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Entertainment services and sports - 215 entries found

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CIS 11-0777 Lemarié J.
Golf course - Occupational safety and health swings on the green
Golf - La prévention swingue sous le green [in French]
This richly-illustrated article presents the safety and health efforts undertaken by the management of a golf course in the South of France.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2011, No.721, p.2-11. Illus.
Golf.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0411 Arcury-Quandt A.E., Gentry A.L., Marín A.J.
Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states
The golf course sector has a growing Latino work force in the United States. This study examined golf course superintendents' and maintenance workers' pesticide knowledge, beliefs and safety training. In particular, it focused on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Interviews were conducted with 10 golf course superintendents in five states and with 16 maintenance workers in four states. Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.474-485. 28 ref.

CIS 11-0355 Kaufman-Cohen Y., Ratzon N.Z.
Correlation between risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders among classical musicians
Musculoskeletal disorders in humans may originate from biomechanical, environmental, psychosocial and personal risk factors encountered in the working environment. These disorders in musicians are designated as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between biomechanical, environmental, psychosocial and personal risk factors and potential incidence of PRMD arising in professional classical musicians. Fifty-nine orchestral classical musicians were observed. They also filled out questionnaires providing information regarding musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors and demography. Clinical observation using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) showed significantly higher scores in string musicians compared with woodwind and brass players. A multivariate regression model showed statistical significance for five of the six dependent variables regarding prevalence of painful joints, severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and functional limitation. The regression analysis revealed that biomechanical risk factors, perceived physical environment risk factors, instrument weight and average playing hours per week, were the main predictors of PRMD. The biomechanical risk factors that predict PRMD are mainly associated with the upper limbs. A high association between PRMD and clinical observation emphasizes the need for further investigation of these risk factors and to study possible implementations in order to define prevention strategies for musical routines and patterns, as used by classical musicians.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.90-95. 30 ref.


CIS 11-0462 Vega Giménez C.
Noise in the music and entertainment sector (II)
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (II) [in Spanish]
This technical note describes the various measures aimed at minimizing noise exposure of workers in the music and entertainment sectors, and compares different types of hearing protection. Hearing damage and exposure assessment of workers in these sectors are described in a separate note (see ISN 111 864).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 12 ref.
NTP_865.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0559 Vega Giménez C.
Noise in the music and entertainment sector (I)
Ruido en los sectores de la música y el ocio (I) [in Spanish]
Exposure to live or recorded music, or to special effects such as pyrotechnics, may cause hearing damage among workers in the field of music and entertainment. This technical note examines these damages and the evaluation of noise exposure of the various groups of workers in these sectors. It also compares the noise levels in these sectors with those found in other sectors. The preventive measures to limit exposure are presented in a second note (see ISN 111865).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
NTP_864.pdf [in Spanish]


CIS 11-0453 Ravallec C., Brasseur G., Vaudoux D.
Live performances - Setting the scene for prevention
Spectacle vivant - La prévention entre en scène [in French]
This collection of articles addresses the many occupational hazards that exist in show business and the performing arts, together with their means of prevention. The nature of the business of recorded and live shows is unusual by its occupations, its organization and its specific characteristics. Its workers are nonetheless exposed to various occupational hazards for which employers are required to implement preventive measures. Safety and health aspects need to be considered as early as possible and integrated from the very inception and preparation phases of a production or show.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2009, No.699, p.20-37. Illus. 5 ref.
Spectacle_vivant.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0636 Ledoux E., Cloutier E., Ouellet F., Gagnon I., Thuilier C., Ross J.
Occupational risks in the performing arts - An exploratory study
The overall goal of this project was to better identify occupational safety and health issues in the performing arts, particularly in the areas of theatre, music, singing, dance and the circus. The specific objectives of this project were to better understand the production context, the producers' difficulties and needs in occupational safety and health management; to highlight the risks during the preparation of a performance; to identify the causes of accidents during the preparation of a performance; to document the professional paths and health paths of the artists in relation to the performance context; to identify the strategies and means of prevention developed elsewhere as input into the sector's preventive actions. Data were collected by means of literature surveys, job observations, interviews and focus groups. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. vii, 82p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-607.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0470 Oughton N.
Safety induction for Queensland's film, television and new media industry
Studies of Queenslands' film, television and new media industry demonstrate that OSH is not appropriately managed in some sectors of the industry. Of particular note is a lack of understanding of legislation, as well as a failure to conduct risk assessments and establish effective OSH systems and programmes. Although there is a commitment among industry workers to improve their OSH performance and culture, many lack the basic skills and knowledge with which to achieve this goal. This article proposes that a general safety induction course be provided for all workers entering the industry. It discusses the challenges of implementing such a strategy and the benefits that would accrue from the scheme, and proposes further action for implementation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.99-106. 6 ref.

