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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Turkey

Turkey - Types of employment contracts


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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: The parties can agree on a probationary clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. During the probationary period, the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    Note: Employees with less than 6 months' service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (Art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A fixed-term contract shall be based on objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event.
      An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning. Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: the parties can agree to a trial clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. Within the trial period the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    It is worth noting that employees with less than 6 month's service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A FTC shall be based on "objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event".
      "An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning.
      Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period".
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: the parties can agree to a trial clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. Within the trial period the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    It is worth noting that employees with less than 6 month's service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A FTC shall be based on "objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event".
      "An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning.
      Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period".
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15 LA: the parties can agree to a trial clause in the employment contract which shall not exceed 2 months. It can however be extended by collective agreement. Within the trial period the parties are free to terminate the contract without observing the notice requirements.
    It is worth noting that employees with less than 6 month's service are excluded from the job security provision which provides for protection against unjustified termination (art. 18 LA - see below valid grounds).

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LA: A FTC shall be based on "objective conditions like the completion of a certain work or the materialization of a certain event".
      "An employment contract for a definite period must not be concluded more than once, except when there is an essential reason which may necessitate repeated (chain) contracts. Otherwise, the employment contract is deemed to have been made for an indefinite period from the very beginning.
      Chain contracts based on essential reasons shall maintain their status as contracts made for a definite period".
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation provided that there is an essential reason for each renewal (art. 11 LA).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Data for the first trimester 2010: Employees with a contract of limited duration (% of total number of employees)
      Source: Eurostat
      Those statistics are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts".