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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Norway

Norway - Types of employment contracts


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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
    1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
    2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

    During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when the work is of a temporary nature
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
        f) for a period of up to 12 months if not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
      Remarks:
      • According to Art. 14-9 (f) WEA, employees can be employed under fixed-term contracts with a duration of up to 12 months without providing a valid reason, if it is ensured that not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs. In case a FTC expires and is not renewed, the employer is however prohibited to employ a different employee under a FTC for the same position during the following 12 months.

        Furthermore, Art. 14-9 (a)-(e) WEA contains a list of valid reasons for which the use of fixed term contracts is also permitted: These allow FTCs if the work is of a temporary nature or if the contract is concluded for the temporary replacement of another employee, with a trainee, with participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service or with athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • Art 14-9 (6) WEA states that fixed-term employees who have been working for the same enterprise without interruption for more than 3 years (4 years for FTCs issued for tasks of a temporary nature) must be considered employees with indefinite contracts. (This does not apply to trainees, participants of labor market schemes as well as athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organized sports.)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.8 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2016.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when the work is of a temporary nature
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
        f) for a period of up to 12 months if not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
      Remarks:
      • According to Art. 14-9 (f) WEA, employees can be employed under fixed-term contracts with a duration of up to 12 months without providing a valid reason, if it is ensured that not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs. In case a FTC expires and is not renewed, the employer is however prohibited to employ a different employee under a FTC for the same position during the following 12 months.

        Furthermore, Art. 14-9 (a)-(e) WEA contains a list of valid reasons for which the use of fixed term contracts is also permitted: These allow FTCs if the work is of a temporary nature or if the contract is concluded for the temporary replacement of another employee, with a trainee, with participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service or with athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • Art 14-9 (6) WEA states that fixed-term employees who have been working for the same enterprise without interruption for more than 3 years (4 years for FTCs issued for tasks of a temporary nature) must be considered employees with indefinite contracts. (This does not apply to trainees, participants of labor market schemes as well as athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organized sports.)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.8 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2016.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when the work is of a temporary nature
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
        f) for a period of up to 12 months if not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
      NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
      Remarks:
      • According to Art. 14-9 (f) WEA, employees can be employed under fixed-term contracts with a duration of up to 12 months without providing a valid reason, if it is ensured that not more than 15 % of the total number of employees in the enterprise (or not more than 1 employee in enterprises with less than 14 employees) are covered by such FTCs. In case a FTC expires and is not renewed, the employer is however prohibited to employ a different employee under a FTC for the same position during the following 12 months.

        Furthermore, Art. 14-9 (a)-(e) WEA contains a list of valid reasons for which the use of fixed term contracts is also permitted: These allow FTCs if the work is of a temporary nature or if the contract is concluded for the temporary replacement of another employee, with a trainee, with participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service or with athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
      NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
      Remarks:
      • Art 14-9 (6) WEA states that fixed-term employees who have been working for the same enterprise without interruption for more than 3 years (4 years for FTCs issued for tasks of a temporary nature) must be considered employees with indefinite contracts. (This does not apply to trainees, participants of labor market schemes as well as athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organized sports.)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2015.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 7.9 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2014.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.4 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2013.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.4 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annul average for 2012.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2011.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.4 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2010.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."
    + show references

    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6 (3) of the Working Environment Act sets out the trial period may be agreed for up to 6 months. However, this may be extended in two cases:
      1. If an employee has been absent from work during the trial period, the employer may extend the agreed trial period by a period corresponding to the period of absence. Such extension may only take place when the employee has been informed of this possibility in writing at the time of his appointment and when the employer has informed the employee of the extension in writing prior to expiry of the trial period. The right to extend the trial period shall not apply to absences caused by the employer.
      2. The Ministry may issue regulations permitting agreement on a trial period longer than six months in the case of certain groups of employees (Art. 15-6 (4) and Art. 15-6(5) of the WEA).

      During the probationary period, employee can only be dismissed on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability (Art. 15-6(1) WEA). In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) WEA).

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-6(1) WEA reads as follows:
      "If an employee engaged by written contract for a given trial period is dismissed, such dismissal must be on the grounds of the employee's lack of suitability for the work, or lack of proficiency or reliability."
      In the case of termination of employment under a trial period a 14 days' notice is required (art. 15-3(7) of the Working Environment Act).
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (1) WEA states the following:
        An employee shall be appointed permanently. Temporary employment may nevertheless be agreed upon:
        a) when warranted by the nature of the work and the work differs from that which is ordinarily performed in the undertaking,
        b) for work as a temporary replacement for another person or persons,
        c) for work as a trainee,
        d) for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service,
        e) for athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports"
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
      Remarks:
      • Art. 14-9 (a) WEA provides for the following valid reasons for the use of the fixed term contracts:
        for the nature of the work, for a temporary replacement, for work as a trainee, for participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, for the use of athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports.
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 48 month(s)
      Remarks:
      • - Art 14-9 (5) WEA states that an employee who has had a fixed term contract for more than four years (48 months) shall be considered a permanent employee, and therefore covered by the provisions on termination of employment. When calculating the length of the employment relationship, no deduction for employee's absence shall be made.
        -Trainees, participants in labour market schemes under the auspices of or in cooperation with the Labour and Welfare Service, athletes, trainers, referees and other leaders within organised sports are however excluded from the 48 months' limitation of the maximum cumulative duration. (art 14-9 (5) WEA).
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.1 %
      Remarks:
      • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009.
        The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
        Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
        "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."