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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Greece

Greece - Types of employment contracts


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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Since 2012: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).

      NOTE: The basic principles governing PD 180/2004 are as follows:
      - workers may be employed on fixed-term contracts to meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise (Article 3);
      - workers on fixed-term contracts must have completed 24 months of actual employment or three successive renewals of their initial fixed-term contract in order to be considered as having an open-ended contract (Article 3);
      - for a fixed-term employment contract to be renewed, the time since expiry of the previous contract may not exceed three months in public utilities and services and 45 days in the rest of the private sector (Article 3);
      - to be covered by the PD's provisions on conversion into open-ended contracts, the employment relationship of workers under fixed-term employment contracts must have been in effect on the date the PD was issued, or have expired within the three months preceding that date (Article 4).

      PD 180/2004 lengthen the interval between two successive employment contracts from 30 working days, as provided for in PD 81/2003, to 45 days. The exemptions that prevented certain categories of workers from converting fixed-term contracts into contracts of indefinite duration have been abolished, except for special conditions relating to air transport companies, which have been retained. The previous precondition of objective reasons for renewal of fixed-term employment contracts has also been restricted substantially. Therefore in order to convert 'wrongful' successive fixed-term employment relationships into open-ended ones, such contracts must meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise and fulfil the formal preconditions set by the PD, without there being a need for numerous objective reasons.
      (Source : EuroFound https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/mt/publications/article/2004/new-regulations-on-fixed-term-contracts-in-private-sector)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • 2 years under P.D. 81/2003 as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004 provides that the unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above). However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.

      However: 3 years under Law No. 3986/2011
      Under Law No. 3986/2011 (Urgent Measures for the Implementation of the Mid-term Financial Strategy Framework 2012-2015), if the duration of successive employment contracts exceeds three years in total, without being justified by specific reasons or needs provided by law, it is deemed that those contracts cover constant and permanent needs of the enterprise and consequently are of indefinite duration (art. 41).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2016
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Since 2012: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).

      NOTE: The basic principles governing PD 180/2004 are as follows:
      - workers may be employed on fixed-term contracts to meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise (Article 3);
      - workers on fixed-term contracts must have completed 24 months of actual employment or three successive renewals of their initial fixed-term contract in order to be considered as having an open-ended contract (Article 3);
      - for a fixed-term employment contract to be renewed, the time since expiry of the previous contract may not exceed three months in public utilities and services and 45 days in the rest of the private sector (Article 3);
      - to be covered by the PD's provisions on conversion into open-ended contracts, the employment relationship of workers under fixed-term employment contracts must have been in effect on the date the PD was issued, or have expired within the three months preceding that date (Article 4).

      PD 180/2004 lengthen the interval between two successive employment contracts from 30 working days, as provided for in PD 81/2003, to 45 days. The exemptions that prevented certain categories of workers from converting fixed-term contracts into contracts of indefinite duration have been abolished, except for special conditions relating to air transport companies, which have been retained. The previous precondition of objective reasons for renewal of fixed-term employment contracts has also been restricted substantially. Therefore in order to convert 'wrongful' successive fixed-term employment relationships into open-ended ones, such contracts must meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise and fulfil the formal preconditions set by the PD, without there being a need for numerous objective reasons.
      (Source : EuroFound https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/mt/publications/article/2004/new-regulations-on-fixed-term-contracts-in-private-sector)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • 2 years under P.D. 81/2003 as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004 provides that the unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above). However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.

      However: 3 years under Law No. 3986/2011
      Under Law No. 3986/2011 (Urgent Measures for the Implementation of the Mid-term Financial Strategy Framework 2012-2015), if the duration of successive employment contracts exceeds three years in total, without being justified by specific reasons or needs provided by law, it is deemed that those contracts cover constant and permanent needs of the enterprise and consequently are of indefinite duration (art. 41).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2016
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Since 2012: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).

