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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Estonia

Estonia - Types of employment contracts


+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.4 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.1 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 2.8 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2014.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2013.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, an employment contract may be entered into for a specified term also if it is justified by the temporary characteristics of the work in a user undertaking. (Art. 9 ECA)
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

      New in 2012
      The 2012 amendment has modified the ECA which now in addition to what is stated above states that if duties are performed by way of temporary agency work, the restriction on consecutive entry into or extension of an employment contract for a specified term provided for in subsection (1) of art. 10 shall be applied to every user undertaking separately (Art. 10.2 ECA)
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.3 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second trimester 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 4.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2011.
      This figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010.
      This figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
+ show references

Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 ECA

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
    Remarks:
    • Arts 9 and 10 ECA.
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    Remarks:
    • Art. 9 ECA: It is presumed that employment contracts are made for an unspecified period. A fixed-term contract may be made for up to five years if it is justified by good reasons arising from the temporary fixed-term characteristics of the work, especially a temporary increase in work volume or performance of seasonal work. A FTC may also be concluded for the replacement of an employee who is temporarily absent.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 ECA: If an employee and an employer have on more than two consecutive occasions entered into a fixed-term employment contract for similar work or extended the fixed-term contract more than once in five years, the employment relationship shall be deemed to have been entered into for an unspecified term from the start. Entry into fixed-term employment contracts shall be deemed consecutive if the time between the termination of one employment contract and entry into the next employment contract does not exceed two months.

  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
    Remarks:
    • Arts. 9 and 10 ECA: A fixed term employment contract can be entered into not longer than 5 years and such contract can only be renewed once. Therefore the maximum cumulated duration of successive fixed term contracts is 10 years (5+5 years).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 2.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."