Health care services - 1,917 entries found
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Bell J., Collins J.W., Dalsey E., Sublet V.
Slip, trip, and fall prevention for healthcare workers
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the incidence rate of lost-workday injuries from slips, trips, and falls (STFs) in hospitals was 38.2 per 10,000 employees, which was 90% greater than the average rate for all other private industries combined. STFs as a whole are the second most common cause of lost-workday injuries in hospitals. This booklet provides guidance on preventing STF accidents among health care workers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Dec. 2010. PDF document. iii, 41p. Illus. 19 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-123.pdf [in English]
Elsler D., Heyer A., Kuhl K., Eeckelaert L., eds.
How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide
This guide on economic incentives schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimize their own programmes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers), but should also reward specific prevention efforts that aim to reduce future accidents and ill-health. Therefore the expert group suggested the development of compilations of innovative and evidence-based preventive solutions, starting with the three sectors construction, health care and restaurants/catering.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, Dec. 2011. 32p. Illus. 12 ref.
How_to_create_economic_incentives_in_OSH_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Nishio N., Tanaka H., Nishio J., Kouda K., Takeshita T.
Autopsy cases of lung cancer and liver cancer among Japanese dentists - A review of the annual of the pathology autopsy cases in Japan
Dentists are exposed to carcinogenic metals during their work. It has been speculated that dentists are also at high risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C, with possible increased risk of lung and liver cancer. This study was carried out to verify this hypothesis, by comparing the number of pathological diagnoses of lung cancer and liver cancer among autopsy cases of 225 male dentists with that among autopsy cases of 1296 male medical doctors. No difference between the dentist group and the medical doctor group was observed in the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer. Liver cancer was observed less often among dentists than among medical doctors.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.663-671. 65 ref.
Autopsy_cases_of_lung_cancer_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Bagaajav A., Myagmarjav S., Nanjid K., Otgon S., Chae Y.M.
Burnout and job stress among Mongolian doctors and nurses
This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of burnout among doctors and nurses in Mongolia. A self-administered questionnaire addressed to 180 doctors and 212 nurses resulted in a response rate of 87%. Burnout was measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) in three scales: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. Job stress was measured by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Compared with the prior studies of hospital staffs in other countries, doctors and nurses in Mongolia had relatively higher burnout rates, with personal, work-related and client-related average scores of 45.39, 44.45, and 32.46, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ERI significantly influenced all dimensions of burnout, while over-commitment significantly influenced personal and work-related burnout.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.582-588. 26 ref.
Burnout_and_job_stress_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Schult T.M., Awosika E.R., Hodgson M.J., Dyrenforth S.
Disparities in health behaviors and chronic conditions in health care providers in the Veterans Health Administration
The objective of this study was to determine baseline prevalence of health behaviours and chronic health conditions in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employees and highlight disparities by occupation group. There were 29,834 responses to the survey. Age-standardized prevalence estimates for VHA employees were compared to national estimates. The VHA estimates were analyzed for physicians and dentists; physician assistants and nurse practitioners; registered nurses; licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants; other clinical; nonclinical; and wage grade staff. Multilevel regression explored the effect of worksite. The VHA employees have higher rates of unhealthy behaviors and chronic health conditions than United States adults, except for smoking. Results illustrated significant disparities between occupation groups by demographics and variability by worksite.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1134-1145. Illus. 33 ref.
Disparities_in_health_behaviors_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Lombardi D.A., Smith G.S., Courtney T.K., Brennan M.J., Kim J.Y., Perry M.J.
Work-related falls from ladders - A follow-back study of US emergency department cases
Ladder falls comprise 16% of all United States workplace fall-related fatalities and ladder use may be particularly hazardous among older workers. This follow-back study of injured workers from a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments (ED) focused on factors related to ladder falls in three domains of the work environment: work equipment, work practices, and worker-related factors. Risk factors for fractures, the most frequent and severe outcome, were also evaluated. Workers injured from a ladder fall, treated in one of the 65 participating ED in the occupational National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) responded to a questionnaire on demographics, injury, ladder and work equipment and environment characteristics, work tasks, and activities. Findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.525-532. Illus. 23 ref.
Work-related_falls_from_ladders_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Kelly K.J., Wang M.L., Klancnik M., Petsonk E.L.
Prevention of IgE sensitization to latex in health care workers after reduction of antigen exposures
The objective of this study was to investigate occupational latex allergy in health care workers (HCWs) before and after an intervention designed to reduce latex allergen exposure from gloves. Latex antigen concentrations in work area air ducts were measured before the intervention. Symptoms and latex sensitization were monitored annually before and after the intervention in 805 HCWs, using questionnaires and skin prick testing. The prevalence of latex sensitization before the intervention correlated with air duct latex antigen measurements for HCWs exposed to low, intermediate and high antigen levels. After the intervention, new latex sensitization rates declined 16-fold, and 25% of previously sensitized employees reverted to negative skin tests. Airborne antigen exposure is a major source of latex sensitization among HCWs. Use of powder-free latex gloves markedly reduces the risk of sensitization.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.934-940. 26 ref.
Prevention_of_IgE_sensitization_to_latex_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Sorensen G., Stoddard A.M., Stoffel S., Buxton O., Sembajwe G., Hashimoto D., Dennerlein J.T., Hopcia K.