CIS 09-1283 Ganem Y., Larcher C., Chapoutier A., Laborde L., Zana J.P., Grusenmeyer C., Chardon C.
Occupational hazards in the entertainment services sector
Arts du spectacle et risques professionnels [in French]
Artistic, technical and administrative occupations in entertainment services represent over 850 types of job. The most common accidents in this sector consist of falls on the level, accidents related to manual handling and falls from heights. Musculoskeletal diseases are the most frequently-compensated occupational diseases. The French National Council for Entertainment Occupations (Conseil national des professions du spectacle) has instituted a commission assigned with the task of developing and promoting the prevention of occupational hazards as early upstream as possible during the planning and holding of events. The specific aspects of this sector require enhanced medical surveillance, particularly among freelance entertainment services professionals.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.421-436. Illus. 17 ref.$File/TC130.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1151 Jansen E.J.M., Helleman H.W., Dreschler W.A., de Laat J.A.P.M.
Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras
A total of 241 musicians from five Dutch symphony orchestras participated in this survey on the hearing status of professional musicians. Their medical history was reviewed and their subjective judgment of their hearing and hearing problems was assessed. They were subjected to extensive audiometric testing, including audiometric thresholds, loudness perception, diplacusis, tinnitus, speech perception in noise, and otoacoustic emissions. It was found that musicians show more noise induced hearing loss than could be expected on the basis of age and gender. Other indicators, such as complaints and prevalence of tinnitus, hyperacusis and diplacusis suggest that musicians' ears are at risk. Continuing education about the risks of intensive sound exposure and the need for good hearing protection is warranted.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.153-164. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-859 Chapouthier A., Ganem Y., Grusenmeyer C., Laborde L., Larcher C., Zana J.P.
Occupational safety and health in the entertainment sector
Prévention dans les arts du spectacle [in French]
Live and recorded entertainment is an unusual sector of activity in terms of skills and organization. However, as in all other sectors, workers are exposed to various occupational hazards and employers are required to apply protective measures against these hazards. Safety and health need to be taken into account as early as possible, during the planning and preparation phases of the event. Main topics covered by this article on occupational safety and health in the entertainment sector: various professions of this sector; key statistics; occupational hazards; implementing an occupational safety and health plan; other parties involved; legal framework; online sources of information.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2009, No.215, p.35-46. Illus. 21 ref.$File/PR39.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-894 Caro J., Serrano A., Gallego M.
Methods for evaluating the emerging hazards related to the use of trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools
Metodologías de evaluación de riesgos emergentes originados por trihalometanos en piscinas cubiertas [in Spanish]
Disinfectants used for treating swimming pool water decompose into degradation products, mainly into toxic trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the exposure to THMs among staff and users of indoor pools was evaluated by measuring concentrations of chloroform and bromodichloromethane in ambient air, in lung cavities of staff as well as in lung cavities of swimmers, before entering the pool and after an hour spent in the pool. Results show toxic chloroform concentrations in lung cavities. Findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2009, No.51, p.26-34. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-872 An overview of safety and health for workers in the horse-racing industry
Between 1993 and 1996, 6,545 injuries occurred among jockeys during horse races in the United States, an injury rate of 606 per 1,000 jockeys years. In 1987, it was reported that more than 100 jockeys had been killed in work-related incidents since 1950. Numerous studies in the published scientific literature conclude that the low body weight requirement for jockeys increases the risk of acquiring eating disorders in order to control weight. These concerns about potential work-related hazards for jockeys and other employees in the horse racing industry were raised at a Congressional hearing in 2005. This guide is intended for all workers associated with the horse-racing sector. It summarizes NIOSH's efforts in responding to the Congressional inquiry and provides recommendations for reducing the number of injuries and improving the health among workers in the sector.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2009. vi, 20p. Illus. 53 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-947 Grudzen C.R., Elliott M.N., Kerndt P.R., Schuster M.A., Brook R.H., Gelberg L.
Condom use and high-risk sexual acts in films: A comparison of heterosexual and homosexual films
The prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences was compared to assess compliance with California State Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films produced in the United States and released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006 were randomly selected and viewed. Findings are discussed. Heterosexual films were much less likely than were homosexual films to portray condom use, raising concerns about transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially among performers in heterosexual adult films. The adult film industry, especially the heterosexual sector, is not adhering to State occupational safety regulations.
American Journal of Public Health, 2009, Vol. 99, Supplement 1, p.S152-S156. 29 ref.

