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Venezuela, République bolivarienne du - Conditions de fond du licenciement


+ show references

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Non

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur
Remarks:
  • • The OLL establishes a distinction between justified dismissal (despido justificado) and unjustified dismissal (despido injustificado) (art. 77OLL).

    According to art. 86 and 87 OLL, any permanent worker who is not a manager and has more than 1 month of service has the right to employment stability: that means that they cannot be dismissed without a just cause. Those who are not covered by employment stability can be dismissed without a cause.

    In particular, pursuant to art. 79 OLL, in order to be considered justified, a dismissal shall be based on the following grounds (conduct-based):
    - dishonesty or immoral behaviour;
    - acts of violence except in legitimate self-defence;
    - insult or serious lack of respect towards the employer, his or her representatives or family members living in his or her home;
    - deliberate action or gross negligent acts affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - forgetfulness or carelessness seriously affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - unjustified absence from work for three working days within the period of one month, starting to count on the day of the first absence. If the absence is due to the worker’s sickness/disease it will be considered justified. The worker must always notify the employer of the reason of his/her absence;
    - material damage to the plant, tools, furniture belonging to the enterprise, raw materials, finished or partly processed products, plantations or other relevant property, whether deliberate or resulting from serious negligence;
    - disclosure of secrets of production, construction or process;
    - serious breach of the obligations under the contract of employment; or
    - abandonment of work (see art. 79 for an extended definition).
    - work harassment or sexual harassment.

    As a rule, the OLL only allows dismissal based one of the above listed cause in respect of workers covered by the employment stability (= those with at least 1 month service, hired under a permanent contract and who are not managerial employees).
    However, under the same law, it is still possible for an employer who persists in dismissing an employee who benefit form such stability, even without having a just cause (unjustified dismissal) to carry out the dismissal provided that he/she pays a compensation for unjustified dismissal and the dismissed worker abandons its right to reinstatement. Such compensation can be paid in the course of the legal proceedings or even at the time of the dismissal. In such cases, the proceedings before the judge will not take place. (art. 92 and 93 OLL). Article 425 OLL provides for the procedure to force the employer to reinstate a worker if he or she so desires.

    Economic reasons are not considered to be just cause for termination.
    _______________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 86. "Todo trabajador o trabajadora tiene derecho a la garantía de permanencia en su trabajo, si no hay causas que justifiquen la terminación de la relación laboral. Cuando un trabajador o trabajadora haya sido despedido sin que haya incurrido en causas que lo justifiquen, podrá solidtar la reincorporación a su puesto de trabajo de conformidad a lo previsto en esta Ley."

    Artículo 87. "Estarán amparados y amparadas por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley:
    1. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras a tiempo indeterminado a partir del primer mes de prestación de servicio.
    2. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas por tiempo determinado, mientras no haya vencido el término del contrato.
    3. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas para una obra determinada, hasta que haya concluido la totalidad de las tareas a ejecutarse por el trabajador o trabajadora, para las cuales fueron expresamente contratados y contratadas.
    Los trabajadores y las trabajadoras de dirección, no estarán amparados por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley."

    Articulo 79. "Seran causas justificadas de despido, los sigUientes hechos del trabajador o trabajadora:
    a) Falta de probidad o conducta inmoral en el trabajo.
    b) Vías de hecho, salvo en legítima defensa.
    e) Injuria o falta grave al respeto y consideración debidos al patrono o a la patrona, a sus representantes o a los miembros de su familia que vivan con él o ella.
    d) Hecho intendonal o negligencia grave que afecte a la salud y la seguridad laboral.(...)"


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; race; sexe; orientation sexuelle; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; âge; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap
Remarks:
  • Art. 18 (7) and Art. 21 OLL : Non-discrimination in employment.
    Art. 420 OLL: A pregnant woman worker shall be immune from dismissal during pregnancy and for two year after confinement, provided that no serious fault is committed, in which case the prior authorization of the Labour Inspectorate shall be required (Art. 421 OLL). This protection also applies to a woman worker who has adopted a child.