Role of the work context in multiple wellness outcomes for hospital patient care workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between low-back pain (LBP), inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency among patient care workers. It was carried out in the form of a cross-sectional survey of 1572 patient care workers (response rate 79%). A total of 53% reported LBP, 46%, inadequate physical activity, and 59%, sleep deficiency. Inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency were associated, but LBP was not significantly related to either. Increased risk of LBP was significantly related to job demands, harassment at work, decreased supervisor support and job title. Inadequate physical activity was significantly associated with low decision latitude. Sleep deficiency was significantly related to low supervisor support, harassment at work, poor ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture and job title. These findings point to shared pathways in the work environment that jointly influence multiple health and well-being outcomes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.899-910. 99 ref.
Role_of_the_work_context_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Bourbonnais R., Brisson C., Vézina M.
Long-term effects of an intervention on psychosocial work factors among healthcare professionals in a hospital setting
This case-control study assessed the long-term effects of a workplace intervention aimed at reducing adverse psychosocial work factors (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and effort-reward imbalance) and mental health problems among health care professionals in an acute care hospital. Pre-intervention and 3-year post-intervention measures were collected by telephone interviews with validated instruments. Three years after the intervention, all adverse psychosocial factors except one were reduced in the experimental group, and the improvement was statistically significant for five out of the nine factors. In addition, all health indicators improved. In the control hospital, three work factors improved significantly but two deteriorated significantly: decision latitude and social support. All health problems deteriorated, although not significantly, in the control hospital. Moreover, three years after the intervention, the mean of all adverse factors except one (psychological demands) and all health indicators was significantly more favourable in the experimental than the control hospital, after adjusting for pre-intervention measures. These results support the long-term effectiveness of the intervention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.479-486. Illus. 43 ref.
Long-term effects of an intervention_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Donnay C., Denis M.A., Magis R., Fevotte J., Massin N., Dumas O., Pin I., Choudat D., Kauffmann F., Le Moual N.
Under-estimation of self-reported occupational exposure by questionnaire in hospital workers
Occupational exposure to disinfecting and cleaning agents is common and high in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine whether self-reported occupational exposure various cleaning and disinfecting agents among hospital workers is accurate, in comparison to expert assessment. Hospital workers were interviewed by questionnaire regarding tasks and use of cleaning and disinfecting agents. The expert assessment involved a standardised procedure to estimate intensity, frequency and probability of exposure for each job. The analysis focused on eight exposures: formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bleach, alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, ammonia, sprays and latex gloves. Agreement and differences between self-reported and expert estimates were subjected to statistical analysis. Underestimations of self-reported exposures compared to expert assessments were observed especially for formaldehyde (26.5% vs 32.7%), ammonia (7.4% vs 18.8%), alcohol (64.9% vs 93.0%) and quaternary ammonium compounds (16.6% vs 70.9%). A large underestimation of self-reported exposure and a lack of knowledge of product components were observed. Findings show the relevance of expert assessment in epidemiological studies to limit measurement bias. This work underlines the need for health education programmes on the occupational risks induced by these types of products.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.68, No.8, p.611-617. Illus. 28 ref.
Under-estimation_of_self-reported_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Radiation protection - Radiology
Radioprotection - Scanographie [in French]
This information sheet on X-ray radiography is aimed at persons responsible for the radiological protection of technicians, namely radiological protection specialists, occupational physicians and employers. It is also aimed at users of these techniques, but does not claim to address issues related to the radiological protection of patients. It presents the various procedures, the specific types of hazards involved, hazard analysis and hazard evaluation, together with prevention methods.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.455-462. Illus.
Radioprotection_Scanographie_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Radiation protection: Applicable regulations - Review of regulations concerning radiation protection in medical settings
Radioprotection: textes applicables - Rappel de textes concernant la radioprotection dans le domaine médical [in French]
This information sheet is part of a collection providing a synthesis of useful information on radiation protection, by type of occupational activity. It cites French and European laws and regulations on radiation protection in medical settings.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.449-453.
Radioprotection_dans_le_domaine_médical_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Martin P., Galland B., Nicot T., Klingler J., Martin C., Vignaud M.C.
Exposure to organic solvents when placing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms
Exposition aux solvants organiques lors de la pose d'électrodes pour électroencéphalogrammes de longue durée [in French]
Nurses responsible for placing and removing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms use adhesives and adhesive removers which may contain varying proportions of volatile and unpleasant ethanol and diethyl ether. In this study, exposure to ethanol and diethyl ether was measured at several workplaces. Findings allowed to better understand the exposures of nursing personnel during specific tasks and to propose a number of preventive measures to be applied.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.397-408. Illus. 6 ref.
Exposition_aux_solvants_organiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Eickmann U., Falcy M., Fokuhl I., Rüegger M., Bloch M.
Surgical smoke: Hazards and preventive measures
Fumées chirurgicales. Risques et mesures de prévention [in French]
Surgery techniques that use heat or ultrasonics expose operators to pyrolysis products. These fumes contain mixtures of various substances which may include biologically-active substances, carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic. Acute poisoning symptoms include migraine, weakness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and respiratory system. There is a lack of epidemiological studies on the risks of surgical smoke to operator health. Preventive measures rely on collective protection (smoke aspiration, mechanical ventilation of the work environment), organization (information and training of personnel) and, where required, the use of personal protective equipment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.383-395. 61 ref.
Fumées_chirurgicales_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Dijkstra M.T.M., Beersma B., Evers A.