CIS 09-710 Elfman L., Riihimäki M., Pringle J., Wålinder R.
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways
This study examined seasonal differences in indoor air quality in a horse stable and assessed whether air quality was associated with respiratory signs or selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and 13 stable workers were investigated three times, in winter, in late summer and the third time in the following winter. Measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergens, microorganisms, endotoxins and glucans. Workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Findings are presented and discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2009, Vol.4, No.10, 7p. Illus. 26 ref.


CIS 11-0554 Patel J.
Health and Safety Executive
Musicians' hearing protection: A review
The music and entertainment industry is unique in that high noise levels are often regarded as an essential element for the enjoyment of people attending concerts and live music events. However, there is a risk of hearing damage for people working in the music and entertainment industry, including musicians. One of the methods used to reduce noise exposure is the use of appropriate hearing protection. Many different types of hearing protection have been marketed for musicians including pre-moulded earplugs, custom-moulded earplugs and in-ear monitors. In order to support the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) understanding of this issue, the types of hearing protection available to musicians were identified. Telephone interviews were then conducted with nineteen professional musicians to collect information on: the type of hearing protection (if any) musicians are currently using; musicians' attitudes to hearing protection including whether they think it is, or it can be, effective and whether it allows them to do their job effectively; and the factors musicians consider important when choosing hearing protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 51p. Illus. 45 ref.
RR_664.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-974 Hing N., Breen H.
Gambling problems among gaming venue employees: A preliminary survey
Numerous workplace factors can enhance the attractiveness of gambling for gaming venue employees. This article reports on a survey of 56 gaming venue staff investigating workplace influences on the gambling behaviour of employees. The results indicate high rates of problem gambling. The opportunity therefore exists for gaming venue employers to better protect their employees by limiting staff gambling in the workplace, raising awareness of the risks of gambling, assisting any staff with gambling problems, and better promoting employee wellbeing.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.329-341. 25 ref.

CIS 09-606 Iñesta C., Terrados N., García D., Pérez J.A.
Heart rate in professional musicians
The purpose of this study was to analyse the heart rate (HR) of professional musicians during their work. Sixty-two volunteer professional musicians (20 women, 42 men), aged between 15 and 71 years were tested using pulsometers while playing their instruments in real life situations, namely during rehearsals, practice and public concerts. Mean and maximum HRs were 72% and 85% of the maximum theoretical heart rate, respectively. Cardiac oxygen demand was found to be significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same work. It is higher than previously described and much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2008, Vol.3, No.16, 11p. Illus. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-742 Lee T.K., LaBrie R.A., Rhee H.S., Shaffer H.J.
A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems
The objective of this study was to identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes among casino employees in South Korea depending upon whether or not they reported any gambling problems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 388 employees on the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). The employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems were compared to those who reported any gambling problems. Exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems reported more smoking, alcohol consumption and depression compared to employees who did not report gambling problems. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.191-197. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-101 Gambichler T., Uzun A., Boms S., Altmeyer P., Altenmüller E.
Skin conditions in instrumental musicians: A self-reported survey
To determine the frequency and risk factors of instrument-related skin disorders in musicians, an 11-item survey was mailed to 19 German universities of music and performing arts; 412 musicians returned the completed questionnaire, among which 21.6% had an instrument-related skin disorder including callosities (58.4%), contact dermatitis (CD; 19.1%), fiddler's neck (19.1%) and erosion (3.4%). Allergic CD (76.5%) was most frequently reported in violinists and violists. Of 116 violinists and violists 14.7% suffered from fiddler's neck. String instrumentalists most frequently reported callosities (68.5%) and skin problems (86.5%). Frequencies of instrument-related skin disorders were significantly associated with high practice frequencies and a professional as opposed to an amateur status.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.217-222. 19 ref.

