Retail industry - 201 entries found
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Kihlstedt A., Hägg G.M.
Checkout cashier work and counter design - Video movement analysis, musculoskeletal disorders and customer interaction
This study was conducted in order to analyse checkout cashiers' movements at a checkout counter during interaction with customers and the prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders in checkout cashiers. In one shop, six cashiers were videotaped during the workday and 50 cashiers from seven shops from the same chain of stores responded to a questionnaire. Cashier activities and movements, customer interaction and counter design issues were analysed from the video data. Prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders was obtained from the questionnaire. It was found that 76% of all items were manually turned or angled. With a better adjustment of the scanner and a standardised positioning of the barcode, many of these movements could be avoided. Furthermore the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was quite high (68% for the neck). The questionnaire results showed that many cashiers experienced stress. The behaviour of the customers was the major cause of stress. Other sources of stress arose from bad design or function of the computer system or other technical equipment.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.201-207. Illus. 19 ref.
Guide on manual handling risk assessment in the retail sector
This short, practical guide has been prepared to provide guidance on useful interventions that can be made in the retail sector to address the issue of injury caused by manual handling. The guide aims: to outline briefly the legislation underpinning the need to address manual handling activity in the workplace; to outline briefly the reasons why it is necessary to put improvements in place to avoid or reduce manual handling; to explain in simple and practical terms the manual handling risk assessment process; to illustrate through worked examples and case studies how a manual handling risk assessment can be completed.
Health and Safety Authority, The Metropolitan Building, James Joyce Street, Dublin 1, Ireland, 2010. 34p. Illus.
HAS0357.pdf [in English]
The Kauris method - Evaluation and management of the risks of violence at the place of work
El método Kauris - Evaluación y gestión del riesgo de violencia en el trabajo [in Spanish]
In Finland, 5% of workers have been exposed to a violent incident. This article presents the Kauris method developed in 2001 by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Safety and Health for the retail sector, where the risks of violent incidents are above average. The objective is to help individual businesses to evaluate and manage violence at the place of work. The method, which involves a participatory approach, was pilot tested in 12 stores of a large Finnish retail chain. Results of the study are discussed.
Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2009, Vol.55, No.327, p.68,70. 7 ref.
Workplace violence intervention effectiveness: A systematic literature review
This systematic review of literature published since 1992 was carried out to determine the effectiveness of interventions in preventing workplace violence and to suggest specific interventions warranting further research. The health care sector was the topic of 54% of the papers, followed by the retail sector industry with 11% of the papers. A first group of papers discussed in this review evaluates interventions to prevent robbery and violence to workers in the retail sector. A second group of papers is about interventions to prevent violence to health care workers, mostly training in techniques for dealing with combative patients.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1049-1055. 58 ref.
The large retail sector: Hypermarkets and supermarkets
La grande distribution: hypermarchés et supermarchés [in French]
Comprised of over 10,000 stores employing 480,000 workers, the large retail sector is particularly exposed to occupational accidents and diseases. During 2006 in France, there were 61 occupational accidents per thousand workers in hypermarkets and 68 occupational accidents per thousand workers in supermarkets. The French national occupational disease insurance for salaried workers (CNAMTS) therefore decided to undertake various prevention initiatives together with sector professional bodies and large retail chains, which are summarized in this Internet document.
Caisse Nationale de l'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAMTS), 26-50 av. du professeur André Lemierre, 75986 Paris cedex 20, France, 2009. Internet document (HTML format). 4 ref.
http://www.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/fr/AccueilDossiers/AccueilDossiers_la_grande_distribution_1.php [in French]
Casteel C., Peek-Asa C., Greenland S., Chu L.D., Kraus J.F.
A study of the effectiveness of a workplace violence intervention for small retail and service establishments
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a robbery and violence prevention programme in small businesses in Los Angeles. Gas stations, stores, bars, restaurants and motels were enrolled between 1997 and 2000. Intervention businesses totaling 305 were provided training, programme implementation materials and recommendations for a comprehensive security programme. The 96 control businesses received neither training nor programme materials. Rate ratios comparing intervention to control businesses were 0.90 for violent crime and 0.81 for robbery. Results suggest that the workplace violence prevention programmes may reduce violent crime among high-risk businesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1365-1370. 20 ref.
Rauscher K.J., Runyan C.W., Schulman M.D., Bowling J.M.
