Substantive requirements for dismissals (justified and prohibited grounds) - France - 2012
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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee
- Labour Code (2007-2008: new codification), as subsequently amended, consolidated version dated 31 December 2012 (Code du travail - in French only)
Date: 31 Dec 2012; view website » (view in NATLEX »)
Valid grounds (justified dismissal)
- Motives must be provided by the employer during a prior oral interview: art L1232-3 LC.
In addition, the reasons behind the dismissals should be exposed in the letter of notification of the dismissal: art. L1232-6 LC
: any fair reasons
- Individual dismissal: must be justified by a serious and genuine cause ("cause réelle et sérieuse"): art. L 1232-1 LC
Dismissal for economic reasons: must be equally justified by a serious and genuine cause : art. L 1233-3 LC.
: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; temporary work injury or illness; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; nationality/national origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; gender identity; state of health; adoption leave; performing jury service; genetic information; ethnic origin
NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Workers enjoying special protection
- Art. L 1132-1 LC: list of prohibited grounds of discrimination. [New in 2012: gender identity was introduced as a new prohibited ground by Law No 2012-954 of 6 August 2012]
Art. L 1132-2 LC: lawful exercise of the right to strike.
Art. L1132-3 LC: whistle blowing.
Art. L1132-3-1 LC: performing jury service [New in 2011: new ground introduced by Law No 2011-939 of August 2011]
Art. L 1225-4 LC: dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave (whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave). Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy or confinement. The same protection against dismissal applies to a employee in adoption leave (see art. 1225-38 LC)
: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave
- *Workers' representatives:
- Trade union representatives and other worker's representatives: art. L 2411-1 LC
- Worker's adviser: art. 1232-14 LC
* Pregnant women and women on maternity leave: art. L 1225-4 and L 1225-5 LC, employees on adoption leave: art 12225-38 LC
Dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave (whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave) and during the period of paid adoption leave, as well as during four weeks after the end of maternity and adoption leave. Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy, confinement or adoption. However, the dismissal or notice of dismissal may not take place during the periods of maternity and adoption leave.