Construction industry and civil engineering - 2,110 entries found
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Occupational health and safety: Consolidating achievements and engaging further commitment - Strategic plan 2007-2012
This strategic plan for the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) of Malta for the years 2007 to 2012 starts with the vision and mission of OHSA and translates them into a set of strategic objectives that are to be addressed during the six-year period. The key strategic objectives include: legislation and enforcement; capacity building; seeking partnerships; taking appropriate action against existing and emerging risks; evaluating the effectiveness of actions taken. The document includes a review of historical statistical trends in injury rates, fatality rates and fatalities in the construction sector.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, 17, Triq Edgar Ferro, Pieta', PTA 1533, Malta, no date. 17p. Illus.
Strategic_plan_2007-2012.pdf [in English]
Elsler D., Heyer A., Kuhl K., Eeckelaert L., eds.
How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide
This guide on economic incentives schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimize their own programmes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers), but should also reward specific prevention efforts that aim to reduce future accidents and ill-health. Therefore the expert group suggested the development of compilations of innovative and evidence-based preventive solutions, starting with the three sectors construction, health care and restaurants/catering.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, Dec. 2011. 32p. Illus. 12 ref.
How_to_create_economic_incentives_in_OSH_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Kiviniemi M., Sulankivi K., Kähkönen K., Mäkelä T., Merivirta M.L.
BIM-based safety management and communication for building construction
This project aimed to develop solutions for the planning and management of construction site safety, based on building information modeling (BIM). BIM technology has been applied to construction site safety planning, safety management and safety communication, and the goal was to integrate these safety activities into the 4D-construction management. The project was pilot-tested in several real construction projects.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2011. 123p. Illus. 70 ref.
BIM-based_safety_management_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Preventica and occupational safety and health in the construction industry
Préventica et la prévention dans le BTP [in French]
This article consists of a short report of a conference and exhibition on occupational safety and health in the construction industry held in Lyon, France, 27-29 September 2011. It includes the interview of the secretary-general of the Professional organization for occupational safety and health in the construction industry (French acronym OPPBTP), focused mainly on the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases in this sector.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2011, No.120, p.30-31. Illus.
Préventica_et_la_prévention_dans_le_BTP_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Ravallec C., Bondéelle A., Lemarié J., Vaudoux D.
Asbestos - A poisonous legacy
Amiante - Un héritage empoisonné [in French]
Despite the ban on asbestos processing and use in France since fifteen years, workers in building fittings and furnishings, asbestos removal workers and industrial maintenance workers remain exposed to this hazard, which is the main focus of this collection of articles. Other topics addressed: fibre counting using electronic microscopy; personal detector badges for exposure evaluation; international production and use of asbestos.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2011, No.723, p.16-35. Illus. 8 ref.
Amiante_Un_héritage_empoisonné_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Le Brech A., Dechepy C., Bury M., Lebreton C.
Bouteurs [in French]
Contents of this manual on the safety of bulldozers: causes of accidents; description of the main types of bulldozers; regulatory framework; traffic rules; drivers' duties and responsibilities; construction site safety organization; technology and knowledge of the equipment; preparing the start-up; safety during operations and shut-down; transporting bulldozers; maintenance and repair.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Sep. 2011. 52p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: EUR 9.40. Downloadable version free of charge.
Bouteurs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Underground construction site - Elodie underground
Chantier souterrain - Elodie en sous-sol [in French]
This illustrated article describes the construction work related to the extension of a Paris metro line. Boring with a boring machine named Elodie is expected to take two years. The lack of space at the surface required a stringent organization of work.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2011, No.720, p.2-11. Illus.
Chantier_souterrain_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
The Tours-Bordeaux high-speed line: "A huge construction site significant by its complexity"
LGV Tours-Bordeaux: "un énorme chantier marqué par sa complexité" [in French]
Interview of the manager of a large French construction company involved building a new a high-speed railway line, with emphasis on construction site safety aspects.
Prévention BTP, Nov. 2011, No.147, p.54-55. Illus.
LGV_Tours-Bordeaux_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Diabetes and work are compatible
Diabète et travail sont compatibles [in French]
Diabetes affects a large number of persons who are employed, of employable age or on the labour market. This article addresses the issues of occupational hazards related to diabetes (wounds that heal slowly, hypoglycaemia causing attention deficit or somnolence), together with precautions to be taken by employers at the place of work (safety shoes suited to diabetic patients, regular working hours, appropriate work rhythm and workload).
Prévention BTP, Nov. 2011, No.147, p.48-50. Illus.
Diabète_et_travail_sont_compatibles_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Radon, invisible but dangerous
Le radon, invisible mais dangereux [in French]
Radon is a lung carcinogen and a hazard for inhabitants of contaminated buildings. Construction industry workers are also exposed to radon, in particular when they work underground. This article presents an overview of hazards related to radon and the preventive measures on construction sites (monitoring, limitation of exposure by means of technical and organizational measures).
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2011, No.146, p.48-50. Illus.
Le radon_invisible_mais_dangereux_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Plan_d'actions_interministériel_2005-2008_(INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Ionizing radiation_Radon_(WHO_INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Electrical hazards - New regulations, new consequences
Risque électrique - Nouvelles réglementations, nouvelles répercussions [in French]
Contents of this collection or articles en electrical hazards: new decrees in France; interview of the head of safety of the French association of electrical engineering companies; safety and health efforts undertaken by a small French enterprise specialized in the electrical installations of buildings.
Prévention BTP, Sep. 2011, No.145, p.14-19. Illus.
Risque_électrique_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Mangeas G., eds.
Handling - Equipments that make work easier
Manutention - Ces matériels qui facilitent le quotidien [in French]
Contents of this special issue on equipment used to facilitate handling: editorial summarizing the main issues involved; current situation; occupations; equipment types; addresses of suppliers.
Prévention BTP, Summer 2011, No.144 (special issue), p.1-92 (whole issue). Illus.
Manutention_Ces_matériels_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Meijer E., Tjoe Nij E., Kraus T., van der Zee J.S., van Delden O., van Leeuwen M., Lammers J.W., Heederik D.
Pneumoconiosis and emphysema in construction workers: Results of HRCT and lung function findings
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of HRCT findings in construction workers previously surveyed by chest radiographs classified according to ILO guidelines, and to examine the association between HRCT findings and exposure to quartz containing dust, and lung function. The study comprised a questionnaire, dynamic and static lung function measurements, single-breath CO diffusion capacity, chest radiographs and HRCT in 79 individuals. Certified readers coded radiographs according to the ILO classification. HRCT scans were read according to an international classification system. A qualitative exposure index for cumulative respiratory quartz on a 10-point scale was used. Low grade silicosis cannot be excluded in workers with normal chest radiographs. In relatively highly exposed construction workers, a sevenfold increased risk of simple (nodular) silicosis was found. Emphysema on HRCT was associated with current or former smokers, but not with exposure, and contributed to reduced diffusion capacity. Airflow limitation was mainly determined by current smoking and was not associated with simple (nodular) silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.542-546. 23 ref.
Pneumoconiosis_and_emphysema_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Geier J., Krautheim A., Uter W., Lessmann H., Schnuch A.
Occupational contact allergy in the building trade in Germany: Influence of preventive measures and changing exposure
Since 1993, assiduous efforts have been made in Germany to lower the incidence of allergic cement dermatitis by reducing the content of hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). However, the use of epoxy resin systems in the building sector increased considerably during the same period. This study analysed data of the German Information Network of Departments of Dermatology to evaluate the influence of these changing occupational exposures on frequencies of sensitization. Data of 1,153 men working in the building sector presenting with occupational skin disease in the years 1994-2008 were analysed, taking into consideration not only the year of patch testing, but also beginning and duration of their employment in the building sector. While contact sensitization to chromate decreased from 43.1 to 29.0%, sensitization to epoxy resin increased from 8.4 to 12.4%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, compared to those who had already worked before 1994, patients having started to work after 1999 had a significantly decreased risk of chromate sensitization (odds ratio 0.42) and a significantly increased risk of sensitization to epoxy resin (odds ratio 2.79). Additionally, risk of thiuram sensitization increased with the duration of employment. These findings confirm that reducing Cr(VI) content of cement is useful in preventing allergic cement eczema, as previously found in Scandinavia. In contrast, the increasing prevalence of contact sensitization to epoxy resin components in the building sector is a cause for concern.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.403-411. Illus. 26 ref.
Occupational_contact_allergy_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Visibility and prevention of mobile plant-pedestrian collisions - A bibliographical analysis
Visibilité et prévention des collisions engins-piétons - Analyse bibliographique [in French]
Preventing collisions between mobile equipment and pedestrians is a problem area that concerns different activity sectors, in particular building and civil engineering, handling, waste collection and transport/logistics. In each of these sectors, the potential problem of a collision arises when there is proximity between man and mobile machinery. After defining what is meant by "visibility", this article firstly demonstrates why this characteristic is an essential factor in preventing such collisions. The regulatory and normative approaches applicable to earthmoving machines, forklift trucks and road haulage vehicles are next discussed in relation to a bibliographical analysis of this subject. It is argued that these approaches do not sufficiently consider driver visual activity in all possible work situations. To overcome these limits, many studies propose assessment methodologies based on measuring equipment that is ever more sophisticated with time, but which little address the performance criterion definition. Other studies are based on developing and evaluating technical solutions designed to ensure the appropriateness of the visibility provided by a mobile machine to its operating context. Although rear view and other mirrors have been long used to ensure visibility, it is observed that camera-monitor systems are playing an ever increasing role. A number of studies reveal the potential advantage of these systems, while others emphasize their limits especially from the cognitive standpoint of drivers' difficulties in dividing their attention between several information sources.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.9-18. Illus. 48 ref.
Pinto A., Nunes I.L., Ribeiro R.A.
Occupational risk assessment in construction industry - Overview and reflection
The construction industry is plagued by occupational risky situations and poor working conditions. Occupational risk assessment (ORA) on workplace sites is the first and key step to achieve adequate safety levels, particularly to support decision-making in safety programs. Most construction safety efforts are applied informally under the premise that simply allocating more resources to safety management will improve safety on site. Moreover, there are many traditional methods to address ORA, but few have been adapted and validated for use in the construction industry, particularly in the design stage, for which traditional approaches do not give adequate answers. Based on a literature survey, this article presents a state-of-the-art on ORA traditional methods for the construction industry, discussing their limitations and highlighting the advantages of using fuzzy sets approaches to deal with ill-defined situations.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.616-624. 113 ref.
Occupational_risk_assessment.pdf [in English]
Special feature: spouses of skilled tradesman - Safety ambassadors
Dossier: Femmes d'artisans - Les ambassadrices de la sécurité [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the role of spouses of skilled tradesmen in the construction sector in France with respect to occupational safety and health: managing the procurement and use of personal protective equipment; Internet portal dedicated to wives of tradesmen; percentage of spouses working alongside the owner/manager of small enterprises in the construction sector (32%); legal aspects; interview of the President of the national commission of tradesmens' spouses.
Prévention BTP, June 2011, No.142, p.12-17. Illus.
Camino López M.A., Fontaneda I., González Alcántara O.J., Ritzel D.O.
The special severity of occupational accidents in the afternoon: "The lunch effect"
This study analyzed data from over 10 million occupational accidents having occurred in Spain between 1990 and 2002, with emphasis on the severity of occupational accidents suffered by construction workers at different hours of the day. It was observed that during the interval of time from 13:00 h to 17:00 h, the rates of severe and fatal accidents were particularly high. The opinions of workers concerning the possible reasons for these accidents were obtained by means of questionnaires administered by occupational physicians during periodical health check-ups. This higher accident rate is termed the "lunch effect", and is attributed to several potential risk factors for occupational accidents around lunchtime in Spain, including alcohol consumption.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.1104-1116. Illus. 35 ref.
DeArmond S., Smith A.E., Wilson C.L., Chen P.Y., Cigularov K.P.
Individual safety performance in the construction industry: Development and validation of two short scales
The objective of this study was to develop a short measure of safety performance for use in the construction industry, and to explore the relationships between different components of safety performance and safety outcomes (occupational injuries and work-related pain) within the construction context. It was conducted by means of two field studies. In the first, comprehensive measures of safety compliance and safety participation were shortened and modified to be appropriate for use in construction. Evidence of reliability and validity is provided. Both safety compliance and safety participation were negatively related to occupational injuries, yet these two correlations were not statistically different. In the second study, relationships between these two components of safety performance and work-related pain frequency were investigated. Safety compliance had a stronger negative relationship with pain than safety participation. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.948-954. 42 ref.
Tak S., Buchholz B., Punnett L., Moir S., Paquet V., Fulmer S., Marucci-Wellman H., Wegman D.
Physical ergonomic hazards in highway tunnel construction: Overview from the construction occupational health program
This report provides an overview of physical ergonomic exposures in highway construction work across trades and major operations. For each operation, the observational method "PATH" (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling) was used to estimate the percentage of time that workers spent in specific tasks and with exposure to awkward postures and load handling. The observations were carried out on 73 different days, typically for about 4 h per day, covering 120 construction workers in five different trades: labourers, carpenters, ironworkers, plasterers, and tilers. Non-neutral trunk postures (forward or sideways flexion or twisting) were frequently observed, representing over 40% of observations for all trades except labourers (28%). Kneeling and squatting were common in all operations, especially tiling and underground utility relocation work. The handling of loads was frequent, especially for plasterers and tilers, with a range of load weights but most often under 15 pounds. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence that workers in highway tunnel construction operations are exposed to ergonomic factors known to present significant health hazards.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.665-671. Illus. 33 ref.
Webb T.S., Wells T.S.
Civil engineering airman at increased risk for injuries and injury-related musculoskeletal disorders
The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if 25,385 enlisted civil engineering airmen were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to 28,947 enlisted information management/communications airmen. Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modelling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year and deployment status. Male civil engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR 1.86) and injuries (HR 1.77), while female civil engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR 2.18) and injuries (HR 2.22) compared to information management/communications airmen. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey civil engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.248-254. 26 ref.
Occupational allergies - More and more reactions
Allergies professionnelles - De plus en plus de réactions [in French]
It is estimated that 15% of adult-onset asthma cases have occupational causes. In the construction sector, painters and woodworkers are particularly affected by occupational asthma. More than three hundred and fifty occupational allergens have been identified, but only a handful is responsible for most cases of allergy within the construction sector. This article addresses allergy hazards and preventive measures in the construction sector, essentially asthma and eczema.
Prévention BTP, May 2011, No.141, p.48-50. Illus.
Breysse D., Dehouck L., Perret P., Morand D., Demilecamps L., Bontoux P.
Hazards in civil engineering - Better integration of hazards at the project level
Les risques du génie civil - Mieux intégrer les risques dans les projets [in French]
Although the concept that safety aspects of construction activities should be thought through on the drawing board is not new, it still remains a long way from being generally applied. This article proposes a methodological and organizational approach for integrating safety at the design stage of construction projects.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2011, No.116, p.48-53. Illus.
Noise nuisance - Spare your ears
Nuisances sonores - Epargnez vos oreilles! [in French]
In France, occupational hearing loss is ranked fourth in terms of occupational disease frequency in the construction sector, after MSDs. The construction sector is the most affected, after metalworking industries. This article summarizes the main hazards due to exposure to noise at the place of work (hearing loss, irritability, cardiovascular disorders, sleep disorders), together with the appropriate prevention measures (selection of low-noise equipment, limitation of exposure, supply of personal protective equipment, information and training of employees).
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2011, No.140, p.46-48. Illus.
Bena A., Berchialla P., Debernardi M.L., Pasqualini O., Farina E., Costa G.
Impact of organization on occupational injury risk: Evidence from high-speed railway construction
In mid-2002, construction work started on the Torino to Novara high-speed railway line. A regional epidemiological observatory developed a standardized data collection system that provided a rare opportunity for researchers in Italy to analyze risk factors for occupational injury in a large cohort of workers involved in a single major construction project. The aim of this study was to analyze the main determinants of occupational injury risk and estimate incidence rates, with the help of a Poisson model. The risk was highest among workers performing the least skilled jobs and with the shortest contracts. Moreover the risk was higher in large enterprises. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.428-437. Illus. 31 ref.
Hands: Preventing accidents
Mains: prévenir les accidents [in French]
Each year in France, 1.4 million persons are victims of hand injuries, of which one third occur at work. Consequences are often dramatic for those who depend on their hands to make a living. This article discusses efforts aimed at preventing hand injuries, which need to be reinforced in certain sectors of activity.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2011, No.138, p.46-48. Illus.
The safety and health protection coordinator - A profession that is moving forward
Coordonnateur SPS - Une profession en marche [in French]
Safety and health protection coordinators (French acronym CSPS) consist of professionals designated by building owners at the outset of the preliminary plans concerning the building. This collection of articles on CSPSs presents the current state of the profession which came into being fifteen years ago. Contents: CSPSs, a resource that deserves better use; interview of a CSPS trainer and consultant; account of a day spent accompanying a CSPS on the field.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2011, No.138, p.12-17. Illus.
Coordonnateur_SPS.pdf [in English]
Rabito F.A., Perry S., Salinas O., Hembling J., Schmidt N., Parsons P.J., Kissinger P.
A longitudinal assessment of occupation, respiratory symptoms, and blood lead levels among Latino day laborers in a non-agricultural setting
The reliance on Latin American migrant day labor in the United States is increasing. Prospective data on day laborers' work and health experience in non-agriculture settings are lacking and outcomes are generally restricted to injury rates. This study was conducted to quantify the number of job and job task changes held over 12 months in a cohort of 73 migrant day laborers and assessed the relation between work type, health symptoms and blood lead level. On average, participants worked 2.4 different jobs over the past year averaging 41.5 hr per week. Construction work was associated with a twofold increase in sinonasal and respiratory symptoms in both adjusted and unadjusted models and was associated with increased blood lead levels. It is concluded that despite day labor status, workers had relatively stable employment. Respiratory symptoms were common and often improved when away from work suggesting that workplace irritant exposure is likely. Migrant day laborers working in construction are vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with irritant and lead exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.366-374. 41 ref.
Dong X.S., Fujimoto A., Ringen K., Stafford E., Platner J.W., Gittleman J.L., Wang X.
Injury underreporting among small establishments in the construction industry
There is convincing evidence that occupational injury and illness rates reported by employers substantially underestimate the true magnitude of injury and illness in the construction industry. Fifteen years of data from five large representative data sources in the United States were analysed. Regression trends and ratio analyses were conducted, and stratified by establishment size and Hispanic ethnicity. Findings are discussed. Underreporting was found to be pervasive for small establishments and Hispanic workers. Given that small establishments are predominant in the construction industry, they should be the focus of a larger effort to identify the true extent of construction-related injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.339-349. Illus. 28 ref.
Responsibility of the safety and health coordinator on temporary or mobile construction sites
Responsabilité du coordinateur santé et sécurité sur les chantiers temporaires ou mobiles [in French]
This article explains the role and responsibilities of safety and health coordinators on construction sites under the provisions of current Belgian legislation. A court ruling declaring a safety coordinator to have been responsible for an accident having occurred during the roof insulation on a warehouse is included as an example.
Prevent Focus, Jan. 2011, p.4-8. Illus.
Shishlov K.S., Schoenfisch A.L., Myers D.J., Lipscomb H.J.
Non-fatal construction industry fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1998-2005
Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) were used to describe fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments among workers in the construction industry (1998-2005). Based on NEISS-Work estimates, 555,700 non-fatal work-related injuries among workers in the construction industry were the result of a fall, resulting in an annual rate of 70 per 10,000 full-time equivalents. Younger workers had higher rates of falls, whereas older workers were more likely to suffer serious injuries. The majority of the injuries (70%) were precipitated by falls to a lower level from roofs, ladders, and scaffolding.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.128-135. Illus. 42 ref.
Tam V.W.Y., Fung I.W.H.
Tower crane safety in the construction industry: A Hong Kong study
Tower cranes are extensively used for lifting materials in construction sites. Most construction sites are very confined and close to public. Tower crane accidents not only cause risk to workers at construction sites, but also to pedestrians. This study investigated tower crane safety with respect to regulations and guidelines concerning tower cranes in the Hong Kong construction sector. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and structured interviews. Inadequate training and fatigue were found to be the main reasons of unsafe practices. Recommendations for improving safety performance in tower crane operations are proposed.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.49, No.2, p.208-215. Illus. 25 ref.
Shishlov K.S., Schoenfisch A.L., Myers D.J., Lipscomb H.J.
Non-fatal construction industry fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1998-2005
Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) were used to describe fall-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments among workers in the construction industry (1998-2005). Based on NEISS-Work estimates, a total of 555,700 non-fatal work-related injuries among workers in the construction industry were the result of a fall, resulting in an annual rate of 70 per 10,000 full-time equivalents. Younger workers had higher rates of falls, whereas older workers were more likely to suffer serious injuries. The majority of the injuries (70%) were precipitated by falls to a lower level from roofs, ladders, and scaffolding.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.128-135. Illus. 42 ref.
Global best practices in contractor safety - IOSH/ASSE good practice guidelines
Published jointly by the United Kingdom Institution of Occupational Safety and Health and the American Society of Safety Engineers, this guide aims to summarize good client and contractor practices leading to good safety and health performance, primarily in the construction sector. Topics addressed: what constitutes good practice in contractor safety and health; implementing good practices in developed and developing countries; implementing good practices in international contracts.
Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Feb. 2010. 17p.
Best_practices_in_contractor_safety_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Martínez Aires M.D., Rubio Gámez M.C., Gibb A.
Prevention through design: The effect of European Directives on construction workplace accidents
This article first analyzes policies regarding accident prevention in the European Union, as initially stipulated in the European Framework Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401), and more specifically in Directive 92/57/EEC (see CIS 93-1062), on the implementation of minimum safety and health requirements at temporary or mobile construction sites, concentrating on prevention through design. Whilst designers previously had some responsibilities for reducing risk under common law provisions in many countries, this directive was the first explicit legislation to enforce particular duties upon them. The adaptation of the provisions in this directive to the national legislation of EU member countries is also studied. The second section of the article analyzes the incidence rate of workplace accidents in the construction sector in each country from the year when these regulations came into force until the present time. Based on the evolution of these accident rates, the article postulates the extent to which European policies have contributed to accident prevention in construction. It is now more than a decade since this legislation has been in force which provides a suitable period for a reflective analysis on it is impact.
Safety Science, Feb. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.248-258. Illus. 30 ref.
Prevention_through_design_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Rodrigues E.G., Virji M.A., McClean M.D., Weinberg J., Woskie S., Pepper L.D.
Personal exposure, behavior, and work site conditions as determinants of blood lead among bridge painters
This study was conducted among 84 bridge painters in the New England area to determine the significant predictors of blood lead levels. Lead was measured in personal air and hand wipe samples that were collected during the 2-week study period and in blood samples that were collected at the beginning and at the end of the study period. The personal air and hand wipe data as well as personal behaviours (i.e., smoking, washing, wearing a respirator) and work site conditions were analyzed as potential determinants of blood lead levels using linear mixed effects models. Results show that that several individual-level and site-level factors are associated with blood lead levels among bridge painters, including lead exposure through inhalation and possible hand-to-mouth contact, personal behaviours such as smoking on site, respirator fit testing and work site conditions such as the use of better containment facilities. Accordingly, reduction in blood lead levels among bridge painters can be achieved by improving these workplace practices.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.80-87. 27 ref.
Personal_exposure.pdf [in English]
Carlo R.V., Sheehy J., Feng H.A., Sieber W.K.
Laboratory evaluation to reduce respirable crystalline silica dust when cutting concrete roofing tiles using a masonry saw
Roofers cutting tiles using masonry saws can be exposed to high concentrations of respirable dust. The effectiveness of both a commercially-available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and a water suppression system in reducing silica dust were evaluated separately. The LEV system exhausted 0.24, 0.13, or 0.12 m3/sec of dust laden air, while the water suppression system supplied 0.13, 0.06, 0.03, or 0.02 L/sec of water to the saw blade. Using a randomized block design, implemented under laboratory conditions, these conditions were evaluated independently on two types of concrete roofing tiles (s-shape and flat) using the same saw and blade. Each engineering control (LEV or water suppression) was replicated eight times, or four times for each type of tile. Analysis of variance was performed by comparing the mean airborne respirable dust concentrations generated during each run and engineering control treatment. The use of water controls and ventilation controls compared with the "no control" treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction of mean respirable dust concentrations generated per tile cut. The percent reduction for respirable dust concentrations was 99% for the water control and 91% for the LEV. Results suggest that water is an effective method for reducing crystalline silica exposures. However, water damage potential, surface discolorations, cleanup, slip hazards and other requirements may make the use of water problematic in many situations. Concerns with implementing an LEV system to control silica dust exposures include sufficient capture velocity, additional weight of the saw with the LEV system, electricity connections and cost of air handling unit.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.245-251. Illus. 18 ref.
Laboratory_evaluation.pdf [in English]
Rempel D., Star D., Barr A., Blanco M.M., Janowitz I.
Field evaluation of a modified intervention for overhead drilling
Drilling holes into concrete or metal ceilings is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in construction. The work is done overhead with rotary impact hammer drills that weigh up to 40 N. The task is associated with pain and musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist, forearm, shoulder and back. The mechanism of injury is thought to be the high forces and non-neutral shoulder and wrist postures applied during drilling. Using a participatory intervention model, feedback from 13 construction workers was used to develop a new intervention design that incorporated a wheeled tripod base and a unique method of aligning the drilling column to vertical. A different group of 23 construction workers) evaluated usability and fatigue of the new device during their regular overhead drilling in comparison with the usual method. Four of 12 usability ratings were significantly better with the intervention device compared with the usual method. Subjective shoulder fatigue was less with the new intervention. This difference was supported by objective outcome measures; the mean hand forces during drilling were 26 N with the intervention compared with 245 N with the usual method. The percentage of time with the shoulder flexed or abducted to more than 60 degrees was less with the intervention compared with the usual method. There was significantly less head extension with the intervention compared with the usual method. This study demonstrates that a new intervention device for overhead drilling has improved usability and subjective fatigue ratings compared with the usual method. These improvements are most likely due to the reduced hand forces, reduced shoulder abduction and flexion, and reduced drilling time.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.194-202. Illus. 23 ref.
Field_evaluation.pdf [in English]
Waage S., Odeen M., Bjorvatn B., Eriksen H.R., Ursin H., Hollund B.E., Moen B.E.
Still healthy after extended work hours? Ten hours shift, twenty-one days working period for tunnel workers
The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported health effects of extended work hours (10 h on, 14 h off, 21 days' work, 21 days off) for 40 male tunnel workers in an Arctic area. Questionnaires on demographics and subjective health complaints (SHC), including musculoskeletal, pseudoneurological, gastrointestinal, allergic and flu-like complaints the last thirty days were distributed on day 14 of a work period. The questionnaires also included items on coping, psychological job demands, control, and social support. The questionnaire was repeated three times during a nine-month observation period. Twenty-six workers completed all three questionnaires. The prevalence of subjective health complaints did not change during the observation period. The prevalence of subjective health complaints was the same or lower than in a control group consisting of a cross-section of the Norwegian working population assessed in an earlier study. There was a slight increase in self-reported job demands during the observation period. Coping, job control and social support from colleagues and management were reported high and did not change. No associations between this type of long work hours and changes in self-reported health were found.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.804-810. 26 ref.
Still_healthy.pdf [in English]
Fustinoni S., Campo L., Cirla P.E., Martinotti I., Buratti M., Longhi O., Foà V., Bertazzi P.
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers
The objective of this study was to assess dermal exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers in the region of Milan, Italy, to identify the most frequent compounds and exposure sites and to integrate dermal exposure results with environmental and biological data. Twenty-four asphalt workers were recruited. Dermal exposure was assessed during a single work shift. Sixteen PAHs were quantified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dermal exposure was assessed by applying polypropylene pads to six body sites (neck, shoulder, upper arm, wrist, groin and ankle). Airborne exposure, and urinary PAHs and monohydroxy metabolites were also investigated. Findings are discussed. Overall, dermal exposures to PAHs were in the low ng/cm2 range. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were the most representative compounds and the wrist was the best location to perform dermal exposure assessments. Both dermal and airborne exposure contributed to the total body burden of PAHs, with the relative contribution varying according to the specific PAH.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.456-463. Illus. 40 ref.
Claessen H., Arndt V., Drath C., Brenner H.
Smoking habits and occupational disability: A cohort study of 14 483 construction workers
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of smoking habits on occupational disability among construction workers, an occupational group with particularly high smoking prevalence. The association between smoking and occupational disability was examined during a follow-up of over 10 years in a cohort of 14,483 male construction workers in Württemberg, Germany. The cohort was linked to the regional pension register of the German pension fund to identify workers who were granted a disability pension during the follow-up. HRs (hazard ratios) were calculated with non-smokers as reference by the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, nationality, type of occupation, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Overall, 2643 cases of occupational disability were observed, with dorsopathy (21%) being the most common cause. Clear dose-response relationships were seen between smoking and occupational disability due to all causes, as well as occupational disability due to respiratory, cardiovascular and mental diseases, cancer and dorsopathy. Particularly strong associations were seen between heavy smoking and occupational disability due to mental and respiratory diseases (HR 3.25 and 3.26 respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.84-90. 38 ref.
Calleja Vila A., Hernández Carracosa S., Freixa Blanxart A.
Demolition, elimination and maintenance operations for materials containing asbestos: Practical examples
Operaciones de demolición, retirada o mantenimiento con amianto: ejemplos prácticos [in Spanish]
This technical note describes three demolition, removal and maintenance operations of materials containing asbestos: the removal of a non-friable material not releasing asbestos fibers, such as asbestos-cement panels, together with two examples of work on brittle materials, namely the removal of insulation containing asbestos on the metallic structure of an office building and the repair of pipes with thermal insulation containing asbestos. It explains the precautions to be taken when entering and exiting the work areas and the personal protective equipment required to perform this work.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 6 ref.
NTP_862.pdf [in Spanish]
This Internet page presents a digital training package - ILO Construction Occupational Safety and Health (OSH). It provides tutors with the materials required to plan, create and deliver a construction safety and health course built to the needs of the participants. The information is structured in a highly flexible, modular format which enables its use in varied training scenarios including one-day seminars, night classes or week-long courses. The package is relevant to a global audience and is designed to be applicable in differing political, cultural, and legal environments. It is targeted at four main construction sector actors: workers, clients, contractors and design and project management teams. Four model courses are provided - one for each of these groups -comprising thematised modules, PowerPoint resources, visual materials, toolbox briefings and an extensive knowledge base for further reference. Contents of the package: overview; tutor's guide; theme summaries; theme Powerpoint presentations; knowledge base; toolbox briefings; model courses.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. Page with links to various training materials in PDF and HTML format.
Massari S., Bianchi A.R., Binazzi A., Branchi C., di Marzio D., Marinaccio A., Scano P., Scarselli A., Iavicoli S.
Occupational cancer registry: The ISPESL experience
Il registro dei tumori di sospetta origine professionale: l'esperienza dell'ISPESL [in Italian]
In Italy, legislation governing the collection of data on occupational cancer cases has been recently updated. The data collected by the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) has been recoded to match the new requirements. For the period 1994-2007, 1042 cases of occupational cancer were notified to the ISPESL, mainly regarding men. The most frequent cancer sites were the lung, pleura and nasal cavity. The most affected activity sectors were basic metals and the metal industry, construction, and health care and social services. The most represented carcinogenic agents were asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silica.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 2010, Vol.6, No.1/2, p.43-59. Illus. 51 ref.
Burström L., Järvholm B., Nilsson T., Wahlström J.
White fingers, cold environment, and vibration-exposure among Swedish construction workers
The aim of this study was to examine the association between white fingers, cold environment, and exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV). The hypothesis was that working in cold climate increases the risk of white fingers. The occurrence of white fingers was investigated as a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 134,757 Swedish male construction workers. Exposure to HAV was based on a job-exposure matrix. Living in the north or south of Sweden was, in a subgroup of the cohort, used as an indicator of the exposure to cold environment. The analyses were adjusted for age and use of nicotine products (smoking and snuff). HAV-exposed workers living in a colder climate had a higher risk for white fingers than those living in a warmer climate (odds ratio (OR) 1.71). As expected, it was found that HAV-exposed workers had an increased risk compared to controls (OR 2.02). The risk for white fingers increased with increased level of exposure to HAV and also with age.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.509-513. 18 ref.
Robots make their entry on construction sites
Les robots s'invitent sur les chantiers [in French]
Robots are starting to appear on construction sites and are expected to increasingly replace or complement human workers for strenuous, hazardous or repetitive tasks. This collection of articles on robots in the construction sector presents several examples and case studies including: replacing drilling bits on tunnel boring machines, drones for the inspection of power line pylons, the placing of fire-resistant panels in tunnels.
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2010-Jan. 2011, No.136, p.12-17. Illus. 2 ref.
Village J., Ostry A.
Assessing attitudes, beliefs and readiness for musculoskeletal injury prevention in the construction industry
The objectives of this study were to determine attitudes and beliefs among construction workers and supervisors related to taking action to reduce musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). "Action" stage of change was confirmed if workers in the previous six months were continuing to take steps to reduce MSIs. Surveys involving 520 workers and 171 supervisors revealed that more workers are concerned about MSIs and are taking action to reduce MSIs than supervisors. Workers taking action tended to be younger and less experienced than other workers. The final multivariate model showed that workers taking action were more likely to be mechanics and general laborers, to have experienced pain within the last week, to be involved in health and safety, to feel that changes aimed at reducing MSIs would be effective, and that injuries are due to adverse work conditions rather than with characteristics of individual workers. This information can be used to target ergonomics interventions in this industry.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2010, Vol.41, No.6, p.771-778. Illus. 31 ref.
Perret V., Gueniat J., Dutoit T., Stoll B.
Identifying asbestos presence in construction materials - Performance assessment of an NIR (PhazlRTM) direct reading analyzer
Identification de la présence d'amiante dans les matériaux de construction - Evaluation des performances d'un appareil à lecture directe NIR (PhazlRTM) [in French]
A new direct reading instrument is being proposed for in-situ qualitative detection of asbestos in construction materials. This new analyzer was assessed with respect to a standard method of analysis (polarized light optical microscopy, PLOM), taken as a reference. The direct reading analyzer was used to test 1103 samples of various types of material (17% containing asbestos), which had been previously analyzed using PLOM. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that the direct reading instrument is insufficiently sensitive and is not recommended as an exclusive method for detecting the presence of asbestos.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.51-58. Illus. 8 ref.
ND 2325-218-10.pdf [in French]
Bémer D., Subra I., Depay J.P., Lauzier F.
Diesel emissions - Performance of particle-absorbing filters for off-road vehicles
Emission diesel - Performances des filtres à particules pour engins non routiers [in French]
Exposure to diesel fumes and exhaust gases is considered the most frequent form of workplace exposure in France. These emissions are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) by the IARC. Diesel emission is the source of chemically complex pollution comprising gases and fine carbon particles, onto which complex organic compounds are adsorbed. At present, only the use of a particle filter ensures sufficient reduction in mobile machinery emissions. Multiple technologies have been developed to collect efficiently these particles at the surface of the filter medium and, above all, allow their elimination and thereby regenerate the filter pressure drop. This article presents a study aimed at testing filters fitted to off-road on construction sites to confirm their initial performance and especially their conservation over time. Findings show that certain filter technologies (CRT-type catalyzed passive regeneration) do not appear to be suitable for off-road vehicles. Only active regeneration filters with a complementary additive, which have been widely tested in some countries, appear suitable at present insofar as they ensure significant reduction of soot microparticle emissions and guarantee performance characteristic conservation in time.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.35-43. Illus. 23 ref.
ND 2323-218-10.pdf [in French]
Analysis of construction industry accidents recorded in EPICEA
Analyse des accidents du BTP répertoriés dans EPICEA [in French]
The construction industry is the most hazardous activity of all sectors covered by the French general social security system. This article discusses the use of the EPICEA occupational accident database to expand knowledge concerning the occurrence of these accidents and their victims, and to develop leads for their prevention. EPICEA lists 4385 construction industry accidents having occurred between 1991 and 2008, of which 73% occurred in building and 23% in civil engineering. Findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.17-34. Illus. 17 ref.
ND 2322-218-10.pdf [in French]
Aguiar H., Fujão C.
Ergonomic contributions to the construction sector
Contributos da ergonomia para o sector da construção civil [in Portuguese]
This article brings together the views of the scientific community concerning ergonomics in the construction sector. Work in this sector indeed involves awkward postures (working close to ground level or having to raise hands above the head), handling of loads and repetitive manual work which may lead to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The importance of training in order to limit the risk of MSDs is emphasized.
Segurança, Jan.-Feb. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.194, p.16-19. Illus. 21 ref.
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