Reducing conflict-related employee strain: The benefits of an internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy
Workplace conflict is a potent stressor, but most previous research has focused on its effect on productivity and performance rather than on individual well-being. This cross-sectional study of 774 health care workers in the Netherlands examined the moderating roles of an individual's internal locus of control and a problem-solving conflict management strategy. It was found that employees' internal locus of control did moderate the relationship between experienced conflict at work and psychological strain, which was measured using a 13-item Dutch adaptation of the Occupational Stress Indicator. In addition, this moderation was mediated by the active conflict management strategy of problem solving; people with a more internal locus of control use a problem-solving conflict management strategy more often and, as a result, experience less psychological strain in cases of workplace conflict. Implications for conflict theory, for future research and for practice are discussed.
Work and Stress, 2nd quarter 2011, p.167-184. Illus. Approx. 60 ref.
Reducing_conflict-related_employee_strain.pdf [in English]
Mehta R.K., Horton L.M., Agnew M.J., Nussbaum M.A.
Ergonomic evaluation of hospital bed design features during patient handling tasks
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, during two patient handling tasks, the physical demands resulting from alternative hospital bed design features. Twenty-four novice participants were involved in two laboratory-based studies. The effects of a steering lock and adjustable push height were evaluated during a patient transportation task using perceptual responses and measures of performance and physical demands, and the effect of a bed contour feature was determined based on patient sliding distance during repeated bed raising/lowering. Use of the steering lock reduced the number of adjustments during bed manoeuvring by 28% and decreased ratings of physical demands. Use of the adjustable push height reduced shoulder moments by 30%. With the contour feature, patient sliding distance was reduced by 40% over 12 raise/lower cycles. These results suggest that the steering lock and adjustable push height features can reduce physical demands placed on healthcare workers during patient transportation tasks.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.647-652. Illus. 26 ref.
Dutta T., Holliday P.J., Gorski S.M., Baharvandy M.S., Fernie G.R.
The effects of caregiver experience on low back loads during floor and overhead lift maneuvering activities
This study investigated the effects of caregiver experience on peak external forces and moments generated at the L5/S1 joint of the low back when maneuvering loaded floor-based and overhead-mounted patient lifting devices. Twenty caregivers were divided into more-experienced and less-experienced groups based on the product of two factors: their years of lifting experience and the frequency of lifting the caregivers had done in the past. Ground reaction forces and moments as well as motion capture data were recorded while caregivers performed five different maneuvering tasks with both lifts in each of three conditions (caregiver subjects worked alone, as the primary caregiver in a pair, and as the secondary caregiver in a pair). Six outcome measures (net external forces and moments at the L5/S1 joint) were recorded. Multivariate analyses of variance of all net external forces and moments were done separately for the floor and overhead lifts. A significant effect of experience level was found for the floor lift but not for the overhead lift. A follow-up univariate analysis of floor lift activities found significant differences between more-experienced and less-experienced caregivers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.653-660. Illus. 45 ref.
Uusitalo A., Mets T., Martinmäki K., Mauno S., Kinnunen U., Rusko H.
Heart rate variability related to effort at work
The objective of this study was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on day 2 than on day 1 and the night time relaxation was significantly higher than daytime or work time relaxation on the both days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, are associated with cardiac autonomic function.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2011, Vol.42, No.6, p.830-838. 57 ref.
Kierklo A., Kobus A., Jaworska M., Botuliński B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists - A questionnaire survey
The objective of this study was to assess the musculoskeletal health of Polish dentists. It was carried in the form of a questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional sample of 220 dentists. The questionnaire addressed demographic details, work duration and acquired specialization, organization and methods of work, and musculoskeletal disorders. It was found that over 92% of the surveyed dentists experienced MSDs, especially in the neck (47%) and lower back (35%). More than 29% experienced trouble with fingers, 23% with hip, 20% in the mid-back, 20% in the shoulders, 18.3% in the wrists and 15-16% in knees, feet or elbows. Statistical dependence was shown between the years of practice and the period of time when disorders occurred. Moreover, significant relationships were found between MSDs and both standing work position and non-use of rest breaks. Implications of these findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2011, Vol.18, p.79-84. Illus. 21 ref.
Work-related_musculoskeletal_disorders.pdf [in English]
Natvik S., Bjorvatn B., Moen B.E., Magerøy N., Sivertsen B., Pallesen S.
Personality factors related to shift work tolerance in two- and three-shift workers
This study aimed to investigate whether personality variables were associated with shift work tolerance, and whether these potential associations were moderated by various types of shift work. The sample comprised 1505 nurses who worked either two or three rotating shifts. Personality traits were measured in terms of morningness, flexibility, languidity and hardiness. Morningness reflects the tendency to be alert relatively early in the morning and sleepy relatively early in the evening. Flexibility denotes the ability to both work and sleep at odd times of the day, while languidity concerns the tendency to become tired/sleepy when cutting down on sleep. Hardiness relates to resilience to stressful life events. The dependent variables in this study comprised of measures of insomnia, sleepiness, depression and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses, which controlled for demographic variables and work load, revealed that morningness was significantly and negatively related to insomnia. The morningness by shift type interaction was overall significant for depressive symptoms. Morningness was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in three-shift workers, but unrelated to depressive symptoms in two-shift workers. Flexibility was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Flexibility by shift type interaction was significant for insomnia, indicating that flexibility was negatively associated with insomnia for three-shift workers and unrelated with insomnia for two-shift workers. Languidity was associated with higher levels of sleepiness, depressive and anxiety symptoms. Hardiness was associated with lower levels of all four dependent variables.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.719-724. 53 ref.
Wu S.Y., Li H.Y., Tian J., Zhu W., Li J., Wang X.R.