      NOTE: The basic principles governing PD 180/2004 are as follows:
      - workers may be employed on fixed-term contracts to meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise (Article 3);
      - workers on fixed-term contracts must have completed 24 months of actual employment or three successive renewals of their initial fixed-term contract in order to be considered as having an open-ended contract (Article 3);
      - for a fixed-term employment contract to be renewed, the time since expiry of the previous contract may not exceed three months in public utilities and services and 45 days in the rest of the private sector (Article 3);
      - to be covered by the PD's provisions on conversion into open-ended contracts, the employment relationship of workers under fixed-term employment contracts must have been in effect on the date the PD was issued, or have expired within the three months preceding that date (Article 4).

      PD 180/2004 lengthen the interval between two successive employment contracts from 30 working days, as provided for in PD 81/2003, to 45 days. The exemptions that prevented certain categories of workers from converting fixed-term contracts into contracts of indefinite duration have been abolished, except for special conditions relating to air transport companies, which have been retained. The previous precondition of objective reasons for renewal of fixed-term employment contracts has also been restricted substantially. Therefore in order to convert 'wrongful' successive fixed-term employment relationships into open-ended ones, such contracts must meet standing, permanent needs of the enterprise and fulfil the formal preconditions set by the PD, without there being a need for numerous objective reasons.
      (Source : EuroFound https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/mt/publications/article/2004/new-regulations-on-fixed-term-contracts-in-private-sector)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • 2 years under P.D. 81/2003 as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004 provides that the unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above). However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.

      However: 3 years under Law No. 3986/2011
      Under Law No. 3986/2011 (Urgent Measures for the Implementation of the Mid-term Financial Strategy Framework 2012-2015), if the duration of successive employment contracts exceeds three years in total, without being justified by specific reasons or needs provided by law, it is deemed that those contracts cover constant and permanent needs of the enterprise and consequently are of indefinite duration (art. 41).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2016
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2016
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.9 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2015
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.6 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2014
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 10.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2013
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.Subparagraph IA. para.12. section 1 of Law 4093/2012)
    With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 10.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2012
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • NEW: The first 12-month period of an employment contract of an indefinite duration shall be deemed a probationary period during which the contract may be terminated without notice and without severance pay, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.
    This change has been introduced in 2010 by Art. 74(2)A) Act 3863/2010 as amended by art. 17(5) Act 3899/2010.
    Prior to the adoption of this law, although there was no express statutory probationary period, the provisions on the notice period and severance pay were only applicable to white-collar workers who have worked for less than 2 months (art. 1 of the Act 2112/1920, together with art. 2 and 4 of Act 3198/1995) . With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, in particular the nature or the form of the employer's or the company's activity, special grounds or needs which are specifically provided for in the employment contract (inter alia temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme, work linked to a specific event or in undertakings offering air transportation and airport services).(Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).


  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts (even where there are objective reasons for concluding a fixed-term contract)
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 12.4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The law does not expressly provide for a statutory probationary period. However, under art. 1 of the Act 2112/1920, together with art. 2 and 4 of Act 3198/1995, statutory notice and severance pay requirements do not apply to white-workers who have worked for less than 2 months. With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers for which no notice is required (see below), the severance pay requirements only applied to workers with at least two months of service

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, such as temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme (Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 12.4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee aged 15 years and over with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • The law does not expressly provide for a statutory probationary period. However, under art. 1 of the Act 2112/1920, together with art. 2 and 4 of Act 3198/1995, statutory notice and severance pay requirements do not apply to white-collar workers who have worked for less than 2 months. With regard to the dismissal of blue-collar workers, no notice is required (see below) but the severance pay requirements only apply to workers with at least two months of service.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Presidential Decree 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • See Article 669(2) of the Civil Code.
      In addition, the renewal of a FTC is permitted without any limitation only if it is justified by an objective reason, such as temporary replacement of a worker, performance of occasional work, temporary increase in workload, work provided in relation to education or training, performance of a specific project or programme (Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if within a two-year period, more than 3 successive contracts are concluded, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
      The employer has the burden to prove otherwise.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 P.D. 81/2003, as amended by P.D. 180/2004:
      The unlimited renewal of FTC is permitted if it is justified by an objective reason (see above).
      However, if the total duration of the successive contracts or employment relations exceeds two years, it shall be presumed that they are used as a means of meeting fixed and constant needs of the undertaking or exploitation, resulting in their transformation into permanent employment contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 12.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."