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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Hungary

Hungary - Types of employment contracts


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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • • Pursuant to sec. 45(5) LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months from the date of commencement of the employment relationship. In the event that a shorter trial period has been stipulated, the parties may extend the trial period once. In either case, the duration of the trial period may not exceed three months. According to sec. 50(4) and 277(2) of the LC, a collective agreement may extend the term of the trial period, but it still may not exceed six months. Such an extension may be included in a works agreement as well provided that the employer is not covered by the collective agreement, or there is no trade union at the employer with entitlement to conclude a collective agreement (LC, sec. 268(1)).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time. However, a fixed-term employment relationship may be extended, or another fixed-term employment relationship may be concluded within six months from the time of termination of the previous one only upon the employer’s legitimate interests. The agreement may not infringe upon the employee’s legitimate interest (LC, sec. 192(4)).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The duration of a fixed-term employment relationship may not exceed five years, including the duration of an extended relationship and that of another fixed-term employment relationship concluded within six months of the termination of the previous fixed-term employment relationship.

      Where an employment relationship is subject to official authorization, it may only be concluded for the duration specified in the authorization. If the authorization is extended, the duration of the new fixed-term employment relationship may exceed five years together with the duration of the previous employment relationship. (LC, sec. 192(2)(3))
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Central Statistical Office (Hungary), for the year 2017.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.

      Figures are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • • Pursuant to sec. 45(5) LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months from the date of commencement of the employment relationship. In the event that a shorter trial period has been stipulated, the parties may extend the trial period once. In either case, the duration of the trial period may not exceed three months. According to sec. 50(4) and 277(2) of the LC, a collective agreement may extend the term of the trial period, but it still may not exceed six months. Such an extension may be included in a works agreement as well provided that the employer is not covered by the collective agreement, or there is no trade union at the employer with entitlement to conclude a collective agreement (LC, sec. 268(1)).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time. However, a fixed-term employment relationship may be extended, or another fixed-term employment relationship may be concluded within six months from the time of termination of the previous one only upon the employer’s legitimate interests. The agreement may not infringe upon the employee’s legitimate interest (LC, sec. 192(4)).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The duration of a fixed-term employment relationship may not exceed five years, including the duration of an extended relationship and that of another fixed-term employment relationship concluded within six months of the termination of the previous fixed-term employment relationship.

      Where an employment relationship is subject to official authorization, it may only be concluded for the duration specified in the authorization. If the authorization is extended, the duration of the new fixed-term employment relationship may exceed five years together with the duration of the previous employment relationship. (LC, sec. 192(2)(3))
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Central Statistical Office (Hungary), for the year 2017.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.

      Figures are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • • Pursuant to sec. 45(5) LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months from the date of commencement of the employment relationship. In the event that a shorter trial period has been stipulated, the parties may extend the trial period once. In either case, the duration of the trial period may not exceed three months. According to sec. 50(4) and 277(2) of the LC, a collective agreement may extend the term of the trial period, but it still may not exceed six months. Such an extension may be included in a works agreement as well provided that the employer is not covered by the collective agreement, or there is no trade union at the employer with entitlement to conclude a collective agreement (LC, sec. 268(1)).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time. However, a fixed-term employment relationship may be extended, or another fixed-term employment relationship may be concluded within six months from the time of termination of the previous one only upon the employer’s legitimate interests. The agreement may not infringe upon the employee’s legitimate interest (LC, sec. 192(4)).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The duration of a fixed-term employment relationship may not exceed five years, including the duration of an extended relationship and that of another fixed-term employment relationship concluded within six months of the termination of the previous fixed-term employment relationship.

      Where an employment relationship is subject to official authorization, it may only be concluded for the duration specified in the authorization. If the authorization is extended, the duration of the new fixed-term employment relationship may exceed five years together with the duration of the previous employment relationship. (LC, sec. 192(2)(3))
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Central Statistical Office (Hungary), for the year 2017.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.

      Figures are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 192 (2) LC
      In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 192 (2) LC
      In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 10.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2015.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 192 (2) LC
      In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 9.6 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 192 (2) LC
      In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 9.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2013.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 192 (2) LC
      In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 9.6 %
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second trimester 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 81 LC, the trial period shall be 30 days. It can however be extended to a maximum of 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 79 2) - 7) LC).
      However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 79 (5) LC.
      However, this restriction does not apply to executives employees (sec. 190 (1) LC).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.8 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of fourth trimester 2011.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 81 LC, the trial period shall be 30 days. It can however be extended to a maximum of 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 79 2) - 7) LC).
      However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 79 (5) LC.
      However, this restriction does not apply to executives employees (sec. 190 (1) LC).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.6 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of first trimester 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Pursuant to sec. 81 LC, the trial period shall be 30 days. It can however be extended to a maximum of 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 79 2) - 7) LC).
      However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee is deemed established for an indefinite duration (sec. 79 (4) LC).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 79 (5) LC.
      However, this restriction does not apply to executives employees (sec. 190 (1) LC).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, 2009 (annual average).
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."