Health-related quality of life and its main related factors among nurses in China
The present study is to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and analyze the effect of occupational stress, job burnout and coping resource on the HRQOL among nurses in China. A total of 1,012 nurses were recruited from eight hospitals of two provinces in 2008. Data on HRQOL, burnout, occupational stressors, personal strain and coping resources were obtained by means of questionnaires. HRQOL in the nurses was lower than that in the general population. Occupational stressors, personal strain and job burnout correlated negatively with the HRQOL while coping resources was positively related to the HRQOL. Among the predictive factors for HRQOL, occupational stressors (indicated by role insufficiency and physical environment), personal strain (indicated by physical strain and psychological strain), job burnout (indicated by emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy), length of work hours (≥10h per day), diet irregularity and age were the main risk factors for HRQOL, while recreation and self-care were the main protective factors for HRQOL. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.158-165. 45 ref.
Health-related_quality.pdf [in English]
Wang L.J., Chen C.K., Hsu S.C., Lee S.Y., Wang C.S., Yeh W.Y.
Active job, healthy job? Occupational stress and depression among hospital physicians in Taiwan
The objective of this study was to assess the levels and association of occupational stress and depression rate among physicians, and to compare physicians' occupational stress with that of Taiwanese employees in other occupations. The subjects were physicians employed at 14 participating regional hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires capturing data on demographics, occupational characteristics, occupational stress measured using Job Content Questionnaire and health status measured using Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire were sent to eligible physicians. Results revealed that the depression rate (13.3%) was higher than that found in the general population (3.7%) of Taiwan. The mean scores of the dimensions "work demands" and "job control" were both much higher than for most occupations in Taiwan. Higher depression scores were found in subjects with higher work demands, 8-10 days of being on duty per month and more frequent alcohol consumption, while lower depression scores were found in subjects working in the east Taiwan area, with higher job control and with greater workplace social support. Gender, smoking and working hour were not independently correlated with depression, but the interaction of gender and job control also had an independent effect on depression.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.173-184. Illus. 52 ref.
Active_job.pdf [in English]
Menechal P., Valero M., Megnigbeto C., Marchal C., Godet J.L.
Radiation protection of patients and workers in interventional and operating theatre radiology
La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc opératoire [in French]
Topics discussed in this review article on the risks from the use of radiological practices in medical settings: times spent implementing the required radiation can lead to major detrimental effects on personnel and patients, if they are not fully controlled; many specialist medical disciplines now perform invasive procedures guided by images; optimization of patient doses mainly depends on the training level of medical teams, the intrinsic performance characteristics of the equipment used, the adjustment of the technical parameters and the presence or absence of qualified personnel; optimization of professional personnel exposure is complex and depends on the performance conditions of procedures, which can expose workers extensively and non-uniformly; designation of personnel competent in radiological protection, assessment of risks and definition of controlled areas, analysis of workstations and dosimetric monitoring of operators (especially of body extremities) are difficult to implement; use of collective and personal protective equipment must be improved.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 2011, No.222, p.27-33. Illus. 6 ref.
ND_2343-222-11.pdf [in French]
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among paramedics working in a large hospital in Ahwaz, Southwestern Iran in 2010
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common among employees throughout the world, particularly in high risk groups such as nurses. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of MSDs among nurses in a large hospital in Iran, and to examine its correlation with gender, age, shift working, years of service and smoking. Data were collected by means of self-administered Nordic questionnaires for MSDs from 161 subjects (response rate of 83%). More than 90% of subjects reported at least one MSD in the previous week. The most prevalent site affected was that of neck (64%) followed by head (62.1%), knees (54.7%) and wrists/hands (49.7%); the least frequent disorder was that of elbows (14.3%). MSD was more common among women and increased with age and years of service. It is suggested that nursing staff engage in an exercise programme at their work place to lower the risk of MSDs and promote work efficiency.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.2, No.3, p.157-165. 25 ref.
Prevalence.pdf [in English]
Occupational contact dermatitis among health care professionals
Dermatites de contact professionnelles chez les personnels de santé [in French]
Occupational skin diseases among health care professionals consist mainly of irritation and/or allergic contact dermatitis, and more rarely contact urticaria. The main irritants found at the place of work are detergents, disinfectants and plastic products. The main allergens are conserving agents, disinfectants, cosmetics, vulcanization agents in gloves, medicinal drugs and acrylates, the latter more specifically among dental care professionals. Diagnosis involves allergological testing with standard and specific series, as well as with product-specific series. Prevention involves limiting or eliminating exposure.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.121-139. Illus. 153 ref.
TA_88.pdf [in French]
Albini E., Zoni S., Parrinello G., Benedetti L, Lucchini R.
An integrated model for the assessment of stress-related risk factors in health care professionals
This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk from exposure to occupational stress and burnout in health care workers, and to compare objective data that can represent potential job stressors in hospital wards and subjective symptoms reported by the workers. A total of 230 medical doctors, nurses and ancillary workers of several internal medicine wards of a large public hospital in Northern Italy participated in the study. Data were collected by means of several questionnaires. The average scores of subjective and objective parameters resulted significantly higher in the same sub-units. The correlation analysis showed that the subjective questionnaires were highly inter-related. The multivariate analysis showed that the days of sick leave were significantly related to the subjective questionnaires, and the subjective subscales of emotional exhaustion, job demand and decision latitude were significantly related to some of the objective parameters. These results support the integrated use of multiple subjective and objective assessment tools as the most appropriate approach for the evaluation of occupational stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.15-23. 35 ref.
An_integrated_model.pdf [in English]
Person Severo K.G., da Silva Oliveira J., Carneiro M., de Moura Valim A.R., Carlosso Krummenauer E., Goncalves Possuelo L.
