology, production and labor organization, reduced volumes of work that resulted in changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, or in connection with the liquidation of the company as well as in connection with reaching the retirement age when the employee has the right to receive the state pension; 2 weeks when the termination occurred due to employees' incapability to perform the work because of lack of qualifications or health status; 3 days when terminated due to the employee's own culpable conduct (a single gross or a systematic violation of labour discipline).

                                                                                                                                                                                                However, art. 102 also states that the two-month and three-day notice period may be replaced by corresponding compensation at the employer's discretion. The two-week notice stipulated above shall not be given when an employment agreement is terminated due to the employee's inability to perform the duties of his or her job for health reasons where there is a medical certificate confirming that the job is contraindicated to the employee. In this case, the employee shall be paid compensation in the amount of two weeks' wages.
                                                                                                                                                                                                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • economic dismissal - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • dismissal not based on conduct - 2 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • dismissal based on conduct (excl. serious wrongdoings) - 3 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • dismissal based on worker's capacity - 2 week(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                                Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                • According to the Art. 102 LC in cases of termination of employment by the employer the notice period can be replaced with the monetary compensation corresponding to the duration of notice, at the employer's discretion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the public administration: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Art. 102 LC states that the employer is obliged to inform the local authority of labour, not later than two months before the termination, on the upcoming dismissal and to provide data of each employee, indicating his profession, qualifications and wages

                                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Art. 101 LC

                                                                                                                                                                                                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Art. 101 LC states that the termination of the employment contract by the employer is not allowed without the prior consent of the trade union committee or other representative body of employees, in the case when the obligation for such consent is provided by collective agreement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The trade union committee or other representative body of employees must notify the employer in writing of its decision within ten days of receipt of the written submission on the intention of termination.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  An employer may terminate an employment contract within one month from the date of the trade union's committee or other representative's body of employees decision to consent to the termination of employment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                                Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                                Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                • No notice period is necessary in cases of dismissal for just cause. (art. 82 OLL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ____________
                                                                                                                                                                                                  In Spanish:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Artículo 82. "Cualquiera de las partes podrá dar por terminada la reladón de trabajo, sin previo aviso, cuando exista causa justificada para llo. Esta causa no podrá invocarse si hubieren transcurrido treinta días continuos desde aquel en que el patrono, la oatrona o el trabajador o la trabajadora haya tenido o debido tener conocimiento del hecho que constituya causa justificada, para terminar la relación por voluntad unilateral."

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • There is no pay in lieu of notice because there is no notice foreseen in OLL.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • • Under the OLL, there is no general obligation to notify the labour administration prior to any dismissal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    However, any dismissal of a worker protected by job stability must be notified to the competent labour judge within five business days of the date of the dismissal, with an indication of the reasons. . (= post-dismissal notification to a judicial body)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the absence of such notification, the dismissal will be deemed unjustified (art. 89 OLL).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    The employer is not bound to observe such requirement when dismissing managers and permanent employees with less than 1 month's service.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to and authorization from the Labour Inspector is required for workers enjoying special protection (see art. 449 OLL on the general special protection against dismissal for trade union related activities (fuero sindical), on the categories of workers entitled to such protection see: art. 419 OLL ; on special protection not related to trade union activities see art. 420 OLL; on special protection for pregnant women, women on maternity leave and paternity leave, see: art. 335 and 339, on special protection during the authorized period of suspension of the employment relationship, art 420 together with art 72 OLL.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    HOWEVER, the above mentioned protection has been extended to a large number of workers by the so-called "Immunity Decrees" (Decree No. 3.708 for the year 2018). These are: all workers covered by the Labour Code except managers, workers with less than three months' seniority, employees in positions of trust, and workers who earn more than three times the minimum wage. Under the immunity decree, a worker can only be dismissed for a just cause previously approved by the Labour Inspector.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Art. 89 OLL: When the employer dismisses one or more workers protected by employment stability), he/she will have to notify it to the pertinent judge stating the causes that justify the dismissal in the following five working days, otherwise it will be considered a dismissal without just cause by the employer itself.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Art. 90 OLL: The judge will have to orally decide on the dismissal, and state if there is right to reinstatement and if the worker must be paid a compensation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ______________________
                                                                                                                                                                                                    In Spanish:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Artículo 89 OLL. "Cuando el patrono o patrona despida a uno o más trabajadores o trabajadoras amparados o amparadas por estabilidad laboral deberá participarlo al Juez o la Jueza de Sustanciación, Mediación y Ejecución de su jurisdicción, indicando las causas que justifiquen el despido, dentro de los cinco días hábiles siguientes, de no hacerlo se le tendrá por confeso, en el reconocimiento que el despido lo hizo sin justa causa. (...)"
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Artículo 90. "El Juez o Jueza de Juicio deberá decidir de manera oral sobre el fondo de la causa y declarar con o sin lugar la solicitud de reenganche y el pago de los salarios caídos."