CIS 09-80 Bruno S., Lorusso A., L'Abbate N.
Playing-related disabling musculoskeletal disorders in young and adult classical piano students
To determine the prevalence of instrument-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in classical piano students, a specially-developed questionnaire was administered to students of two conservatories in Italy. A total of 195 out of the 224 piano students responded (87%). Among 195 responders, 38.4% were considered affected according to the pre-established criteria. Prevalence rates of disabling MSDs in the affected group were 29.3% for the neck, 21.3% for the thoracic spine and from 20.0 to 30.4% for the upper limbs. Statistical analyses showed significant effects for age, number of hours per week spent playing, more than 60min of continuative playing without breaks, lack of sport practice and acceptability of the "no pain, no gain" criterion among MSD-affected pianists compared those not affected. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.855-860. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1313 Tafrechian S.
Asthma due to chloramine among swimming pool personnel
L'asthme aux chloramines chez le personnel des piscines [in French]
This article describes three new cases of respiratory disease due to chloramines among swimming pool personnel in the Paris region. The causes of respiratory diseases among these workers exposed to chloramine emissions by inhalation are reviewed through a literature survey. In France, the occupational nature of these diseases is recognized. Job changes which are often necessary are not easy to implement among these workers, a majority of whom are furthermore young and in good health. Given the need to address various toxicity risk factors, the task of managing and monitoring the quality of swimming-pool water must be left to personnel that are diligent and particularly well trained in chlorination processes. Rules to be followed for limiting chloramine concentration in swimming pools are summarized.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.48, No.2, p.105-116. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 08-1442
Health and Safety Executive
Sound advice - Control of noise at work in music and entertainment
These practical guidelines apply to the control of noise at work in music and entertainment, including concert halls and theatres, amplified live music venues, pubs/clubs and recording studios. It has been drafted and supported by representatives from a wide range of music and entertainment sectors in the United Kingdom, as well as Environmental Health Officers and the HSE. Its aim is to help employers, employees and freelancers control or reduce exposure to noise at work without stopping people from enjoying music. A first part explains the requirements of The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (CIS 06-1259), with specific advice provided in a second part.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July, 106p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 14.50.

CIS 08-884 Ledoux E., Cloutier E., Ouellet F., Gagnon I., Thullier C., Ross J.
Occupational hazards in the performing arts - An exploratory study
Les risques du métier dans le domaine des arts de la scène - Une étude exploratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to better understand occupational health and safety (OHS) issues in the performing arts, particularly in the areas of theatre, music, singing, dance and the circus. Data were collected by means of literature surveys, focus groups, interviews and job observations. The study enabled: a better understanding of the production context, the producers' difficulties and the needs with respect to OHS management; to draw the list of risk factors and causes of accidents during the preparation of a performance and a show; to document the occupational and health paths of the artists; finally to identify suitable OSH strategies for this sector of activity.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vii, 82p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 09-176 Guo J., Gunn P.
Noise and noise exposure in Western Australian entertainment venues
Noise exposure in the music entertainment industry has long been recognised as a workplace hazard. The aims of this study were to investigate the current situation regarding noise exposure in Western Australia entertainment venues, to promote the use of the Control of Noise in the Music Entertainment Industry code of practice and to increase the sector's awareness of its obligations to control noise exposure. It was found that excessive noise is still a major workplace hazard. The average daily noise exposure levels in pubs and clubs have increased compared with those measured several years ago. Although the awareness of noise control and hearing protection has increased, it is still very low.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2007, Vol.23, No.1, p.69-78. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 08-1187 Cowley S., Bowman B., Lawrance M.
Safety in the Victorian thoroughbred horseracing industry
Employees in the horseracing sector who work closely with horses are exposed to a significant risk of traumatic injury. Although jockeys are the main focus of attention, a large number of injuries are sustained by track drivers and stable attendants. Investigations by means of literature surveys and focus groups reveal that in this sector, there is greater emphasis on horses and their performance rather than on the health, safety and well-being of employees. Several recommendations are made in view of improving the safety performance in this sector.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.421-431. 40 ref.