Latent tuberculosis in nursing professionals of a Brazilian hospital
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered an occupational disease among health-care workers (HCWs). Direct contact with TB patients leads to an increased risk to become latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals of a hospital in Brazil, assessed by tuberculin skin test (TST). From November 2009 to May 2010, latent M. tuberculosis infection was assessed by TST in 55 nursing professionals. Epidemiological information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A positive TST result was observed in 47.3% of the HCWs tested. There was no significant difference in TST positivity when duration of employment or professional category (technician or nurse) was evaluated. The results of this work reinforce the need for control measures to prevent latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals at the hospital where the study was conducted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:15, 12p. 17 ref.
Latent_tuberculosis.pdf [in English]
Liss G.M., Buyantseva L., Luce C.E., Ribeiro M., Manno M., Tarlo S.M.
Work-related asthma in health care in Ontario
This study examined the frequency of claims for occupational asthma (OA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) approved by the compensation board in Ontario, Canada, in the health care sector between 1998 and 2002, to determine the frequency rates, causative agents and occupations. During this period, five claims were approved for sensitizer OA, two for natural rubber latex (NRL), and three for glutaraldehyde/photographic chemicals. The two NRL cases occurred in nurses who had worked for over 10 years. There were 115 approved claims for WEA; health care was the most frequent industry for WEA. The rate of WEA claims was 2.1 times greater than that in the rest of the workforce. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.278-284. 27 ref.
Alamgir H., Ngan K., Drebit S., Guiyun Li H., Keen D.
Predictors and economic burden of serious workplace falls in health care
The objective of this study was to examine the demographic and workplace risk factors of serious falls and associated economic burden in Canadian health care workers. Fall Injury data during 2005-2008 from a workplace safety and health surveillance system were linked with workers' compensation claims and payroll records. The costs for treatment and wage loss and days lost for accepted time-loss claims were calculated. Demographic and work-related factors were identified to distinguish the risk for more serious falls from less serious falls. A total of 938 fall injury claims were captured among 48,519 full-time equivalent workers. Workers aged over 60 years, part time or employed in the long-term care sector sustained a higher proportion of serious falls. Over 75% of falls were serious for care aides, facility support service workers and community health workers. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of serious falls remained higher for workers in the long-term care sector (odds ratio (OR) 1.71) compared with those in acute care and for care aides (OR 1.72), facility support service workers (OR 2.58) and community health workers (OR 3.61) compared with registered nurses (RNs). The median number of days lost was higher for women, long-term care workers, licensed practical nurses and care aides. Females, long-term care workers, RNs, licensed practical nurses, care aides and maintenance workers had the most costly falls. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.234-240. 21 ref.
Svendsen K., Hilt B.
The agreement between workers and within workers in regard to occupational exposure to mercury in dental practice assessed from a questionnaire and an interview
The correct assessment and classification of exposure is essential in epidemiology. The validity of exposure data obtained by the use of questionnaires is, however, seldom evaluated. This study on the possible health effects from mercury exposure in dental practice compared answers on exposure from a job-specific questionnaire with answers to the same questions given at an interview 6 to 18 months later. The concordance between workers was examined by comparing answers to the questionnaire given by persons working in the same clinics during the same time spans and the agreement within workers by comparing answers to the same questions from a questionnaire and from an interview. Other aims were to see if there was a difference in the answers to the questionnaire across job titles and to study the impact of missing information on the response rate in a detailed questionnaire. There was a marked difference between the pairs of employees working in the same clinic regarding the start and termination years for the different preparation methods, and this was partly independent of their occupation. The results of this study indicate that a mailed questionnaire will cause misclassification of exposure. The observed occurrence of false positive exposure classifications from the questionnaire compared to the interview was higher than for false negative. This is important and may result in serious bias if the prevalence of exposure is low. Due to missing information, detailed questionnaires may also be inefficient if the goal is to construct exposure measures from combinations of several answers in the questionnaire.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:8, 8p. 12 ref.
The_agreement.pdf [in English]
Epling C., Duncan J., Archibong E., Østbye T., Pompeii L.A., Dement J.
Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: Results from a university health and safety surveillance system
The objective of this study was to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance programme and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4584 health care workers at a university hospital in the United States completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (276 subjects) reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.17-23. 28 ref.
Kriebel D., Jacobs M.M., Markkanen P., Tickner J.
Lessons learned - Solutions for workplace safety and health
This report presents six case studies that illustrate systemic failures to protect workers, communities and the environment such as: immigrant workers killed and severely burned in house fires caused by the chemicals used to refinish wood floors; health care workers, hotel housekeepers, as well as meat and poultry workers disabled by back injuries and other musculoskeletal strain from long hours of awkward postures and repetitive movements; long and avoidable delays in the scientific and legal proceedings used to set health standards protecting workers from cancer-causing chemicals. The report identifies seven high-priority strategies for making workplaces safer. While improved regulations and enforcement are clearly needed, there are many other opportunities to improve workers' health and safety. A key conclusion is that work-related injury and illnesses could be prevented if chemicals, production processes and technologies were designed with worker health in mind. "Prevention through design" initiatives are now being used to design buildings that eliminate hazards and make jobs, products, and materials inherently safer.
Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave., Kitson 210, Lowell, MA 01854, USA, 2011. iii, 129p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Price: USD 40.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Lessons_learned.pdf [in English]
Rantanen I., Tuominen R.