    See also: Equal Opportunities for Women Act of 15 August 1993 [Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para la Mujer], Art. 15: It is unlawful to dismiss or pressure a woman, or diminish her rights, during or as a result of pregnancy. If a woman believes her rights have been violated she may bring a constitutional action in order that they be restored to her.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail
Remarks:
  • Venezuelan law provides that certain workers, for various reasons, are irremovable and may not be dismissed, transferred or employed in less favourable working conditions without just cause approved in advance by the labour inspector (art. 94, OLL).
    This protection is, generally, reserved for trade union promoters and board members, promoters of collective agreements and workers involved in collective disputes against employers, but has also been extended to other categories of persons, whether or not they are linked to trade union activity or collective relations. The following may therefore enjoy protection under the BLA:
    * a pregnant woman, during pregnancy and up to two year after confinement; paternity protection during the pregnancy of his couple up to two years after confinement
    * workers with one or more disabled children or serious disease hampering its self-fulfilment
    * workers enjoying trade union rights, including:
    ->workers applying to register a trade union, since the moment of the application up until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -workers supporting the register of a trade union u until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -representatives of the board of directors of the trade union in an enterprise (the number of protected individuals depends on the size of the enterprise.
    -workers enjoying membership in a trade union which is holding elections, until the establishment of the board of directors.
    -workers who run for trade union elections, up until 60 days after the board has been established.
    -workers during the drafting and negotiating process of a collective agreement since its presentation to Labour Inspection up until the end of its negotiation or start of an arbitration procedure.
    -workers during the exercise of its right to strike, as foreseen in the law.

    __________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 94 OLL. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras protegidos de inamovilidad no podrán ser despedidos, ni trasladados, ni desmejorados sin una causa justificada la cual deberá ser previamente calificada por el inspector o inspectora del trabajo.


Notes / Remarques
NOTE IMPORTANT: For some categories of workers: the application of these rules concerning individual dismissals were suspended by the 2015 and 2018 Decrees providing certain categories of workers with immunity against dismissals. Under those Decrees, prior accreditation of just cause by the labour inspectorate is required for any dismissal of any worker falling within the scope of application of the decrees.

+ show references

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Non

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur
Remarks:
  • • The OLL establishes a distinction between justified dismissal (despido justificado) and unjustified dismissal (despido injustificado) (art. 77OLL).

    According to art. 86 and 87 OLL, any permanent worker who is not a manager and has more than 1 month of service has the right to employment stability: that means that they cannot be dismissed without a just cause. Those who are not covered by employment stability can be dismissed without a cause.

    In particular, pursuant to art. 79 OLL, in order to be considered justified, a dismissal shall be based on the following grounds (conduct-based):
    - dishonesty or immoral behaviour;
    - acts of violence except in legitimate self-defence;
    - insult or serious lack of respect towards the employer, his or her representatives or family members living in his or her home;
    - deliberate action or gross negligent acts affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - forgetfulness or carelessness seriously affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - unjustified absence from work for three working days within the period of one month, starting to count on the day of the first absence. If the absence is due to the worker’s sickness/disease it will be considered justified. The worker must always notify the employer of the reason of his/her absence;
    - material damage to the plant, tools, furniture belonging to the enterprise, raw materials, finished or partly processed products, plantations or other relevant property, whether deliberate or resulting from serious negligence;
    - disclosure of secrets of production, construction or process;
    - serious breach of the obligations under the contract of employment; or
    - abandonment of work (see art. 79 for an extended definition).
    - work harassment or sexual harassment.

    As a rule, the OLL only allows dismissal based one of the above listed cause in respect of workers covered by the employment stability (= those with at least 1 month service, hired under a permanent contract and who are not managerial employees).
    However, under the same law, it is still possible for an employer who persists in dismissing an employee who benefit form such stability, even without having a just cause (unjustified dismissal) to carry out the dismissal provided that he/she pays a compensation for unjustified dismissal and the dismissed worker abandons its right to reinstatement. Such compensation can be paid in the course of the legal proceedings or even at the time of the dismissal. In such cases, the proceedings before the judge will not take place. (art. 92 and 93 OLL). Article 425 OLL provides for the procedure to force the employer to reinstate a worker if he or she so desires.

    Economic reasons are not considered to be just cause for termination.
    _______________
    Original version (in Spanish):
    Artículo 86. "Todo trabajador o trabajadora tiene derecho a la garantía de permanencia en su trabajo, si no hay causas que justifiquen la terminación de la relación laboral. Cuando un trabajador o trabajadora haya sido despedido sin que haya incurrido en causas que lo justifiquen, podrá solidtar la reincorporación a su puesto de trabajo de conformidad a lo previsto en esta Ley."

    Artículo 87. Estarán amparados y amparadas por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley:
    "1. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras a tiempo indeterminado a partir del primer mes de prestación de servicio.
    2. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas por tiempo determinado, mientras no haya vencido el término del contrato.
    3. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas para una obra determinada, hasta que haya concluido la totalidad de las tareas a ejecutarse por el trabajador o trabajadora, para las cuales fueron expresamente contratados y contratadas.
    Los trabajadores y las trabajadoras de dirección, no estarán amparados por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley."

