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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Bulgaria

Bulgaria - Types of employment contracts


+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.9 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2015:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      New in 2012
      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4.6 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      New in 2012
      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4.9 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2013:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      New in 2012
      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4.8 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second trimester 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68 LC regulates fixed term contracts as follows:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 48/2006) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed-term contracts for vacancies and positions that can be filled in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on fixed term contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career development for their transition to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.
      However, Art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of fourth trimester 2011.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68 LC regulates fixed term contracts as follows:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 48/2006) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed-term contracts for vacancies and positions that can be filled in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on fixed term contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career development for their transition to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.
      However, Art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of first trimester 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68 LC regulates fixed term contracts as follows:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 48/2006) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed-term contracts for vacancies and positions that can be filled in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on fixed term contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career development for their transition to another job.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
    Remarks:
    • However, Art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average (2009)
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."