Relative magnitude of presenteeism and absenteeism and work-related factors affecting them among health care professionals
The objective of this study was to examine the extent and relative value of presenteeism and absenteeism, as well as the work-related factors affecting them among health care professionals. A questionnaire survey was undertaken among physicians and nurses of three hospitals in Finland, who estimated their hours of absenteeism and presenteeism during the previous four weeks due to health reasons, and to what degree their work capacity had been reduced during their presenteeism hours. Questionnaire items also included the socio-economic background, factors related to work and work conditions, and possible chronic and acute diseases were solicited. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.225-230. 31 ref.
Oude Hengel K.M., Visser B., Sluiter J.K.
The prevalence and incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms among hospital physicians: A systematic review
Physicians are exposed to a range of work-related risk factors that may result in occupational diseases. The objective of this literature review was to shed light on the prevalence and incidence of musculoskeletal complaints among hospital physicians. Five medium-quality studies and three high-quality studies were included in this review. Findings are inconclusive. The definitions and assessment used in the studies for musculoskeletal complaints were different, and there were wide variations between the studies on the reported prevalences for hand, wrist, shoulder, neck and low back pain.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.115-119. 19 ref.
The_prevalence_and_incidence.pdf [in English]
Raab Glina D.M., Cardoso A.S., Isosaki M., Rocha L.E.
Participatory ergonomics: Understanding the contributions of reflection groups in a hospital food service
The objective of this study was to identify how the methodology of Reflection Groups (RG) can contribute to approach social-psychological problems, so often observed as obstacles in participatory ergonomics efforts. The objective was also to verify the contributions from RG to the implementation of ergonomics recommendations. The methodology was applied to a concrete case, with the management and employees from the department of nutrition and dietetics of a cardiologic hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.96-105. 33 ref.
Adams S., Stojkovic S.G., Leveson S.H.
Needlestick injuries during surgical procedures: A multidisciplinary online study
Needlestick injuries are common during surgical procedures. Following such an injury, local protocols should be followed to minimize the risk of infection. The objective of this study was to identify who sustains such injuries, under what circumstances and what actions are taken to minimize the risk. A questionnaire was submitted via e-mail to all 255 staff of a hospital in the United Kingdom who took part in operations (response rate 53%). The results were checked against occupational health department records. It was found that non-compliance with injury protocols was commonest among senior surgical staff. A revision of the protocol to reduce the time it takes to complete it may improve compliance.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.139-144. Illus. 30 ref.
Needlestick_injuries_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Compassion fatigue: experiences in occupational health, human resources, counselling and police
This study examines the impact that working with distressed employees, clients and members of the public has on four caring professions: occupational health advisors (OHAs), human resource advisors (HRs), counsellors (CLs) and family liaison officers (FLOs). Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 276 professionals (64 HRs, 53 OHAs, 114 CLs and 45 FLOs). There were few differences in the level of negative beliefs between groups, although CLs were found to experience more feelings of isolation and FLOs and CLs were more likely to believe that there was no justice in the world. OHAs, CLs and FLOs were significantly more likely to demonstrate personal growth than HRs. Reflection on the work facilitated through professional or peer supervision and a healthy lifestyle was found to be associated with higher levels of personal growth and satisfaction with their performance at work.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.133-138. 19 ref.
Compassion_fatigue_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Allesøe K., Hundrup Y.A., Thomsen J.F., Osler M.
Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: The Danish Nurse Cohort Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Subjects were the 12,116 women aged 45-64 years participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study, who responded to a questionnaire in 1993 and who were followed by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to the beginning of 2008. Work pressure, job influence, occupational characteristics, demographic factors and known biological and behavioural risk factors for IHD were collected at baseline. During follow-up, 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. In the fully adjusted model, nurses who reported work pressure to be much too high had a 1.4-fold increased risk of incident IHD compared with nurses who reported work pressure to be suitable. A tendency towards a dose-response effect was found. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.318-322. 31 ref.
Psychosocial_work_environment.pdf [in English]
Kakooei H., Ardakani Z.Z., Ayattollahi M.T., Karimian M., Saraji G.N., Owji A.A.
The effect of bright light on physiological circadian rhythms and subjective alertness of shift work nurses in Iran
In this study, the effects of bright light (BL) on the rhythms in body temperature, plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol and subjective alertness were assessed in 34 shift work nurses at an Iranian university hospital. They were exposed to very BL (4,500 lx) during two breaks (21:15-22:00 and 03:15-04:00) or dim light (300 lx). The subjects were studied under 24h of realistic conditions during which their plasma cortisol and melatonin were measured at 3-h intervals; their body temperature was also measured during and after night shift work. Subjective alertness was evaluated with the Karolinska sleepiness scale. Administration of BL significantly suppressed night-time melatonin levels. A one-way ANOVA revealed that BL tended to increase cortisol levels and body temperature and significantly improved alertness. These results demonstrate that photic stimulation in a hospital setting can have a powerful influence on the adjustment of the circadian system.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.4, p.477-485. Illus. 42 ref.
de la Torre S., Gasimbi I., Bhat D., Posner J., Noel M., Masembe V., Songa J., Hossain I.
Protecting at risk cadres of health workers from medical transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C through injection safety interventions
This study on work practices and awareness of HIV and hepatitis B and C among medical waste disposal workers in several developing countries was presented in a poster session at an international symposium on HIV and emerging infectious diseases held on 24-26 March 2010 in Marseille, France. The study was part of a broader programme aimed to improve injection safety and healthcare waste management practices in eleven developing countries. Cross-sectional studies were carried out to evaluate progress in these areas. Observations of waste management practices and interviews were carried out with waste handlers at several sited. Surveys across countries showed that majority are aware of HIV, but not of hepatitis B or C. In Kenya, 91% of waste handlers mentioned HIV, but only 33% mentioned hepatitis B, and 5% hepatitis C. Only three waste handlers reported receiving all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination in Kenya while in Uganda, only one waste handler interviewed was fully vaccinated at follow-up. The percent of waste handlers who reported having personal protective equipment varied widely between countries, with 55% in Kenya reporting having heavy duty gloves and boots, while only 7% of waste handlers reporting the same in Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2010, Vol.7, Suppl.1, p.152.