US child labor violations in the retail and service industries: Findings from a national survey of working adolescents
In order to investigate child labour violations among adolescents working in the retail and service industries, interview data from a nationally representative sample of working adolescents were used, together with reports of specific violations (hours of work, restricted equipment and work permits). Hazardous occupation violations (prohibited jobs or use of equipment) were reported by 37% of respondents and 40% reported a work permit violation. Other findings are discussed. Significant numbers of adolescents are employed in violation of the child labor laws and as a result are exposed to safety risks. Closer attention to enforcement policy and practice is needed.
American Journal of Public Health, Sep. 2008, Vol. 98, No.9, p.1693-1699. 43 ref.
Runyan C.W., Vladutiu C.J., Rauscher K.J., Schulman M.
Teen workers' exposures to occupational hazards and use of personal protective equipment
Prior research indicates that working adolescents seek care for the toxic effects of on-the-job chemical and environmental hazard exposures. This cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 866 adolescent workers in the retail and service sector examines their exposures, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and training. Two-thirds of respondents were exposed to continuous, very loud noise, 55% to thermal hazards and 54% to chemical hazards. Few teens reported using any PPE, though those who had been trained reported somewhat higher usage. Teens working in the retail and service sectors experience a variety of chemical, thermal, biologic and noise exposures. Efforts to eradicate such exposures need to be complemented by increased provision of PPE and appropriate training in their use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.735-740. Illus. 23 ref.
Shoe repair and multi-service operators
Opérateur(trice) en cordonnerie et multiservices [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet on occupational medicine applied to the job of operators of multi-service shops (shoe repair, key cutting, engraving, rubber stamp production, etc.): definition of the job; general characteristics of the occupation; technical and organizational characteristics of the occupation; nuisances and constraints; hazard evaluation methods; health effects and occupational medicine; occupational safety and health; medical supervision; regulations; work and health.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.4, 2p. Insert.
Li X.R., Koseki H., Iwata Y.
Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage
This article presents work done in order to investigate the cause of an explosion during the processing of raw garbage in a volume-reduction processing facility at a Japanese shopping mall. Variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction were found as a function of oil content, decreasing from 150°C in the samples containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114°C when the oil content reached 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility heated by hot air of 150°C blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanied by an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached 1070°C, accompanied by the emission of several gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and ethane. Probable mechanisms explaining the observed explosion are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.38-43. Illus. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Managing work-related violence in licensed and retail premises
Aimed at owners and managers of retail and licensed premises, this booklet contains information and practical advice on how to assess and tackle the risk of violence to staff. The advice is based on interviews with persons who work in pubs, clubs and shops concerning their experience of tackling violence where they work, including measures that have helped combat the problem. Topics addressed: responsibilities of employers; hazard evaluation; reporting and recording of incidents; training of personnel; investigation into the causes of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2008. 15p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg423.pdf [in English]
Checkouts with style
Kassen mit Klasse [in German]
In the retail sector, the space available for cashiers to carry out various tasks is limited. The effect of the introduction of bar-code scanners and conveyor belts was to accelerate the flow of products and to increase the monotony of the job. To improve working conditions, experts from the German retail trade association conducted an ergonomic analysis of these workplaces and advised retailers on layouts as a function of the size and type of products, as well as of the other tasks carried out by the cashiers. The experts devised a system aimed at analysing cashiers' work postures, taking into account the moving area, workstation height, grip distance, leg and foot room, and angle of vision. Optimum and maximum dimensions were defined for the work area. It is recommended to allow employees to alternate between sitting and standing work postures.
Arbeit und Gesundheit, 2007, No.12, p.6-8. Illus. 4 ref.
St-Vincent M., Denis D., Gonella M., Trudeau R.
Prevention guide - Handling work and customer service in warehouse superstores
Guide de prévention - Le travail de manutention et le service à la clientèle dans les magasins-entrepôts [in French]
Two ergonomic studies carried out in two major chain warehouse superstores characterized the physical and psychosocial risks to which workers are exposed. The aim of the first study was to better understand the handlers' activities, while the aim of the second was to obtain a more general picture of the work in these companies by analyzing the sales clerks' tasks. These studies showed that handlers have to deal with musculoskeletal constraints well as risks of falls and loss of balance, while the characteristics of customer service produce significant stress in sales clerks. These findings enabled the compiling of this practical guide on the prevention of work-related hazards in these environments.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. Folder containing a guide (41p. Illus) and eight leaflets. Price: CAD 15.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-484.pdf [in French]
The impact of global food chains on employment in the food and drink sector
L'impact des filières alimentaires mondiales sur l'emploi dans le secteur des produits alimentaires et des boissons [in French]
La incidencia de las cadenas mundiales de alimentación en el empleo en el sector de alimentación y bebidas [in Spanish]
This report was prepared as a basis for discussion at a tripartite meeting on the impact of global food chains on employment in the food and drink sector held in Geneva, Switzerland, 24-27 September 2007. The research that has led to the preparation of this report, apart from providing indications on employment trends around the world in the food and drink industry, has brought to the fore certain social and labour issues arising from the globalization of food chains, such as the rise of retailers as they gain more control over global supply chains as well as consumer information. It raises other questions such as further company concentration which in turn has repercussions at the level of processors, manufacturers and seed suppliers, who cluster even further to supply mass-produced, uniform products at margins acceptable to such firms. Farms, in turn, will need to grow larger to meet the demand for raw materials in mass quantities at lower prices, disempowering smaller, independent farmers. More and more consumers are adopting a posture of resistance to the dictates of food conglomerates and their control over consumer choices. All these developments together require analysis and pro-active measures to safeguard employment and decent work in the sector.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. iii, 28p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in Spanish]
Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Fiorentini C., Graziosi F., Curti S., Violante F.S.
Relationship between repetitive work and the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in part-time and full-time female supermarket cashiers: A quasi-experimental study
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among supermarket cashiers. Participants included 71 full-time and 155 part-time cashiers, together with 98 office workers as controls, all women, employed at four large supermarkets in Italy. Evaluations included job observations and clinical examinations, including clinician-administered questionnaires and a bilateral conduction study of the median nerve. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. The prevalence of CTS symptoms was higher among full-time (31.0%) than part-time cashiers (19.3%) or controls (16.3%). Regression analyses confirmed the increased risk for CTS symptoms in full-time cashiers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.80, No.3, p.248-253. 27 ref.
Alcouffe J., Bouchet H., Chaney C., Le Pache J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Effects of external violence on musculoskeletal disorders among cashiers in stores selling mainly food in Ile-de France
Effets des violences externes sur les troubles musculosquelettiques chez les hôtes et hôtesses de caisse dans la distribution à prédominance alimentaire en Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of external violence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among supermarket cashiers, and to identify the factors that could possibly reduce this impact. It was carried out in 2006 in the form of a cross-sectional survey of supermarket cashiers in the Ile-de-France region of France by means of a questionnaire. 818 responses were received from 111 shops employing 2425 cashiers. The majority (86.4%) of the respondents were women. Nearly all respondants (95.5%) reported suffering from MSDs. Regression analysis showed that stress is a key risk factor of MSDs. External violence was also found to be an important risk factor of stress. Correlations between various locations of MSDs and the frequency of unpleasant or violent incidents with customers were observed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.129-138. 5 ref.
Bouchet H., Castel S., Chaney C., Mzabi M.I.
Fishmongers through the ages
Poissonniers d'hier et d'aujourd'hui [in French]
The job of fishmonger has much evolved through the centuries, as have the methods used for fishing and transporting fish (including the rapid growth in deep freezing on-board fishing vessels). Today, fishmongers work in small fish shops, in medium and large supermarket chains, on markets, in industrial enterprises, at wholesalers, at caterers or in traditional restaurants. In this occupation, occupational accidents and diseases can have multiple effects on the operations of the enterprise. The main hazards include osteo-articular injuries due to occupational accidents (falls, incorrect manual handling) or repetitive work, skin injuries and diseases (cuts, burns, contact dermatitis, warts) and cardiovascular diseases due to prolonged exposure to cold working environments. An occupational information sheet on the job of fishmonger is included as an insert.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-127. 8 ref. + Insert 2p.
Safe manual handling - Retail industry
This leaflet on safe manual handling in the retail sector addresses safe work postures and workloads, and the use of mechanical aids and fork-lift trucks.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2006. 5p. Illus.
Safe_manual_handling_Retail_industry_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Acceptance of used electrical and electronic consumer products by retail stores. Help in identifying occupational hazards
La reprise des équipements électriques et électroniques en distribution. Aide au repérage des risques professionnels [in French]
The acceptance of used electrical and electronic consumer goods by retail stores is giving rise to new occupational situations. Aimed at raising the consciousness of retailers, the objectives of this booklet are to describe these operations and to help identify the new occupational hazards they involve. Contents: regulatory aspects; description of material flow chains; description of the hazards related to physical activities, used materials, falls on the level, in-plant transport and movement of goods, falls of objects, emissions, biological agents and other hazards.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2006. 16p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/94010C0F6C11FBDBC12572650038B76E/$FILE/ed996.pdf [in French]
Koistinen T., Ruoppi P., Putus T., Pennanen S., Harju A., Nuutinen J.
