Labour Code [LC], Act I of 2012 in force since July 1st, 2012 (hereafter: "LC") Fecha: 13 Dec 2011 (ver en NATLEX»)
Act on Equal Treatment and Promotion of Equal Opportunities, No CXXV of 2003 (hereafter:"ETA Act") Fecha: 28 Dec 2003; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX»)
Obligación de motivar el despido: Sí
Sec. 66(1) LC provides that "employers are required to justify their dismissals". However, there are various exceptions to this principle.
Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador; razones económicas; capacidad del trabajador
• Pursuant to sec. 66(2) of the LC in connection with his/her ability, his/her behavior in relation to the employment relationship or with the employer's operations. No justification shall be attached to the dismissal if the employee qualifies as a pensioneer (LC, sec. 66(9)) or as an executive employee (LC, sec. 210(1)b)).
• Pursuant to sec. 66(8) of the LC the termination of an unfixed term employment contract by the employer can be justified a) if the employer undergoes liquidation or bankruptcy proceedings; or b) for reasons related to the employee’s ability; or c) if maintaining the employment relationship is no longer possible due to unavoidable external reasons. No justification shall be attached to the dismissal if the employee qualifies as an executive employee (LC, sec. 210(1)b)).
• The employer is not required to give reasons for terminating any employment relationship without notice during the trial period (LC, sec. 79(1)a)) or, in case of fixed-term employment relationships, if the employer pays the wage for the dismissed employer for twelve months, or if the time remaining from the fixed period is less than one year, for the remaining time period (LC, sec. 79(1)b), (2)).
Motivos prohibidos: estado civil; embarazo; licencia de maternidad; raza; color; sexo; orientación sexual; religión; opinion política; origen social; nacionalidad; edad; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales; discapacidad; situación económica; cumplimiento del servicio militar o civil; lengua; licencia paternal; estado de salud; origen étnico
Sec. 8 ETA provides that "All dispositions as a result of which a person or a group is treated or would be treated less favourably than another person or group in a comparable situation because of his/her a) sex, b) racial origin, c) colour, d) nationality, e) origin of national or ethnic minority, f) mother tongue, g) disability, h) state of health, i) religious or ideological conviction, j) political or other opinion, k) family status, l) motherhood (pregnancy) or fatherhood, m) sexual orientation, n) sexual identity, o) age, p) social origin, q) financial status, r) part-time nature or definite term of the employment relationship or other relationship aimed at work, s) membership in an organisation representing employees’ interests, t) any other status, characteristic feature or attribute are considered direct discrimination."
Sec. 21 EA provides that "It is considered a violation of the principle of equal treatment in particular if the employer inflicts direct or indirect negative discrimination upon an employee, especially when the following dispositions are defined or applied: (...) c) in establishing and terminating the employment relationship or other relationship related to work;(...).
- In addition, pregnancy, parental leave; a leave of absence taken without pay for caring for a child (Sections 66(3), 128 and 130 LC).
-Sec. 271(2) LC provides that no employee shall be dismissed on a ground of being a member of any trade union.
Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares; trabajadores que desempeñan servicio militar/servicio alternativo
• The LC prohibits the dismissal of specific groups of workers (during pregnancy; during maternity or parental leave, during reserve military service, during the first six month of treatment related to human reproduction procedure) (LC, sec. 63(3)).
• The LC does not completely exclude but restricts the opportunity of the employer to dismiss other specific groups of workers, - by restricting the valid grounds or requiring the employer to offer another, adequate job before the dismissal, if possible (e.g. in case of workers with family responsibilities, workers with disabilities, elderly workers – LC, sec. 66(4)-(7)) - by extending the period of notice (in case of sick employees or workers taking care of sick/disabled children or other relatives – LC, sec. 68(2)) - by requiring a consent of the supreme body of workers’ representatives to the validity of the dismissal of specific workers’ representatives (LC, sec. 260(3), 273; Act XCIII of 1993 on Labour Safety, sec. 76(3)).
• Workers are protected against discriminatory dismissals on a set of protected characteristics including e.g. pregnancy, national or ethnic origin, colour, race, religion, political opinion, disability, health condition, social situation, adherence to trade union, part-time or fixed-term job (LC, sec. 12, ETA Act, sec. 8).