Protecting_at_risk.pdf [in English]
Zakeri F., Hirobe T., Akbari Noghabi K.
Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on interventional cardiologists
Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are likely to receive high radiation exposure as a result of procedures they undertake. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of low-dose X-ray radiation exposure on chromosomal damage and on selected indices of cellular and humoral immunity in ICs. The study population consisted of 37 ICs and 37 clinical physicians as the control group with similar age, sex and duration of employment, without any work-related exposure to ionizing radiation. Cytogenetic studies were performed by chromosome aberration analysis and immunological studies by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunodiffusion techniques. The frequencies of aberrant cells, chromosome breaks and dicentrics plus centric rings were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the control group, without positive correlation between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative doses of the ICs. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.464-469. Illus. 26 ref.
Biological_effects.pdf [in English]
Platt B., Hawton K., Simkin S., Mellanby R.J.
Systematic review of the prevalence of suicide in veterinary surgeons
There is preliminary evidence to suggest that veterinary surgeons are a group at risk of suicide. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies of rates and methods of suicide in this profession. A systematic search of the international research literature was performed in May 2008. The data from the 19 studies of the prevalence of suicide in the veterinary profession were extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed. Between 0 and 43% of veterinary surgeon deaths were due to suicide. In all but one of the 15 studies presenting risk of suicide in veterinary surgeons with a comparison population, an elevated risk was found. The better quality studies with the lowest risk of bias indicated that in the United Kingdom, the rate of suicide in the veterinary profession was at least three times the general population rate. Studies of the methods of suicide veterinary surgeons use suggest that self-poisoning and firearms are particularly common. There appears to be an elevated risk of suicide for veterinary surgeons in several countries. Access to means of suicide influences the methods used and may contribute to increased risk.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.436-446. Illus. 33 ref.
Systematic_review.pdf [in English]
Liu S.H., Liu Y.F., Liou S.H., Lin Y.L., Hsiao Y.C., Chen C.C., Li C.Y., Wu T.N.
Mortality and cancer incidence among physicians of traditional Chinese medicine: A 20-year national follow-up study
The objective of this study was to assess the risks of mortality and cancer incidence in physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan who had frequent exposure to herbal medicine. A population-based cohort design was conducted in which a total of 7675 certified physicians of TCM who ever practised between 1985 and 2005 were compared with the age-, sex- and calendar year-specific mortalities and cancer incidence rates of the general population of Taiwan. The age-, sex- and calendar year-standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR) were calculated to estimate the relative risks of all causes and site-specific mortality and cancer incidence. Findings are discussed. Physicians of TCM had significantly reduced risks of all-causes mortality and cancer incidence. However, they were exposed to significantly increased risks of liver and bladder neoplasms, the reasons for which warrant further investigations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.67, No.3, p.166-169. 12 ref.
Kubota K., Shimazu A., Kawakami N., Takahashi M., Nakata A., Schaufeli W.B.
Association between workaholism and sleep problems among hospital nurses
The present study examined the association between workaholism, the tendency to work excessively hard in a compulsive fashion, and sleep problems among Japanese nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 nurses from two university hospitals in Japan using a self-reported questionnaire on workaholism, sleep, job-related variables (job demands, job control and worksite support), and demographic variables. A total of 394 nurses returned the questionnaire (response rate 65.7%) and complete data from 312 female nurses were used for analyses (final coverage rate 52.0%). Workaholics, as measured using the Japanese version of the Dutch Workaholism Scale, were defined as those having high scores on both the "work excessively" and "work compulsively" subscales. Logistic regression analyses revealed that workaholics had higher risks for sleep problems in terms of subjective sleep insufficiency, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, difficulty awakening in the morning and feeling tired when waking up in the morning (odds ratios (OR) of 4.40, 3.18, 3.48 and 4.61, respectively). These remained significant even after adjusting for demographic and job-related variables (OR 3.41, 5.36, 2.56 and 2.77, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between workaholism and insomnia symptoms. These results suggest that workaholic nurses had higher risks for impaired awakening, insufficient sleep and workplace sleepiness.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.864-871. 39 ref.
Association.pdf [in English]
Arimura M., Imai M., Okawa M., Fujimura T., Yamada N.
Sleep, mental health status, and medical errors among hospital nurses in Japan
Medical error involving nurses is a critical issue since nurses' actions will have a direct and often significant effect on the prognosis of their patients. To investigate the significance of nurse health in Japan and its potential impact on patient services, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among nurses working in hospitals, with the specific purpose of examining the relationship between shift work, mental health and self-reported medical errors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the shift work system, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and nurse errors: the odds ratios for shift system and GHQ were 2.1 and 1.1, respectively. It was confirmed that both sleep and mental health status among hospital nurses were relatively poor, and that shift work and poor mental health were significant factors contributing to medical errors.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.811-817. 25 ref.
Sleep_mental_health.pdf [in English]
Katsuhira J., Yamasaki S., Yamamoto S., Maruyama H.