Occupational sensitization to storage mites in the personnel of a water-damaged grocery store
The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposure and sensitization to storage mites (SM) in sales staff working in a moisture-damaged building and three healthy reference buildings. The study population consisted of all 12 employees of the moisture-damaged grocery store and twelve symptom-free controls working in three healthy reference groceries, matched by age, sex and occupation. Dust samples from each building were examined for mites. The clinical study consisted of an otorhinolaryngological examination and a determination of IgE reactivity to three SMs and two house dust mites. Prick tests were made to the same five mites and to five common aeroallergens. If sensitization to any of the SMs was detected, a nasal provocation test was also performed. SMs were found in all buildings. Seven cases and four control subjects showed IgE-mediated reactivity. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.602-606. 29 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p303n44j40h4368t/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Alcouffe J., Chaney C., Le Pache J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
External violence at work among cashiers of hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores in Ile-de-France
La violence externe au travail chez les hôtes et hôtesses de caisses dans la grande distribution, les supérettes et les mini libres-services en Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe and evaluate the frequency of external violence inflicted on supermarket cashiers. It involved a questionnaire survey administered by 63 occupational physicians among 1325 supermarket employees in the Greater Paris region. The sample consisted mostly of women (88%), of average age 32 years. Practically all employees (94%) declared having been subjected to at least one type of violence: armed robbery (7.8%), blows and injuries (3.9%), aggressive behaviour (34.2%), verbal violence (63.0%), abuse (84.1%) and shouting in the queue (81.5%). When occurring repeatedly, these events may cause various pathologies. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 2006, Vol.46, No.3, p.335-345. Illus. 17 ref.
Back to work, back to health - Return to work for the retail industry
This booklet provides guidance for employers and supervisors in the retail sector on helping injured workers recover and return to work. Contents: responding to injuries; working with doctors and health care services; working with the occupational safety and health institution of British Columbia (WorkSafeBC); promoting return to work; sample letters and information sheets.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, [c2006]. 20p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/back_to_work_back_to_health.pdf [in English]
St-Vincent M., Denis D., Imbeau D., Trudeau R.
Symptoms of stress related to the characteristics of customer service in warehouse superstores
The stress symptoms of 91 sales clerks and 28 managers in six warehouse superstores of a large chain specializing in office supplies were documented with the Karasek and Maslach questionnaires. The results show different stress symptoms in the two populations. In managers, stress appears to be a result of an overinvestment in work. Stress in sales clerks is related to customer service characteristics, which were studied through work observation, interviews and the analysis of a daily journal. It was found that the time that can be allotted to each customer service intervention is less than one minute. In more than a third of such interventions, sales clerks must serve more than one customer at a time. On average, they cannot work continuously on the same task more than 1.5 min. Sales clerks are also stressed by difficult customers. Solutions are proposed mainly to reduce interruptions that lead to mistakes, stress, degraded performance and increased workload.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2006, Vol.36, No.4, p.313-321. Illus. 25 ref.
't Mannetje A., Pearce N.
Bladder cancer risk in sales workers: Artefact or cause for concern?
A large number of epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between bladder cancer and sales occupations. This study investigated whether these findings are likely to be due to chance, confounding or publication bias, or truly involve causal associations. Studies reporting bladder cancer risk-estimates for sales occupations were reviewed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using meta-analyses. Findings are discussed. Publication bias explained most of the reported increased bladder cancer risk, but sales-work still appeared to be associated with a small risk in women. Possible causal factors include lower frequency of urination and reduced fluid intake.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.49, No.3, p.175-186. Illus. 50 ref.
