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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Germany

Germany - Types of employment contracts


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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2011) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2011) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2011) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2015.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2011) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2011) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2013.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2000) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second semester 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2000) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 14.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2011.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2000) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 14.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 622 (3) CC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 14 (1) Part-Time and Fixed-Term Employment Act (2000) [PTFTEA].
      However, objective and material reasons are not required for the conclusion of a contract for a term not exceeding 2 years. Within this time frame, the contract can be renewed 3 times (sec. 14 (2) PTFTEA). For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
      Similarly, no justification is required for the conclusion of fixed-term contracts with employees over 52 years old.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation in the number of successive depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reason for each successive contract, it can be renewed without any limitation.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • The extent of limitation on the maximum cumulative duration depends on whether or not there is an objective reason for resorting to FTC:
      * If there is an objective reasons for each successive contract, there is no limitation for renewing such FTC.
      * FTC concluded without any justified reason are subject to a limitation of maximum 4 successive provided that the total duration does not exceed 2 years (sec. 14, 2 PTFTEA).
      For newly founded enterprises, this time limit is up to 4 years.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 14.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."