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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Philippines

Philippines - Procedural requirements for individual dismissals


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Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks:
  • Art. 292 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6. (in cases of regular employment).

Notice period:
Remarks:
  • Employees with regular employment contracts can only be dismissed for a just cause or an authorized cause (art. 13 (3) of the Constitution and art. 294 LC).
    The LC establishes a distinction between dismissal for just cause and dismissal for authorized cause.
    - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC).
    - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297, LC).
    There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons under LC.
    See however, Art. 292 b) LC: The employer shall furnish the worker whose employment is sought to be terminated a written notice containing a statement of the causes for termination and shall afford the latter ample opportunity to be heard and to defend himself with the assistance of a representative if he so desires in accordance with company rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to guidelines set by the Department of Labour and Employment. The written notice containing an explanation should be provided within 5 days [King of Kings Transport vs. Tinga and Velasco, G.R. 166208]
    The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC).

    Art. 148 LC (house helpers): If the duration of the household service is not determined either in stipulation or by the nature of the service, the employer or the house helper may give notice to put an end to the relationships five days before the intended termination of the service.
    • tenure ≥ 6 months
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 9 months
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 2 years
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 4 years
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 5 years
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 10 years
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
    • tenure ≥ 20 years
      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

    Pay in lieu of notice: No

    Notification to the public administration: No

    Remarks:
    • No general obligation to notify the administration.
      - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
      Note: for a dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee’s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 299 LC; sec. 8 of Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).

    Notification to workers' representatives: No

    Remarks:
    • Art. 298 LC (former art. 283 LC):: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

      However, "YES" for parties to a collective bargaining agreement (CBA). Although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.
      Art. 273 of LC (grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration) : It is mandatory for the parties to a collective bargaining agreement to establish a machinery for the adjustment and resolution of grievances arising from the intepretation or implementation of their collective agreement and those arising from the intepretation or enforcement of company personnel policies.
      Art. 267 of LC : Without undermining union’s exclusive bargaining representation of the employees for the purpose of collective bargaining, and individual employee or group of employees shall have the right at any time to present grievances to the employer [...] Workers shall have the right to participate in policy and decision-making processes of the establishment where they are employed insofar as said processes will directly affect teir rights, benefits and welfare. For these purposes, workers may form labour-management councils (LMC) provided that the representatives of the workers insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights, beneftis and welfare.

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    + show references

    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

    Remarks:
    • Art. 292 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6. (in cases of regular employment).

    Notice period:
    Remarks:
    • Employees with regular employment contracts can only be dismissed for a just cause or an authorized cause (art. 13 (3) of the Constitution and art. 294 LC).
      The LC establishes a distinction between dismissal for just cause and dismissal for authorized cause.
      - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC).
      - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297, LC).
      There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons under LC.
      See however, Art. 292 b) LC: The employer shall furnish the worker whose employment is sought to be terminated a written notice containing a statement of the causes for termination and shall afford the latter ample opportunity to be heard and to defend himself with the assistance of a representative if he so desires in accordance with company rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to guidelines set by the Department of Labour and Employment. The written notice containing an explanation should be provided within 5 days [King of Kings Transport vs. Tinga and Velasco, G.R. 166208]
      The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC).

      Art. 148 LC (house helpers): If the duration of the household service is not determined either in stipulation or by the nature of the service, the employer or the house helper may give notice to put an end to the relationships five days before the intended termination of the service.
      • tenure ≥ 6 months
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 9 months
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 2 years
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 4 years
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 5 years
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 10 years
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
      • tenure ≥ 20 years
        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

      Pay in lieu of notice: No

      Notification to the public administration: No

      Remarks:
      • No general obligation to notify the administration.
        - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
        Note: for a dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee’s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 299 LC; sec. 8 of Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).

      Notification to workers' representatives: No

      Remarks:
      • Art. 298 LC (former art. 283 LC):: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.
        However, although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.
        Art. 273 of LC (grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration) : It is mandatory for the parties to a collective bargaining agreement to establish a machinery for the adjustment and resolution of grievances arising from the intepretation or implementation of their collective agreement and those arising from the intepretation or enforcement of company personnel policies.
        Art. 267 of LC : Without undermining union’s exclusive bargaining representation of the employees for the purpose of collective bargaining, and individual employee or group of employees shall have the right at any time to present grievances to the employer [...] Workers shall have the right to participate in policy and decision-making processes of the establishment where they are employed insofar as said processes will directly affect teir rights, benefits and welfare. For these purposes, workers may form labour-management councils (LMC) provided that the representatives of the workers insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights, beneftis and welfare.