Occupational safety and health in action. Jewellery: Production and sales
La prévention en action. Les bijouteries: fabrication-vente [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in the jewellery manufacturing and sales sector. It is aimed at the heads of establishments as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include the main French laws and regulations, together with examples of a hazard evaluation checklist and a preventive action programme.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Jun. 2006. 36p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19042.PDF [in French]
Social and labour implications of the increased use of advanced retail technologies
Conséquences sociales et dans le domaine du travail du recours accru aux technologies les plus modernes dans le commerce de détail [in French]
Consecuencias sociales y laborales de una mayor utilización de las tecnologías avanzadas destinadas a minoristas [in Spanish]
This report was prepared for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting on the Social and Labour Implications of the Increased Use of Advanced Retail Technologies held in Geneva, 18-20 September 2006. It provides a regional overview of the retail trade worldwide and examines the implications of the introduction of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. A section on occupational safety and health suggests that there is a lack of authoritative data on the potential hazards of these systems and recommends the collection of exposure data.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. x, 53p. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 15.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmart06/report.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmart06/report.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmart06/report.pdf [in French]
Larisch J., Ritter W., Saßmannshausen A., Lang K.H., Pieper R., Hien W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Occupational safety and health management in the retail sector: REWE pilot project
Arbeitsschutzmanagement im Handel: Pilotprojekt REWE [in German]
The aim of this study was to establish whether the German occupational safety and health (OSH) management guidelines are applicable to the retail sector. A pilot project was undertaken to examine their applicability within the REWE group, one of the largest German retailers. Benchmarking the REWE OSH management system against the five main dimensions of the national OSH management guidelines showed that important improvements are necessary. Several recommendations are made for improving the system in the retail sector.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 162p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 17.00.
Bleyer T., Hold U., Müller-Arnecke H.W., Windel A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Ergonomic layout of service counters in various selected sectors
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Bedientheken in ausgewählten Arbeitsbereichen [in German]
Service counters in the retail sector can be of various shapes. They are mainly designed to meet storage and display requirements. However, their accessibility and ergonomics have a decisive influence on movements and postures adopted by the personnel. In this study, four types of service counters used by bakers and butchers were examined under five different work environments. The ergonomic evaluation considered both work postures (torso flexion angle and extent of arm stretching) and the layout of workstations. Proposals are made in view of optimizing the ergonomics of the workstations and improving workers'comfort.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 155p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: EUR 16.00.
Violante F.S., Graziosi F., Bonfiglioli R., Curti S., Mattioli S.
Relations between occupational, psychosocial and individual factors and three different categories of back disorder among supermarket workers
This cross-sectional study on low back pain (LBP) involved 3,702 subjects working in a large Italian supermarket chain. Data regarding the various departments were collected by questionnaires and medical examinations conducted by qualified occupational physicians. The overall 12-month prevalence of LBP was 34.5% (36.6% for women and 30.7% for men), with few differences being found between supermarkets and hypermarkets. Different types of LBP showed significant associations with stress-related psychosomatic symptoms, but not with job satisfaction, which was high overall. These encouraging data provide support for the effectiveness of an active management commitment to ergonomic and job-satisfaction policies which were evident in this supermarket chain.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.613-624. 39 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/gpt919gvwlcurgeugxuq/contributions/x/4/8/0/x4806q2213h23r08.pdf [in English]
Brant A., Nightingale S., Berriman J., Sharp C., Welch J., Newman Taylor A.J., Cullinan P.
Supermarket baker's asthma: How accurate is routine health surveillance?
A supermarket chain with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health programme involving around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved a respiratory symptoms questionnaire. If symptoms were present, a second questionnaire focusing on workplace exposures was administered. If employees were considered exposed, specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase were determined in blood. Results were compared to those of an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees had work-related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% in the cross-sectional survey, suggesting that that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons are unclear and additional research needs to be done into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.395-399. Illus. 13 ref.
Trudeau R., St-Vincent M., Denis D., Imbeau D.
Serving clients in the retail industry - A source of stress
Servir les clients dans le commerce de détail: une source de stress [in French]
Warehouse stores constitute an important segment of the retail sector in North America, including Canada. Warehouse store workers responsible for selling are required both to serve customers and to carry out manual handling tasks. This article summarizes the findings of a survey on working conditions and stress factors among workers of a large chain of warehouse stores in Quebec. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, video recordings and interviews. Findings are discussed and various improvements are proposed.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.26-31. 8 ref.
Ergonomics for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders - Guidelines for grocery stores
A major component of OSHA's approach to ergonomics is the development of industry-specific and task-specific guidelines to reduce and prevent workplace musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). These voluntary guidelines are tools to assist employers in recognizing and controlling ergonomics-related risk factors. They are intended for retail grocery stores, supermarkets, discount merchandisers and warehouse retail establishments. These guidelines provide retailers with effective approaches, as well as useful references to be used when determining the need for ergonomic solutions. They can be adapted to the needs and resources of each individual store.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, May 2004. 28p. Illus. 14 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3192.pdf [in English]
Ergonomics for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders - Guidelines for retail grocery stores
These OSHA's ergonomic guidelines for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in supermarkets provide practical recommendations to help employers and employees reduce the number and severity of injuries in their workplaces. Many of the work-related injuries and illnesses experienced by grocery store workers are MSDs, including injuries and sprains that may develop from various factors, including lifting, repetitive motion or overexertion. The heart of these guidelines is the description of various solutions that have been implemented by grocery stores. Contents: description of the ergonomic process; providing management support; involving employees; providing training; implementing solutions; storewide ergonomic solutions; specific ergonomic solutions for front end (checkout, bagging and carry out), stocking, bakery, meat and deli, and fresh produce.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2004. 28p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3192.pdf [in English]
Kennedy S.M., Copes R., Bartlett K.H., Brauer M.