    Articulo 79. Seran causas justificadas de despido, los sigUientes hechos del trabajador o trabajadora:
    a) Falta de probidad o conducta inmoral en el trabajo.
    b) Vías de hecho, salvo en legítima defensa.
    e) Injuria o falta grave al respeto y consideración debidos al patrono o a la patrona, a sus representantes o a los miembros de su familia que vivan con él o ella.
    d) Hecho intendonal o negligencia grave que afecte a la salud y la seguridad laboral.
    (...)


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; race; sexe; orientation sexuelle; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; âge; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap
Remarks:
  • Art. 18 (7) and Art. 21 OLL : Non-discrimination in employment.
    Art. 420 OLL: A pregnant woman worker shall be immune from dismissal during pregnancy and for two year after confinement, provided that no serious fault is committed, in which case the prior authorization of the Labour Inspectorate shall be required (Art. 421 OLL). This protection also applies to a woman worker who has adopted a child.

    See also: Equal Opportunities for Women Act of 15 August 1993 [Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para la Mujer], Art. 15: It is unlawful to dismiss or pressure a woman, or diminish her rights, during or as a result of pregnancy. If a woman believes her rights have been violated she may bring a constitutional action in order that they be restored to her.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail
Remarks:
  • Venezuelan law provides that certain workers, for various reasons, are irremovable and may not be dismissed, transferred or employed in less favourable working conditions without just cause approved in advance by the labour inspector (art. 94, OLL).
    This protection is, generally, reserved for trade union promoters and board members, promoters of collective agreements and workers involved in collective disputes against employers, but has also been extended to other categories of persons, whether or not they are linked to trade union activity or collective relations. The following may therefore enjoy protection under the BLA:
    * a pregnant woman, during pregnancy and up to two year after confinement; paternity protection during the pregnancy of his couple up to two years after confinement
    * workers with one or more disabled children or serious disease hampering its self-fulfilment
    * workers enjoying trade union rights, including:
    ->workers applying to register a trade union, since the moment of the application up until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -workers supporting the register of a trade union u until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -representatives of the board of directors of the trade union in an enterprise (the number of protected individuals depends on the size of the enterprise.
    -workers enjoying membership in a trade union which is holding elections, until the establishment of the board of directors.
    -workers who run for trade union elections, up until 60 days after the board has been established.
    -workers during the drafting and negotiating process of a collective agreement since its presentation to Labour Inspection up until the end of its negotiation or start of an arbitration procedure.
    -workers during the exercise of its right to strike, as foreseen in the law.

    __________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 94 OLL. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras protegidos de inamovilidad no podrán ser despedidos, ni trasladados, ni desmejorados sin una causa justificada la cual deberá ser previamente calificada por el inspector o inspectora del trabajo.


Notes / Remarques
NOTE IMPORTANT: For some categories of workers: the application of these rules concerning individual dismissals were suspended by the 2015 and 2018 Decrees providing certain categories of workers with immunity against dismissals. Under those Decrees, prior accreditation of just cause by the labour inspectorate is required for any dismissal of any worker falling within the scope of application of the decrees.

+ show references

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Non

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur
Remarks:
  • • The OLL establishes a distinction between justified dismissal (despido justificado) and unjustified dismissal (despido injustificado) (art. 77OLL).

    According to art. 86 and 87 OLL, any permanent worker who is not a manager and has more than 1 month of service has the right to employment stability: that means that they cannot be dismissed without a just cause. Those who are not covered by employment stability can be dismissed without a cause.

    In particular, pursuant to art. 79 OLL, in order to be considered justified, a dismissal shall be based on the following grounds (conduct-based):
    - dishonesty or immoral behaviour;
    - acts of violence except in legitimate self-defence;
    - insult or serious lack of respect towards the employer, his or her representatives or family members living in his or her home;
    - deliberate action or gross negligent acts affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - forgetfulness or carelessness seriously affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - unjustified absence from work for three working days within the period of one month, starting to count on the day of the first absence. If the absence is due to the worker’s sickness/disease it will be considered justified. The worker must always notify the employer of the reason of his/her absence;
    - material damage to the plant, tools, furniture belonging to the enterprise, raw materials, finished or partly processed products, plantations or other relevant property, whether deliberate or resulting from serious negligence;
    - disclosure of secrets of production, construction or process;
    - serious breach of the obligations under the contract of employment; or
    - abandonment of work (see art. 79 for an extended definition).
    - work harassment or sexual harassment.