CIS 07-1359
Health and Safety Executive
Fairgrounds and amusement parks - Guidance on safe practice
Although fairgrounds and amusement parks are relatively safe compared to activities such as driving a car or riding a bicycle, there have yet been a small number of serious incidents involving employees and members of the public. The Health and Safety Executive has worked with the Fairgrounds and Amusement Parks Joint Advisory Committee to improve standards and to produce this revised guide which incorporates improvements made over several years in this industry's practices. It deals with the safety of employers, employees and the general public using fairgrounds and amusement parks and gives advice on controlling risks, site layout and safe systems of work. It also provides information and guidance on fairground ride design, manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance and inspection. Replaces CIS 01-715.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. vi, 65p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 12.50.

CIS 07-1358
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance from the Licensing Authority on the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 2004 - The Activity Centres (Young Persons' Safety) Act 1995
This booklet provides guidance on how to comply with the United Kingdom Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 2004 concerning activity centres as defined by the Activity Centres (Young Persons' Safety) Act 1995. Activities within the scope of the licensing scheme include caving, climbing, trekking and water sports. Contents: outline of the licensing scheme; guidance on safety standards; guidance on the licensing authority's functions. Appendices include requirements with respect to technical competence and qualifications, together with the full text of the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 2004.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2007. vi, 46p. 12 ref. Price: GBP 11.50.


CIS 08-1179 Butterfield D.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of noise levels that staff are exposed to at live music events
More stringent noise at work regulations came into force for general industry in April 2006. The live music sector was granted a two-year period to develop sector-specific guidance on compliance, but was meanwhile required to comply with existing noise regulations. Local Authorities also have responsibilities concerning monitoring and compliance. This study was carried out to assess the current noise exposure of groups of people within the sector and the impact of the new regulations on live music concerts. This report contains details of the personal exposures of a cross section of workers at twelve events throughout the year. It explores the control measures in place and makes recommendations for improvements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 164p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-682
Health and Safety Executive
Working together on firework displays - A guide to safety for firework display organisers and operators
This guide is an updated version of the document indexed under CIS 01-529 and takes account of significant changes in the statutory controls relating to the supply, possession, transport, keeping and use of fireworks. It gives advice on safety for outdoor firework displays operated by a competent display operator. Contents: display organization; selecting a display operator; site selection and layout; contact with the police, the fire service, the local authority and other local groups; provision of site facilities; care of fireworks before the display; crowd safety; emergency plans; safety of bonfires; setting up and firing the fireworks; clearing up after the display; legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2006. iv, 20p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 07-488 Teasdale N., Simoneau M., Leclerc N., Stuber U., Berrigan F.
Evaluation of the efficiency of an ergonomic stool for stringed instrument musicians: Analysis of postural stability and the activity of the postural muscles of the pelvis and trunk
Evaluation de l'efficacité d'un tabouret ergonomique chez des instrumentistes à cordes - Analyse de la stabilité posturale et de l'activité de muscles posturaux du bassin et du tronc [in French]
Since stringed instrument musicians have to maintain a static sitting posture, they frequently suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This report describes the design and evaluation of a stool that allows a dynamic sitting posture. The postural stability and muscular activity of violinists and violists were evaluated using a standard stool and this new stool. The new stool was found to reduce the amplitude and frequency of trunk movements. It is suggested that the ergonomic stool be integrated into the regular practices of musicians so that they adopt postures that minimize excessive and inappropriate trunk movements and reduce the probability of incidence of low back pain.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. v, 34p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: CAD 7.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-136 Bisson D.
Prevention of occupational hazards. Mountain region tourist offices
Prévenir les risques professionnels. Offices de tourisme de montagne [in French]
This practical guide is based on the experience of five tourist offices of medium and high-altitude mountain resorts. Although it can be used in part by all tourist offices, it is primarily aimed at those located in mountainous regions. Its objective is to help identify hazards that are specific to each establishment unit or job, and highlights the need for collaboration among management, employees and supervisory boards.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Jan. 2006. 50p. Illus. [in French]

