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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex

Types of employment contracts


Armenia - 2018    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation

Austria - 2016    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 1 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • % of workforce under FTC: 7.9 %

Azerbaijan - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)

Belgium - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 0 day(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: %

Bulgaria - 2016    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 1
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.5 %

Cyprus - 2012    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • % of workforce under FTC: 15.3 %

Czech Republic - 2011    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.5 %

Denmark - 2010    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.4 %

Estonia - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 4 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 10 year(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 3.4 %

Finland - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • % of workforce under FTC: 15.6 %

France - 2012    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 8 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 15.2 %

Georgia - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs:
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 30 month(s)

Germany - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 13.2 %

Greece - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 12 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 3 year(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 11.2 %

Hungary - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %

Italy - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 10.9 %

Kazakhstan - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2 no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 2 year(s) no limitation

Kyrgyzstan - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)

Luxembourg - 2012    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 9.4 %

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)

Moldova, Republic of - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60 month(s)

Montenegro - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)

Netherlands - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 20.6 %

Notes / Remarks
In the Netherlands, as part of anti crisis measures, a new Act, which came into force in July 2010, temporarily extended the possibility to conclude fixed-term contracts with young workers up to 27 years The Act allowed for concluding a total of four, rather than three successive fixed-term employment contracts with regard to this group and for maximum duration of four years rather than three. The Act expired in January 2012. As a result, those specific rules for young workers are no longer applicable.

Norway - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

  • Excluded from protection against dismissal: No
  • Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.8 %

    Portugal - 2014    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 240 day(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 3 year(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 22 %

    Romania - 2017    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 90 day(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 3
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 1 %

    Russian Federation - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)

    Serbia - 2017    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)

    Slovakia - 2012    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)  new 

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation  new 
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 4  new 
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 3 year(s)  new 
    • % of workforce under FTC: 7 %

    Slovenia - 2012    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 16.7 %

    Spain - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 25.6 %

    Sweden - 2017    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 15.1 %

    Switzerland - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation

    Tajikistan - 2015    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation

    Turkey - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 2 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • % of workforce under FTC: 8.7 %

    Turkmenistan - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)

    United Kingdom - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 24 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 4 year(s)
    • % of workforce under FTC: 5.1 %

    Uzbekistan - 2019    

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    Maximum probationary (trial) period: 3 month(s)

    Fixed term contract (FTC):
    • FTC regulated: Yes
    • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
    • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 5 year(s)