    As a rule, the OLL only allows dismissal based one of the above listed cause in respect of workers covered by the employment stability (= those with at least 1 month service, hired under a permanent contract and who are not managerial employees).
    However, under the same law, it is still possible for an employer who persists in dismissing an employee who benefit form such stability, even without having a just cause (unjustified dismissal) to carry out the dismissal provided that he/she pays a compensation for unjustified dismissal and the dismissed worker abandons its right to reinstatement. Such compensation can be paid in the course of the legal proceedings or even at the time of the dismissal. In such cases, the proceedings before the judge will not take place. (art. 92 and 93 OLL). Article 425 OLL provides for the procedure to force the employer to reinstate a worker if he or she so desires.

    Economic reasons are not considered to be just cause for termination.
    _______________
    Original version (in Spanish):
    Artículo 86. "Todo trabajador o trabajadora tiene derecho a la garantía de permanencia en su trabajo, si no hay causas que justifiquen la terminación de la relación laboral. Cuando un trabajador o trabajadora haya sido despedido sin que haya incurrido en causas que lo justifiquen, podrá solidtar la reincorporación a su puesto de trabajo de conformidad a lo previsto en esta Ley."

    Artículo 87. Estarán amparados y amparadas por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley:
    "1. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras a tiempo indeterminado a partir del primer mes de prestación de servicio.
    2. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas por tiempo determinado, mientras no haya vencido el término del contrato.
    3. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas para una obra determinada, hasta que haya concluido la totalidad de las tareas a ejecutarse por el trabajador o trabajadora, para las cuales fueron expresamente contratados y contratadas.
    Los trabajadores y las trabajadoras de dirección, no estarán amparados por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley."

    Articulo 79. Seran causas justificadas de despido, los sigUientes hechos del trabajador o trabajadora:
    a) Falta de probidad o conducta inmoral en el trabajo.
    b) Vías de hecho, salvo en legítima defensa.
    e) Injuria o falta grave al respeto y consideración debidos al patrono o a la patrona, a sus representantes o a los miembros de su familia que vivan con él o ella.
    d) Hecho intendonal o negligencia grave que afecte a la salud y la seguridad laboral.
    (...)


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; race; sexe; orientation sexuelle; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; âge; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap
Remarks:
  • Art. 18 (7) and Art. 21 OLL : Non-discrimination in employment.
    Art. 420 OLL: A pregnant woman worker shall be immune from dismissal during pregnancy and for two year after confinement, provided that no serious fault is committed, in which case the prior authorization of the Labour Inspectorate shall be required (Art. 421 OLL). This protection also applies to a woman worker who has adopted a child.

    See also: Equal Opportunities for Women Act of 15 August 1993 [Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para la Mujer], Art. 15: It is unlawful to dismiss or pressure a woman, or diminish her rights, during or as a result of pregnancy. If a woman believes her rights have been violated she may bring a constitutional action in order that they be restored to her.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail
Remarks:
  • Venezuelan law provides that certain workers, for various reasons, are irremovable and may not be dismissed, transferred or employed in less favourable working conditions without just cause approved in advance by the labour inspector (art. 94, OLL).
    This protection is, generally, reserved for trade union promoters and board members, promoters of collective agreements and workers involved in collective disputes against employers, but has also been extended to other categories of persons, whether or not they are linked to trade union activity or collective relations. The following may therefore enjoy protection under the BLA:
    * a pregnant woman, during pregnancy and up to two year after confinement; paternity protection during the pregnancy of his couple up to two years after confinement
    * workers with one or more disabled children or serious disease hampering its self-fulfilment
    * workers enjoying trade union rights, including:
    ->workers applying to register a trade union, since the moment of the application up until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -workers supporting the register of a trade union u until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -representatives of the board of directors of the trade union in an enterprise (the number of protected individuals depends on the size of the enterprise.
    -workers enjoying membership in a trade union which is holding elections, until the establishment of the board of directors.
    -workers who run for trade union elections, up until 60 days after the board has been established.
    -workers during the drafting and negotiating process of a collective agreement since its presentation to Labour Inspection up until the end of its negotiation or start of an arbitration procedure.
    -workers during the exercise of its right to strike, as foreseen in the law.

    __________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 94 OLL. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras protegidos de inamovilidad no podrán ser despedidos, ni trasladados, ni desmejorados sin una causa justificada la cual deberá ser previamente calificada por el inspector o inspectora del trabajo.


Notes / Remarques
NOTE IMPORTANT: For some categories of workers: the application of these rules concerning individual dismissals were suspended by the 2015 and 2018 Decrees providing certain categories of workers with immunity against dismissals. Under those Decrees, prior accreditation of just cause by the labour inspectorate is required for any dismissal of any worker falling within the scope of application of the decrees.