CIS 07-116 Schwartz G.
Classical musicians - Fine tuning of occupational safety and health
Musiciens classiques - Bien orchestrer la prévention [in French]
Classical musicians, and particularly those playing in an orchestra, often suffer from diseases related to their occupation. The main risks are of musculoskeletal diseases due to prolonged awkward postures or repetitive movements and hearing loss due to prolonged exposure to noise. Stress can be an aggravating factor. This article discusses the occupational hazards faced by classical musicians and their means of prevention. Forthcoming legislation based on the Noise Directive will require employers to carry out an exposure evaluation and provide personal protective equipment. The legislation will be applicable in 2006 in most sectors, and will also apply to the music and entertainment sectors after a two-year transition period.
Travail et sécurité, June 2006, No.663, p.3-9. Illus. 7 ref.$File/TS663page2.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 06-1481 Reilly T., Wooler A., Tipton M., Iggleden C., Gennser M.
Occupational fitness standards for beach lifeguards. Phase 1: The physiological demands of beach lifeguarding. Phase 2: The development of an easily administered fitness test
Although similar standards exist internationally to select beach lifeguards (BLGs), these are generally not based on a task analysis. To reduce the likelihood of drowning, a BLG should reach a casualty within 3.5 min. The objective of this study was to quantify the physical demands of the most critical generic tasks undertaken by BLGs and to formulate an easily administered fitness test based on the physical demands identified. In a first phase of the study, a survey was conducted among 91 BLGs and their performance while carrying out standard tasks was measured in order to identify the most demanding activities. Based on these findings, a range of anthropometric and land and water-based fitness assessments were administered to 25 male and female volunteer subjects and used to design a fitness test for aptitude screening of BLGs.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.56, No.1, p.6-17. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 06-1178 Freixa Blanxart A., Pascual Benés A., Guardino Solá X.
Public swimming pools (II). Hazards of chemicals
Piscinas de uso público (II). Peligrosidad de los productos químicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the hazards of chemicals used in water treatment processes in swimming pools (disinfectants, flocculation agents, algicides). See NTP 689 (CIS 06-1140) for more general information on the physical, chemical and biological hazards of swimming pools.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. 7 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1140 Freixa Blanxart A., Guardino Solá X., Grasa Martínez C., Piernagorda Pérez L.
Public swimming pools (I). Risks and prevention
Piscinas de uso público (I). Riesgos y prevención [in Spanish]
This information sheet describes the basic operations of swimming pool maintenance, identifies potential hazards for users and workers and outlines preventive measures. See NTP 690 (CIS 06-1178) for further information on the hazards of chemical products used in water treatment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. 8 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 08-37 Widmer P., Büchi H., Wicht N., Roth E.W., Wachter A., Diethelm P., Ambühl C., Fischer K., Schwarzenbach A.
Safety during events
Sicherheit bei Veranstaltungen [in German]
Sécurité lors de manifestations [in French]
Gatherings of persons during meetings and events bringing together thousands of persons always entail some uncertainty and risk. One of the main responsibilities of organizers is to be aware of the potential dangers, to minimize the risks and to prepare measures to be implemented in case problems occur. This manual shows in a comprehensive and practical way how such gatherings can be held safely and how risky situations can be avoided. It is aimed at persons who organize these gatherings, whether it be on a volunteer or a commercial basis. Contents: aims, structure, use and principles of the manual; hazard evaluation; preventive measures; coverage offered by the various types of insurance policy available in Switzerland.
Santé et sécurité au travail, Postfach, 8034 Zurich, Switzerland, 2005. 102p. Illus. 11 ref. Index. Price: CHF 190.00. Downloadable version free of charge [in German] [in French]

