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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex

Substantive requirements for dismissals


Afghanistan - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Algeria - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Angola - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; performing military or civil service; language; family members at the same workplace; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with disabilities; war veterans; minors

Antigua and Barbuda - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; age; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Argentina - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; race; sex; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; confirmed injured workers; older workers/workers on the verge of retirement; workers performing military/alternative service; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Armenia - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; language; participation in a lawful strike; lawfully taking leave

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Australia - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; adoption leave

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Austria - 2016    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; age; trade union membership and activities; performing military or civil service; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; older workers/workers on the verge of retirement; workers with disabilities; workers performing military/alternative service

Azerbaijan - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; parental leave; state of health

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers performing military/alternative service; minors

Bangladesh - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Belgium - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none; none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; language; whistle blowing; birth; state of health; genetic information; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Bolivia - 2011    

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Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; language; birth; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with disabilities; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Botswana - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status; fulfilling state duties; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Brazil - 2011    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; participation in a lawful strike; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with a long period of service; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Bulgaria - 2016    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; confirmed injured workers

Burkina Faso - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Cambodia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; participation in a lawful strike; birth

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Cameroon - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; political opinion; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Canada (Federal only) - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; whistle blowing; raising occupational health and security concerns; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Central African Republic - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; religion; political opinion; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; participation in a lawful strike; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers performing military/alternative service; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Chile - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; language

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

China - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; religion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; confirmed injured workers; older workers/workers on the verge of retirement; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Comoros - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Congo, Democratic Republic - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Cyprus - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Czech Republic - 2010    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; language; property; birth; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers performing military/alternative service; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Côte d'Ivoire - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Denmark - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Egypt - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; lawfully taking leave

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; confirmed injured workers

El Salvador - 2010    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Estonia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Ethiopia - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Finland - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; family members at the same workplace; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

France - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; gender identity; state of health; adoption leave; performing jury service; genetic information; ethnic origin  new 

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Gabon - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Georgia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; property; birth; exercise of the right to educational leave; lawfully taking leave; adoption leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Germany - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers with disabilities

Ghana - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Greece - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; gender identity; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers performing military/alternative service; war veterans

Honduras - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Hungary - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; performing military or civil service; language; parental leave; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

India - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Indonesia - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; economic reasons; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; family members at the same workplace; whistle blowing; lawfully taking leave; fulfilling state duties; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; confirmed injured workers

Iran, Islamic Republic of - 2010    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; economic reasons; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: race; colour; sex; language; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Italy - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; exercise of a right; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; adoption leave

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Japan - 2018    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; religion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; whistle blowing

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Jordan - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; religion; trade union membership and activities; performing military or civil service; language; lawfully taking leave

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers performing military/alternative service

Kazakhstan - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; property; gender identity; place of residence

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers with disabilities

Korea, Republic of - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; sex; religion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; whistle blowing

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Kyrgyzstan - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; financial status; language; property; place of residence; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Lesotho - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; lawfully taking leave; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Luxembourg - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; race; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; property; state of health; lawfully taking leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Madagascar - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; religion; political opinion; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Malawi - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; participation in a lawful strike; property; birth; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Malaysia - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; national employees

Mexico - 2010    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; economic reasons; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; language; participation in a lawful strike; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers with a long period of service

Moldova, Republic of - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; place of residence

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Mongolia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; family responsibilities; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Montenegro - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's capacity; worker's conduct; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; language; parental leave; whistle blowing; birth; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; confirmed injured workers; workers with disabilities

Morocco - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Namibia - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; exercise of a right; HIV status; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Netherlands - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; whistle blowing

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers performing military/alternative service

Notes / Remarks
Under Dutch law, an employer who intends to dismiss an employee must, based on the nature of the dismissal (economic or due to the worker’s conduct or capacity), either refer to:
1) termination via a prior permit from the administrative authority UWV WERKbedrijf (in case of economic dismissals or dismissals due to long-time sicknesses), or
2) judicial rescission of the contract (in case of the other types of dismissals).
In addition, summary dismissal is permitted provided there is an "urgent cause".