Point-of-sale glass bottle recycling: Indoor airborne exposures and symptoms among employees
Airborne exposures and both chronic and acute respiratory and somatic symptoms were surveyed among 226 employees at 36 randomly selected liquor stores with bottle recycling and in-house glass breaking. Rates of chronic symptoms were compared to an external, unexposed control population. Exposure levels were estimated for inhalable particulate matter (0.18 mg/m3), endotoxin (3.6 EU/m3) and viable fungi (1064 CFU/m3). Fungal levels were associated with visibly mouldy bottles being broken, outdoor fungal counts and uncovered glass bins. Compared to controls, employees reported more work related chest tightness and chronic nasal symptoms. Acute chest symptoms were associated with breaking visibly mouldy bottles, but not with measured fungal counts; inhalable particulate matter levels >0.2 mg/m3 were associated with acute upper airway irritation. Results suggest that this type of recycling programme may generate fungal exposures sufficient to elicit upper airway and chest symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.628-635. 23 ref.
Collecting shopping trolleys: A manual handling injury concern
Shopping trolley collection was observed at six shopping centres. These observations showed that some collectors use possibly unsafe practices in nesting and moving columns of trolleys. To assess whether these practices could lead to manual handling injuries, a series of experiments were conducted. The forces encountered in two observed methods of nesting trolleys were measured and compared. The initial and sustained push forces required to move columns of up to 10 shopping trolleys were measured on the flat asphalt surface of a shopping centre car park. The push forces required to move larger numbers of nested trolleys were estimated using regression analysis. Pushing more than 13 nested trolleys was found to exceed recommended push forces and, hence, could lead to manual handling injury.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct.2004, Vol.20, No.5, p.433-440. Illus. 16 ref.
Shinnar A., Indelicato J., Altimari M., Shinnar S.
Survey of ergonomic features of supermarket cash registers
This research was conducted to examine the biomechanical features of cash register workstations in the State of New York. Comparisons and conclusions about the designs were based on the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards regarding supermarket cash registers. 15 supermarkets representing a cross-section of neighbourhoods were included in the study. Stores were measured for heights of the various work surfaces and reach distances to the commonly used components. Results revealed that none of the stores applied biomechanically-correct designs. Disregard for certain biomechanical aspects of the register design, specifically surface heights and reach distance may contribute significantly to a high risk for musculoskeletal injury faced by cashiers.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Dec. 2004, Vol.34, No.6, p.535-541. 33 ref.
Ballue C., Lavergne G., Vernois M.G.
Neighbourhood food shops - Guide to hazard evaluation
Les commerces alimentaires de proximité - Aide à l'évaluation des risques [in French]
This guide is aimed at owners or operators of neighbourhood food shops that are affected by the national collective agreement of fruit and vegetable, grocery and dairy product retailers who run shops, market stalls or mobile retail units. It seeks to help owners or operators analyse and evaluate the hazards within their enterprise and implement preventive measures. Contents: responsibilities of owners or operators; economic aspects of occupational hazards (accidents and diseases); preventive measures; risk factors; dealings with other enterprises (such as deliverers); training; personal protective equipment; emergency services.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2004. 39p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/0A495AAAE0B003D4C1256EC3004DC4FC/$FILE/ed925.pdf [in French]
Chaney C., Le Pache J., Aucour C., Alcouffe J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Trends in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among women supermarket cashiers before and after the reorganization of the job (phases 1 and 2)
Evolution des plaintes musculosquelettiques (TMS) chez les hôtesses de caisse avant et après réorganisation des postes (phases 1 et 2) [in French]
In this case-control study, musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) of supermarket cashiers were evaluated before and one year after changing the type of supermarket till. The study involved an ergonomic survey and an epidemiological survey of cases (workers in the supermarket with the new tills) and controls (workers at a supermarket of the same chain but without change of tills), during 2001 and 2002. 226 questionnaires were analysed in 2001 (113 cases and 113 controls) and 190 in 2002 (109 cases and 81 controls). Changes in till type resulted in lower levels of MSDs of the neck and upper back, and lower frequencies of MSDs of the right shoulder. Besides a change in equipment, improvements in training and support by management and colleagues also contributed to the reduced incidence of MSDs among this group of workers.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.2, p.181-196. 32 ref.