CIS 06-810 Lazarov A., Nevo K., Pardo A., Froom P.
Self-reported skin disease in hydrotherapists working in swimming pools
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and characteristics of self-reported skin diseases among hydrotherapists. Questionnaires were addressed to 248 hydrotherapists and 190 (76.6%) responded. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Among respondents (75.8% women and 24.2% men), 44.4% reported the development of a skin disease for the first time after beginning employment at the swimming pool. The most common symptoms included pruritus and erythematous patches affecting mainly the extremities and trunk. Both smoking and increased exposure hours to pool water were independently associated with skin disease, suggesting a dose-response relationship. It is concluded that contact dermatitis should be recognized as an occupational disease in hydrotherapists.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.327-331. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-933
Health and Safety Executive
Giving your own firework display: How to run and fire it safely
The advice in this guide covers firework displays where the organizers set off the fireworks themselves and have no specialist knowledge. Contents: organization of the display; site selection and layout; contact with the police, the fire service, the local authority and other local groups; provision of site facilities; care of fireworks before the display; crowd safety; emergency plans; safety of bonfires; setting up the fireworks; firing the display; clearing up after the display; legal requirements. Replaces CIS 95-1481.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed. 2005. iv, 20p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 7.95.

CIS 06-937 Wright Reid A.
Notes of caution
The new Noise at Work Regulations 2005 due to be implemented in April 2006 in the United Kingdom apply to most industries, but the music industry has been given a further two years to comply. This article explains why the extra time is needed and discusses ways in which hearing damage among musicians can be prevented.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 2005, Vol.23, No.9, p.51-54. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-656 Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I.
UV process: Chloroform and nitrogen trichloride level monitoring in indoor swimming pool waters
Traitement UV: suivi de l'évolution des concentrations en chloroforme et en trichlorure d'azote dans les eaux de baignade d'un centre aquatique [in French]
Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. This study revealed the significant contribution of UV irradiation to chloroform formation and to the possible increase of dissolved nitrogen trichloride.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.19-30. Illus. 31 ref.$FILE/nd2237.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-692 Hagberg M., Thiringer G., Brandström L.
Incidence of tinnitus, impaired hearing and musculoskeletal disorders among students enroled in academic music education - A retrospective cohort study
This study examined the incidence of tinnitus, impaired hearing and musculoskeletal disorders among musicians and investigated the relationship with the number of practising hours and instrument type. Subjects consisted of music students enrolled between the years 1980 and 1995 in the music school of a Swedish university. A questionnaire on exposure and symptoms was answered by 407 of the 602 eligible students. The highest incidence of symptoms was found for reported tinnitus. There was also a relationship between the number of hours of instrumental practice and incidence of impaired hearing. Among the musculoskeletal symptoms, the highest incidences were pain in the neck and in the left shoulder. Incidences of symptoms of the left and right hand, elbow, forearm and shoulder are discussed as a function of the number of hours of weekly practice and instrument played.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2005, Vol.78, No.7, p.575-583. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 06-390 Varughese S., Teschke K., Brauer M., Chow Y., van Netten C., Kennedy S.M.
Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industry
Theatrical fogs are widely used in the entertainment industry. In this study, personal fog exposures, lung function and acute and chronic symptoms were measured among 101 employees at 19 sites using fogs. Chronic work-related wheezing and chest tightness were significantly associated with increased cumulative exposure to theatrical fogs over the previous two years. Acute cough and dry throat were associated with acute exposure to glycol-based fogs, while increased acute upper airway symptoms were associated with overall increased theatrical fog exposure. Lung function was significantly lower among those working closest to the fog source. It is concluded that mineral oil and glycol-based fogs are associated with acute and chronic adverse effects on respiratory health among employees. Reducing exposure through controls, substitution and elimination where possible is likely to reduce these effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.411-418. 26 ref.

CIS 06-333 Oughton N.
Film and television production: A risky business
This study investigated levels of compliance with occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation in the film and television industry in the Australian state of Queensland. A questionnaire was distributed to workers in production companies and to freelance operators. Findings based on 100 responses reveal that many practitioners lack an understanding of OSH practices, fail to implement OSH programs, rarely conduct risk assessments, only sporadically provide OSH information and training and demonstrate low OSH morale. It is suggested that partnerships between industry, unions and educational institutions may provide the best method for improving the poor OSH culture in the industry.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2005, Vol.21, No.1, p.23-31. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-384 Teschke K., Chow Y., van Netten C., Varughese S., Kennedy S.M., Brauer M.
Exposures to atmospheric effects in the entertainment industry
Theatrical fogs are commonly used in the entertainment industry to create special atmospheric effects during filming and live productions. This study examined exposures to mineral oil and glycol-based theatrical fogs to determine what fluids were commonly used, to measure the size distributions of the aerosols and to identify factors associated with personal exposure levels to these substances. Airborne concentrations of inhalable aerosol, aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in a range of production types (television, film, live theatre and concerts), and observations about the sites and tasks performed were collected. Findings are discussed. It is important to consider these exposures in light of any health effects observed, since existing occupational exposure limits were developed in other industries where the aerosol composition differs from that of theatrical fogs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2005, Vol.2, No.5, p.277-284. 9 ref.

CIS 06-229 Lacombe A.M.
Job study of an accompanying pianist highlighting the usefulness and limitations of occupational health services
Etude du poste de pianiste accompagnatrice ou utilité et limites du service de santé au travail [in French]
A female accompanying pianist employed in a music school developed a tingling sensation in her right hand, followed by a loss of strength and sensitivity in the hand and arm. She was diagnosed with a disc hernia for which she was operated. She recovered and resumed her occupation. She later developed the same symptoms and a disc hernia was again diagnosed. Not willing to undergo a second operation, she applied for occupational disease compensation, which was rejected. She appealed against the decision and contacted an occupational physician who carried out a detailed job study, as a result of which the occupational nature of her disorder was recognized. Details of the ergonomic evaluation are outlined.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.2, p.175-178. 4 ref.

CIS 04-624 Thoumelin P., Monin E., Armandet D., Julien M.J., Massart B., Vasseur C., Pillon A.M., Zilliox M., Balducci F., Bergeret A.
Irritant respiratory problems among swimming pool attendants
Troubles d'irritation respiratoire chez les travailleurs des piscines [in French]
A survey of attendants in 59 swimming pools in the Rhône-Alpes region was carried out. Respiratory problems reported by the attendants were compared with data concerning their activity, their conditions of work, the characteristics of the equipment and levels of nitrogen trichloride measured in poolside ambient air. A campaign launched by an urban community for improving hygiene in swimming pools is also described. The campaign resulted in substantial reductions in chloramine levels in air and water, known to be responsible for ocular and respiratory airway irritation of swimming pool attendants.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.43-64. Illus. 50 ref.$File/TF138.pdf [in French]


CIS 06-410 Behar A.., MacDonald E., Lee J., Cui J., Kunov H., Wong W.
Noise exposure of music teachers
A noise exposure study was performed to assess the risk of hearing loss to music teachers as a result of their activities. Noise exposure of 18 teachers from 15 schools was measured using noise dosimeters. The equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) of each teacher was recorded during single activities (classes) as well as for the entire day. A normalized 8-hour exposure, termed the noise exposure level (Lex), was also computed. The measured Leq exceeded the 85-dBA limit for 78% of the teachers. Lex exceeded 85 dBA for 39% of the teachers. Limited recommendations on how to reduce the noise exposures are provided. The need for a hearing conservation program is also emphasized.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2004, Vol.1, No.4, p.243-247. 10 ref.

CIS 06-194
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Operation of ski slope maintenance equipment
Betrieb von Pistenpflegegeräten [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association on ski slope maintenance equipment: scope; definitions; preventive measures against health hazards and dangerous work-related situations (operating the equipment in compliance with service instructions, demands on drivers, danger zones, driving the equipment, use in specific situations, transport of passengers on the loading deck, transport of loads, use of winches, maintenance, checks).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2004. 14p. [in German]


CIS 08-459
Health and Safety Executive
Safe filming and recording involving vehicles
This information note gives guidance on the risks associated with filming and recording of or from vehicles. Main topics covered: legal requirements; risk assessment; what can go wrong; competencies; position of equipment and personnel; restraints on equipment and people; communication; selection of equipment; filming or recording while driving; tracking shots; use of low-loaders and A-frames; exposure to noise; in-built safety measures in cars; high-speed work; dos and dont's.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2003. 4p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-613
Health and Safety Executive
Effective safety briefings for drivers at karting circuits
This information note explains how to give briefings to drivers on karting circuits. Topics covered: appropriate surroundings for the briefing; how to deliver the briefing; testing the knowledge of the drivers; briefing order; demonstrations and observation of other drivers; familiarisation with the kart and the track. A check-list of the aspects that a driver briefing should mention is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2003. 2p. 4 ref. [in English]

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