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Viet Nam - 2012    

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Art. 38 (3) LC stipulates that the employer shall notify the worker of the dismissal but does not specify whether such notification shall be written.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Art: 38 (3) LC: The employer must give at least 45 days' notice for an indefinite duration contract, 30 days' notice for a fixed-term contract, and three days' notice for a seasonal or specific-task contract. These requirements apply to all forms of unilateral termination, except when the employer is using dismissal as a disciplinary measure.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • permanent workers - 45 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Art. 41 (4) LC

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • No general obligation to notify.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      However, before dismissing an employee due to poor performance, disciplinary measures, or illness, the employer must consult with the executive committee of the enterprise trade union with the aim of coming to an agreement. In case of disagreement, the two parties must report to the local branch of the State administration of labour: art. 38 (2) LC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Art. 38 (2) LC: Before an employer can dismiss an employee due to poor performance, disciplinary measures, or illness, he must consult with the executive committee of the enterprise trade union with the aim of coming to an agreement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yemen - 2013    

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • No specific form of notice required in Art. 38 LC. This provision only stipulates that "a party wishing to terminate the contract shall give the other party prior notice of termination".

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The length of the notice period to be observed by either party is not set according to the length of service but according to the pay period, as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      - 30 days for workers with monthly wages;
                                                                                                                                                                                                      - 15 days for workers with half-monthly wages,
                                                                                                                                                                                                      - one week for workers working on the basis of production or piece work, or hourly or daily or weekly rates (art. 38(3) LC).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • monthly paid workers - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • hourly, daily or weekly paid workers - 1 week(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • fortnightly paid workers - 15 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Art. 38(1) LC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • No mandatory notification. However, art. 38(2) LC stipulates that "if either party refuses to receive notice of termination of the contract, the notice may be deposited with the Ministry or one of its offices".

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Zambia - 2019    

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: no specific form required

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sec. 20(3) EA: Notice to terminate an oral contract may be either verbal or written.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notice period:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Oral contract:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        - Sec. 20 (2) EA provides that in the absence of any agreement providing for a period of notice of longer duration, the length of such notice shall be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (a) subject to the provisions of paragraph (b), twenty-four hours where the contract is for a period of less than a week;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (b) fourteen days where the contract is a daily contract under which, by agreement or custom, wages are payable not at the end of the day, but at intervals not exceeding one month;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (c) thirty days where the contract is for a period of one week or more".
                                                                                                                                                                                                        - The notice period to be given to the employee in the event of termination by redundancy is 1 month (see sec. 10 MWCEGO and sec. 9 MWCESO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • oral contract ≥ 1 week - non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • oral contract ≥ 1 week - non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • oral contract ≥ 1 week - non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • oral contract ≥ 1 week - non economic dismissal - 30 day(s).

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sec. 21 EA:
                                                                                                                                                                                                          "Either party to an oral contract of service may terminate such contract-
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (a) in the case of a contract which may be terminated without notice, by payment to the other party of a sum equal to all wages and other benefits that would have been due to the employee if he had continued to work until the end of the contract period;
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (b) in any other case, by payment to the other party of a sum equal to all wages and other benefits that would have been due to the employee at the termination of the employment had notice to terminate the same been given on the date of payment."
                                                                                                                                                                                                          See also sec. 19 (b) EA: "Each party to an oral contract for a period not exceeding one month shall, on the termination of such contract, be conclusively presumed to have entered into a new oral contract for a further period of the same duration and subject to the same terms and conditions as those of the contract then terminated unless-
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (b) the contract has been terminated by payment in lieu of notice".

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to the public administration: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Except in the event of individual termination by reason of redundancy (sec. 26B(2) EA, see below - collective dismissal)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Remarks:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Except in the event of individual termination by reason of redundancy (sec. 26B(2) EA, see below - collective dismissal)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approval by workers' representatives: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Notes / Remarks
                                                                                                                                                                                                        - This section deals with individual terminations of oral contracts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Termination of written contracts is regulated by sec. 36 EA which reads as follows: "(1) A written contract of service shall be terminated
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (a) by the expiry of the term for which it is expressed to be made; or
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (b) by the death of the employee before such expiry; or
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (c) in any other manner in which a contract of service may be lawfully terminated or deemed to be terminated whether under the provisions of this Act or otherwise except that where the termination is at the initiative of the employer, the employer shall give reasons to the employee for the termination of that employee’s employment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (2) Where owing to sickness or accident an employee is unable to fulfill a written contract of service, the contract may be terminated on the report of a registered medical practitioner.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (3) The contract of service of an employee shall not be terminated unless there is a valid reason for the termination connected with the capacity, conduct of the employee or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (4) Reasons that are not valid for termination of contracts include
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (a) union membership or participation in union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of the employer, within working hours;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (b) seeking office as, acting or having acted in the capacity of, an employee’s representatives;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (c) the filing of a complaint, the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws or recourse to administrative authorities;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (d) race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion or affiliation, ethnicity, tribal affiliation or social status of the employee; or
                                                                                                                                                                                                        (e)absence from work during leave or a rest period in accordance with a written law. "

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No further information is given as to termination of a written contract.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        - Individual terminations for reason of redundancy are dealt with under the section on collective dismissals.