Effects of general principles of person transfer techniques on low back joint extension moment
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of general principles of person transfer techniques specifically on the low back joint extension moment. These effects were examined by the following measurable quantitative parameters: trunk bending angle; knee flexion angle; distance between the centres of gravity (COGs) of the caregiver and patient, representing the distance between the caregiver and patient; the vertical component of the ground reaction force representing the amount of the weight-bearing load on the caregiver's low back during transfers with and without assistive devices. Twenty students each took the role of caregiver, and one healthy adult simulated a patient. The participants performed three different transfer tasks: without any assistive device, with the patient wearing a low back belt, and with the caregiver using a transfer board. It was found that the distance between the COGs and the vertical component of the ground reaction force, but not the trunk bending and knee flexion angles, were the variables that affected the low back joint extension moment. These results suggest that the general principle of decreasing the distance between COGs is most effective for decreasing the low back joint extension moment during transfers under all conditions.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.796-803. Illus. 25 ref.
Effects_of_general_principles.pdf [in English]
Tanaka K., Otsubo T., Tanaka M., Kaku A., Nishinoue N., Takanao T., Kamata N., Miyaoka H.
Similarity in predictors between near miss and adverse event among Japanese nurses working at teaching hospitals
Near miss-based analysis has been recently suggested to be more important in the medical field than focusing on adverse events, as in the industrial field. To validate the utility of near miss-based analysis in the medical fields, this study investigated whether or not predictors of near misses and adverse events were similar among nurses at teaching hospitals. Of the 1,860 nurses approached, 1,737 (93.4%) were included in the final analysis. Potential predictors provided for analysis included gender, age, years of nursing experience, frequency of alcohol consumption, work place, ward rotation, frequency of night shifts, sleepiness during work, frequency of feeling unskilled, nurses' job stressors, working conditions, and depression. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that predictors of near misses and adverse events were markedly similar. Parameters that were significantly related to both near misses and adverse events were years of experience, frequency of night shifts, internal ward, and time pressure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.775-782. 36 ref.
Similarity_in_predictors.pdf [in English]
Cowlishaw S., Evans L., McLennan J.
Work-family conflict and crossover in volunteer emergency service workers
A growing body of literature indicates that organizational and work demands place pressure on the partners and families of volunteer workers, as it does on paid workers. This study evaluated a conceptual model integrating work-family conﬂict and stress crossover theoretical frameworks, to investigate the mechanisms by which emergency service volunteer work predicts outcomes for the partners of volunteers. Matched data from 102 couples in which one partner was an Australian emergency services volunteer (fire-fighter, ambulance officer or emergency rescue volunteer) were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Findings suggested that one mechanism by which inter-role conflict related to partner adjustment was through elevated withdrawn marital behaviour and decreased intimacy reported by the couple, which indirectly affected partners' distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Work and Stress, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.24, No.3, p.342-358. Illus. 59 ref.
Work-family_conflict.pdf [in English]
McCarthy V.J., Power S., Greiner B.A.
Perceived occupational stress in nurses working in Ireland
The objective of this study was to examine the levels of stress experienced by nurses working in an Irish teaching hospital and investigate differences in perceived stress levels by ward area and associations with work characteristics. A cross-sectional study design was employed, with a two-stage cluster sampling process. Data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire, and nurses were investigated across 10 different wards using the Nursing Stress Scale and the Demand Control Support Scales. The response rate was 62%. Using outpatients as a reference ward, perceived stress levels were found to be significantly higher in the medical ward, accident and emergency, intensive care unit and paediatric wards. There was no significant difference between the wards with regard to job strain; however, differences did occur with levels of support, the day unit and paediatric ward reporting the lowest level of supervisor support. A significant association was seen between the wards and perceived stress even after adjustment.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.604-610. 26 ref.
Pietroiusti A., Neri A., Somma G., Coppeta L., Iavicoli I., Bergamaschi A., Magrini A.
Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers
Night-shift work is associated with ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. It is not currently known whether it may be causally linked to metabolic syndrome (MS), a risk condition for ischaemic cardiovascular disorders. The syndrome presents with visceral obesity associated with mild alterations in glucidic and lipidic homeostasis and in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess whether a causal relationship exists between night-shift work and the development of MS. Male and female nurses performing night shifts, free from any component of MS at baseline, were evaluated annually for the development of the disorder during a four-year follow-up. Male and female nurses performing daytime work only, visited during the same time period, represented the control group. The cumulative incidence of MS was 9.0% (36/402) among night-shift workers, and 1.8% (6/336) among daytime workers (relative risk (RR) 5.0). The annual rate of incidence of MS was 2.9% in night-shift workers and 0.5% in daytime workers. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the two groups were significantly different. Multiple Cox regression analyses showed that among selected variables (age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, familiar history, physical activity and work schedule) the only predictors of occurrence of MS were sedentariness (hazard ratio (HR) 2.92) and night-shift work (HR 5.10).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.54-57. Illus. 29 ref.
Incidence.pdf [in English]
Fernandez A.R., Crawford J.M., Studnek J.R., Wilkins J.R.
Hearing problems among a cohort of nationally certified EMS professionals
The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of hearing problems among a national cohort of emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, determine factors associated with hearing problems, and estimate the percentage of EMS professionals who utilize hearing protection. Utilizing results from a questionnaire, individuals who reported hearing problems were compared to individuals who had not. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with hearing problems. Finally, items regarding use of hearing protection were assessed to estimate the percentage of usage among EMS professionals. In total, 1,024 participants completed the questionnaire. There were 153 (14.9%) cases of self-reported hearing problems. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.264-275. Illus. 44 ref.
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