      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

      Approval by workers' representatives: No

      + show references

      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

      Remarks:
      • Art. 292 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6. (in cases of regular employment).

      Notice period:
      Remarks:
      • Employees with regular employment contracts can only be dismissed for a just cause or an authorized cause (art. 13 (3) of the Constitution and art. 294 LC).
        The LC establishes a distinction between dismissal for just cause and dismissal for authorized cause.
        - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC).
        - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297, LC).
        There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons under LC.
        See however, Art. 292 b) LC: The employer shall furnish the worker whose employment is sought to be terminated a written notice containing a statement of the causes for termination and shall afford the latter ample opportunity to be heard and to defend himself with the assistance of a representative if he so desires in accordance with company rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to guidelines set by the Department of Labour and Employment. The written notice containing an explanation should be provided within 5 days [King of Kings Transport vs. Tinga and Velasco, G.R. 166208]
        The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC).

        Art. 148 LC (house helpers): If the duration of the household service is not determined either in stipulation or by the nature of the service, the employer or the house helper may give notice to put an end to the relationships five days before the intended termination of the service.
        • tenure ≥ 6 months
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 9 months
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 2 years
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 4 years
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 5 years
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 10 years
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
        • tenure ≥ 20 years
          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

        Pay in lieu of notice: No

        Notification to the public administration: No

        Remarks:
        • No general obligation to notify the administration.
          - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
          Note: for a dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee’s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 299 LC; sec. 8 of Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).

        Notification to workers' representatives: No

        Remarks:
        • Art. 298 LC (former art. 283 LC):: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.
          However, although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.
          Art. 273 of LC (grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration) : It is mandatory for the parties to a collective bargaining agreement to establish a machinery for the adjustment and resolution of grievances arising from the intepretation or implementation of their collective agreement and those arising from the intepretation or enforcement of company personnel policies.
          Art. 267 of LC : Without undermining union’s exclusive bargaining representation of the employees for the purpose of collective bargaining, and individual employee or group of employees shall have the right at any time to present grievances to the employer [...] Workers shall have the right to participate in policy and decision-making processes of the establishment where they are employed insofar as said processes will directly affect teir rights, benefits and welfare. For these purposes, workers may form labour-management councils (LMC) provided that the representatives of the workers insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights, beneftis and welfare.

        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

        Approval by workers' representatives: No

        + show references

        Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

        Remarks:
        • Art. 292 b) LC (former art. 277 b) LC). See also Omnibus Implementing Rules, as amended, Book VI, Rule I-A, sec. 5.1 of the .

        Notice period:
        Remarks:
        • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
          - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC – former art. 283 and 284 LC).
          - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297 LC – former art. 282, LC).
          There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
          The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC – former art. 283 LC).
          • tenure ≥ 6 months
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 9 months
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 2 years
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 4 years
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 5 years
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 10 years
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
          • tenure ≥ 20 years
            • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

          Pay in lieu of notice: No

          Notification to the public administration: No

          Remarks:
          • No general obligation to notify the administration.
            - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
            ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee’s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical (art. 299 LC – former art. 284 LC; Omnibus Rules Implementing The Labor Code, as amended, Book VI)).- Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 298 LC (former art. 283 LC).

          Notification to workers' representatives: No

          Remarks:
          • Although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.

          Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

          Approval by workers' representatives: No

          + show references

          Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

          Remarks:
          • Art. 292 b) LC ( former art 277 b) LC). See also Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

          Notice period:
          Remarks:
          • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
            - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC – former art. 283 and 284 LC).
            - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297 LC – former art. 282, LC).
            There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
            The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC – former art. 283 LC).
            • tenure ≥ 6 months
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 9 months
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 2 years
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 4 years
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 5 years
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 10 years
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
            • tenure ≥ 20 years
              • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

            Pay in lieu of notice: No

            Notification to the public administration: No

            Remarks:
            • No general obligation to notify the administration.
              - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
              ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 299 LC – former art. 284 LC; Omnibus Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
              - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 298 LC ( former art. 283 LC).

            Notification to workers' representatives: No

            Remarks:
            • Although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.

            Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

            Approval by workers' representatives: No

            + show references

            Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

            Remarks:
            • Art. 292 b) LC (former art. 277 b) LC). See also Omnibus Implementing Rules, as amended, Book VI, Rule I-A, sec. 5.1 of the .

