ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations
ILO-en-strap
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us franšais | español
> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > United Kingdom

United Kingdom - Types of employment contracts


+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2015.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.3 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2013.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded fiom the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA.
    New as of 6 April 2012:
    Sec. 108 ERA has been amended by the Unfair Dismissal and Statement of Reasons for Dismissal (Variation of Qualifying Period) Order 2012. As a result, the qualifying period of employment has been extended from 1 year to 2 years.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 6.3 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, third trimester 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded from the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA. The qualifying period of employment is one year.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 6.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2011.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded from the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA. The qualifying period of employment is one year.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 6.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The ERA does not regulate the probationary period as such. However, it provides for a "qualifying period of employment" which is comparable to the probationary period insofar as employees are excluded from the protection against unfair dismissal during that period of time (sec. 108) ERA. The qualifying period of employment is one year.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • FTCs are regulated by the Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER].
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • The Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 [FTER], with effect from 1st October 2002 stipulate that a fixed-term employee shall become a permanent employee after four years of continuous employment under one or successive fixed-term contracts (reg. 8 (2) a)).
      However, this statutory four-year limit does not apply if employment on a fixed-term contract can be justified on objective grounds, or if the period of four years has been lengthened under a collective or workplace agreement (reg. 8 (2) b) and 8 (5) FTER).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 5.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."