St-Vincent M., Laberge M., Denis D., Richard M.C., Imbeau D., Delisle A., Dufour B.
Main determinants of manual handling work in a warehouse superstore
Les principaux déterminants de l'activité de manutention dans un magasin-entrepôt de grande surface [in French]
Within the retail sector, warehouse stores present a high risk of back pain for their workers. This report describes the ergonomic analysis of materials handling work in a warehouse store, with a focus on the job of stocker which involves numerous handling activities. It also describes the characteristics of the warehouse superstore based on the products stored, the physical layout and work organization. The study shows that the stocker's work has a large planning component related to stock and arrival management. Together with the employer, the study team proposed a number of practical solutions for the specific ergonomic problems that were identified.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. viii, 67p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: CAD 7.49.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-365.pdf [in French]
Chaney C., Le Pache J., Aucour C., Alcouffe J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Study of the musculoskeletal disease (MSD) risk factors in a population of 334 female supermarket cashiers in the Paris region
Etude des facteurs de risque de troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) dans une population de 334 hôtesses de caisse de la région parisienne [in French]
The objective of this study was to highlight the risk factors of musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among retail sales cashiers in the Paris region. Work involved analysing the combined data from two surveys carried out in two hypermarkets of the same chain before and one year after the redesign of the tills. A numerical value for MSDs was computed according to the CAIL method developed by INRS. 334 women cashiers were divided into two groups of similar size (MSD+ and MSD-) according to whether their MSD value was above or below the median value. Statistical analysis enabled the highlighting of the following risk factors: overweight, feeling being exposed to cold, lack of variety in the job, unsatisfactory job performance evaluations, feeling under stress, personal and occupational worries and difficulties in communicating with colleagues and supervisors.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.3, p.319-328. Illus. 28 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Mental stress in the service sector - Example of the retail sector
Psychische Belastung in der Dienstleistungsbranche - am Beispiel Einzelhandel [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop on mental stress in the retail trade held in Dresden, Germany, on 1st October 2003. Topics covered: mental stress and "sentimental work" in selling activities; conditions of work of employees in the food retail sector; new demands in sales jobs; occupational health hazards and exposure assessment methods; development of an instrument for analysing, evaluating and deriving organizational measures.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 97p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
http://www.baua.de/info/tb04_05/tb137.pdf [in German]
Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.
DeJoy D.M., Schaffer B.S., Wilson M.G., Vandenberg R.J., Butts M.M.
Creating safer workplaces: Assessing the determinants and role of safety climate
Responses to questionnaires on safety climate were obtained from 2,208 employees of a large national US retail chain in 21 different locations. After controlling for demographic variables, three factors, namely environmental conditions, safety-related policies and programmes, and general organizational climate, were found to account for 55% of the variance in perceived safety climate. Organizational climate made a significant contribution to safety climate, even after controlling for the other more safety-relevant variables. These results are discussed in terms of other recent findings on safety climate and the growing interest in understanding management and organizational factors in the context of workplace safety.
Journal of Safety Research, 2004, Vol.35, No.1, p.81-90. 44 ref.
Burel A., Codron R., Derieux N., Rosier M., Trimbach M.
Salespersons in large retail chain settings
Le commercial en relation avec la grande distribution [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on sales personnel responsible for the promotion of branded products in hypermarket or supermarket chains: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities (work locations, tools and equipment, products and materials used, body movements and postures); risks and stresses of the job (related to the environment, equipment, working hours and physical and mental workload); occupational diseases (osteoarticular diseases, accidents); prevention; regulations applicable in France.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.2, 2p. (Insert).
Beaugrand S., Richard J.G., Forcier L.
Prevention of MSDs in supermarkets - Where to start?
Prévenir les TMS en supermarché - Par où commencer? [in French]
This article summarizes and comments on a study of ergonomics, working conditions and musculoskeletal risk among supermarket workers in Quebec. Contents: general aspects of supermarket work; occupational safety and health activities in supermarkets; musculoskeletal risk factors; architecture; layout of premises and equipment; proposed approach for improvements in ergonomics and working conditions in this sector of activity.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2003, Vol.19, No.4, p.45-50. Illus. 7 ref.
Marchand A., Boyer R., Iucci S., Martin A., St.-Hilaire M.H., Guay S.
Prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder among employees of a convenience-store chain having experienced armed robberies
La prévention du trouble de stress post-traumatique chez les employés de dépanneurs victimes de vols à main armée [in French]
This report consists of a literature review on post-traumatic stress disorder among victims of assaults, as well as a survey carried out among employees of a convenience-store chain having experienced armed robberies. The purpose of the study was to establish whether victims who had benefited from short psychological interventions ("debriefings") were at reduced risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms compared to those who had not received this counselling. Result suggest some lowering of risk, but are insufficiently conclusive. Further work is under way, particularly on the importance of debriefings, with results expected soon.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, May. 2003. vii, 73p. Illus. 127 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-330.pdf [in French]
St-Vincent M., Denis D., Ouellet F., Beaugrand D., Imbeau D.
Case study: Contribution of various sources of data to an ergonomics intervention aimed at preventing musculoskeletal disorders
Etude de cas: apport de différentes sources de données à la réalisation d'une intervention ergonomique visant la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques [in French]
This report consists of an a posteriori analysis of the data from an earlier ergonomics study, for the purpose of better understanding the relative contributions of various sources of data in interventions aimed at preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The focus of the earlier study was on supermarket shelf stackers. Nine data sources were analysed: questionnaires on MSD symptoms; preliminary observations and interviews; personal interviews of workers assigned to the job being evaluated; interviews of other employees of the enterprise; two types of systematic job studies; self-confrontation interviews; group sessions; problem-solving sessions. The information provided by these various sources was analysed using an original methodology. Results show that interview data provide information on most topics and are richer and more descriptive, while quantitative data cover less topics but are much more precise.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Feb. 2003. vi, 163p. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-328.pdf [in French]
Winder B., Ridgway K., Nelson A., Baldwin J.
Food and drink packaging: Who is complaining and who should be complaining
This paper reports a questionnaire survey of shoppers at four supermarket stores in the United Kingdom on the packaging of food and drink products. Analyses on who was most likely to suffer accidents or injuries while opening food and drink packaging indicated that handedness (being left-handed made accidents more likely) and scoring low on a measure of personal control during decision-making were significant associates. Social resistance (resisting asking for help from others) was related to the most severe accidents. These findings imply that individual factors should be taken into account when designing the openability of packaging. They indicate that manufacturers should ensure that novel packaging closures are tested on left-handed people, that packaging opening tools specifically for them is available and that they should always look at a "worst case scenario" for their packaging closures, as it is evident that some persons will continue to struggle with difficult packaging until either they open it or injure themselves.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 2002, Vol.33, No.5, p.433-438. 14 ref.
Chaney C., Le Pache J., Aucour C., Alcouffe J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Trends in self-declared musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among women cashiers before and after the redesign of the workplace layout (Phase I)
Evolution des plaintes de troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) chez les hôtesses de caisse avant et après réorganisation des postes (Phase I) [in French]
Three occupational physicians involved in the medical supervision of a supermarket chain studied trends in self-declared musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among 385 women cashiers. This article reports on the results of a first phase of the study, consisting of characterizing the ergonomic aspects of cashiers' work as well as their personal work experience. Through job studies of four cashier workstations, it was possible to highlight an increased risk of MSD for the following tasks: taking goods off the conveyor; handling of goods at the counter; bagging. No differences were found in terms of risk of MSD among the stores that were studied. 226 responses to a questionnaire on occupational and psychological characteristics of the job were analysed. The findings indicate that the cashiers of the various supermarkets were comparable in all respects, including in particular the ratings for MSDs, psychosocial factors and stress levels.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.493-504. 26 ref.
Roebuck B., Norton G.
Health and Safety Executive
Safety of roll containers
Roll containers are half-pallet sized platforms, with four running castor wheels and a metallic cage used to contain goods during transport. They may be used to transport goods between a warehouse and a retail store, or within a supermarket to transport goods from the storeroom to the sales floor. Contents of this report on the safety of roll containers: causes of roll container accidents; advice on wheel and handle design to improve stability and to reduce the risk of accidents during handling; advice on loading limits for roll containers, including loading distribution; information on manual forces needed to move roll containers and how the loading affects these forces; recommendations on the use of tail lifts for use with roll containers. As part of this project, a video has also been produced as a training aid for both enforcement officers and industry, illustrating the factors involved in roll cage accidents and how these can be avoided.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 59p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr009.pdf [in English]
Bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops
Comercio y talleres de bicicletas y motocicletas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_025.pdf [in Spanish]
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