            Notice period:
            Remarks:
            • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
              - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 298 and 299 LC -former art. 283 and 284 LC).
              - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 297 LC -former art. 282, LC).
              There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
              The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 298 LC -former art. 283 LC).
              • tenure ≥ 6 months
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 9 months
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 2 years
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 4 years
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 5 years
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 10 years
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
              • tenure ≥ 20 years
                • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

              Pay in lieu of notice: No

              Notification to the public administration: No

              Remarks:
              • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee’s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 299 LC – former art. 284 LC; Omnibus Rules Implementing The Labor Code, as amended, Book VI)).- Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 298 LC (former art. 283 LC).

              Notification to workers' representatives: No

              Remarks:
              • Although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.

              Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

              Approval by workers' representatives: No

              + show references

              Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

              Remarks:
              • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

              Notice period:
              Remarks:
              • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                • tenure ≥ 6 months
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 9 months
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 2 years
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 4 years
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 5 years
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 10 years
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                • tenure ≥ 20 years
                  • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                Pay in lieu of notice: No

                Notification to the public administration: No

                Remarks:
                • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                  - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                  ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                  - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                Notification to workers' representatives: No

                Remarks:
                • Although there is no provision in LC requiring notification to workers’ representatives, mandatory grievance machinery is applicable to parties to a collective agreement. This means that, as a first step, handling disputes must involve union shop stewards/unions.

                Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                Approval by workers' representatives: No

                + show references

                Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                Remarks:
                • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

                Notice period:
                Remarks:
                • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                  - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                  - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                  There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                  The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                  • tenure ≥ 6 months
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 9 months
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 2 years
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 4 years
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 5 years
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 10 years
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                  • tenure ≥ 20 years
                    • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                  Pay in lieu of notice: No

                  Notification to the public administration: No

                  Remarks:
                  • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                    - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                    ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                    - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                  Notification to workers' representatives: No

                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 283 LC: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

                  Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                  Approval by workers' representatives: No

                  + show references

                  Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                  Remarks:
                  • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

                  Notice period:
                  Remarks:
                  • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                    - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                    - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                    There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                    The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                    • tenure ≥ 6 months
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 9 months
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 2 years
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 4 years
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 5 years
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 10 years
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                    • tenure ≥ 20 years
                      • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                    Pay in lieu of notice: No

                    Notification to the public administration: No

                    Remarks:
                    • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                      - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                      ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                      - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                    Notification to workers' representatives: No

                    Remarks:
                    • Art. 283 LC: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

                    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                    Approval by workers' representatives: No

                    + show references

                    Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                    Remarks:
                    • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

                    Notice period:
                    Remarks:
                    • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                      - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                      - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                      There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                      The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                      • tenure ≥ 6 months
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 9 months
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 2 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 4 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 5 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 10 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                      • tenure ≥ 20 years
                        • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                      Pay in lieu of notice: No

                      Notification to the public administration: No

                      Remarks:
                      • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                        - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                        ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                        - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                      Notification to workers' representatives: No

                      Remarks:
                      • Art. 283 LC: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

                      Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                      Approval by workers' representatives: No

                      + show references

                      Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

                      Remarks:
                      • Art. 277 b) LC. See aslo Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 6.

                      Notice period:
                      Remarks:
                      • The LC establishes a distinction between a dismissal for a just cause and a dismissal for an authorized cause.
                        - Authorized causes are of two types: business reasons and disease (art. 283 and 284 LC).
                        - Just causes are blameworthy acts on the part of the employee such as serious misconduct, wilful disobedience, gross and habitual neglect of duties, fraud or wilful breach of trust, commission of a crime and other analogous causes (art. 282, LC).
                        There is no notice period prior to a dismissal for a just cause or for health reasons.
                        The employer is only required to give a one-month notice to the employee in the event of termination for business reasons (art. 283 LC).
                        • tenure ≥ 6 months
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 9 months
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 2 years
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 4 years
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 5 years
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 10 years
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).
                        • tenure ≥ 20 years
                          • economic dismissal - 1 month(s).

                        Pay in lieu of notice: No

                        Notification to the public administration: No

                        Remarks:
                        • No general obligation to notify the administration.
                          - No notification required in the event of a dismissal for a just cause.
                          ( Please not that, for dismissal based on the grounds of disease, there is no mandatory notification at the time of dismissal. However, before the employer can terminate on the ground of disease, he must obtain from a competent public health authority a certification that the employee¿s disease is of such a nature and at such a stage that it can no longer be cured within a period of six months even with medical attention (art. 284 LC; Implementing Rules of Book VI, LC)).
                          - Notification is mandatory in cases of economic dismissals (closure if an establishment or reduction of the workforce and dismissal due to disease): art. 283 LC.

                        Notification to workers' representatives: No

                        Remarks:
                        • Art. 283 LC: Notice shall be served to the workers and the administration. No mention of worker's representatives.

                        Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

                        Approval by workers' representatives: No