New Zealand - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; raising occupational health and security concerns; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Niger - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Nigeria - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Norway - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; nationality/national origin; age; disabilities; performing military or civil service; parental leave; adoption leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Notes / Remarks
NOTE: Starting with the 01 January 2018, the prohibition of discriminatory dismissals based on all of the mentioned grounds is solely regulated by Art. 6 and 29(e) of the newly adopted Equality and Discrimination Act (No. 51 of 2017) (likestillings- og diskrimineringsloven).

Panama - 2010    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; participation in a lawful strike; birth

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Philippines - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Portugal - 2014    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's capacity; economic reasons; worker's conduct  new 

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; sex; sexual orientation; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; parental leave; birth; genetic information; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Romania - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's capacity; economic reasons; worker's conduct

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; performing military or civil service; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; genetic information; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Russian Federation - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; race; colour; sex; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; financial status; language; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; minors

Rwanda - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; colour; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; confirmed injured workers

Saint Lucia - 2011    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; whistle blowing; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Saudi Arabia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Senegal - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Serbia - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; performing military or civil service; language; parental leave; state of health

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities

Singapore - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; age; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Notes / Remarks
Under the Employment Act, either party to a contract of employment may at any time give to the other party notice of his/her intention to terminate the contract of employment (sec. 10 (1), EA).

In addition, summary dismissal (without notice) by the employer is possible when:
- the employee willfully breaches a condition of the employment contract (sec. 11 (2), EA);
- the employee is continuously absent from work, without leave or reasonable excuse, for more than two days (sec. 13 (2), EA); or
- the employee is found, after due inquiry, to be guilty of misconduct (sec. 14, EA).

Slovakia - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons  new 

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; property; state of health; fulfilling state duties; genetic information; ethnic origin  new 

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; confirmed injured workers; workers with disabilities; workers performing military/alternative service; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury; workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function  new 

Slovenia - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; financial status; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; state of health; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; confirmed injured workers; older workers/workers on the verge of retirement; workers with disabilities; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

South Africa - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; language; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Spain - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; adoption leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Sri Lanka - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; religion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; language; birth

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Switzerland - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; performing military or civil service; exercise of a right; solely frustrate the formation of claims arising out of the employment relationship; state of health; conviction or failure to disclose a conviction

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with a long period of service

Syrian Arab Republic - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Tajikistan - 2015    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's capacity; worker's conduct; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; place of residence; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Tanzania, United Republic of - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; exercise of a right; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; HIV status; place of residence; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

Thailand - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; filing a complaint against the employer; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Tunisia - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; trade union membership and activities; performing military or civil service

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers performing military/alternative service

Turkey - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; trade union membership and activities; language; birth

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Turkmenistan - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; race; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; disabilities; language; property; place of residence; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; minors

Uganda - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; trade union membership and activities; participation in a lawful strike; lawfully taking leave; HIV status

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

United Arab Emirates - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: filing a complaint against the employer

Workers enjoying special protection: workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury; national employees

United Kingdom - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; whistle blowing; adoption leave; raising occupational health and security concerns; performing jury service; conviction or failure to disclose a conviction; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

United States - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy; maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; parental leave; whistle blowing; gender identity; adoption leave; raising occupational health and security concerns; performing jury service; genetic information

Workers enjoying special protection: no protected groups

Uzbekistan - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: race; sex; religion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; language; property; conviction or failure to disclose a conviction

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of - 2011    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers performing military/alternative service

Viet Nam - 2012    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; temporary work injury or illness; race; sex; religion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; lawfully taking leave

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Yemen - 2013    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: No

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; age; trade union membership and activities; language; participation in a lawful strike; lawfully taking leave

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Zambia - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct; worker's capacity; economic reasons

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; religion; political opinion; social origin; trade union membership and activities; lawfully taking leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury