Shipwrecking - 20 entries found
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Courtice M.N., Demers P.A., Takaro T.K., Vedal S., Ahmad S.K., Siddique Z., Davies H.W.
Asbestos-related disease in Bangladeshi ship breakers: A pilot study
This study examined the prevalence of asbestos-related diseases including asbestosis, work-related respiratory symptoms, and attitudes to occupational safety and health among a group of internal migrant ship breakers in Bangladesh. Data was collected on clinical and work history, respiratory symptoms, and occupational safety and health practices. Chest radiographs were rated using ILO scores by a certified reader. In the 104 male ship breakers studied, prevalence of asbestos-related disease was 12%, of which asbestosis accounted for 6%. Knowledge of asbestos and occupational safety and health measures were almost non-existent. The prevalence of asbestos-related diseases is low compared to studies in shipbuilders and repairers, but a risk underestimate could have resulted from various issued identified during study design and implementation, which are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.17, p.144-153. 40 ref.
Decent work in Asia: Reporting on results 2001-2005
Al-(amal al-lā'iq fi āsīā. Taqrīr (an al-natā'ij li al-fatra 2001-2005. [in Arabic]
Timian laodong zai Yazhou: Youguan jieguo de baogao 2001-2005 [in Chinese]
This report of the Director-General was prepared for the 14th Asian Regional Meeting held in Busan, Republic of Korea, 29 Aug.-1 Sep. 2006. It describes how countries have adopted different ways of promoting decent work and reports on the key results achieved in implementing the conclusions of the 13th Asian Regional Meeting. These include: promotion of standards and fundamental principles at work; eliminating child labour and forced labour; tackling work-related safety and health hazards; and combating HIV/AIDS in the world of work.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2006. x, 104p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 15.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/rgmeet/14asrm/dgresults01-05.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/arabic/standards/relm/rgmeet/14asrm/dgresults01-05.pdf [in Arabic]
http://www.ilo.org/public/chinese/standards/relm/rgmeet/14asrm/dgresults01-05.pdf [in Chinese]
Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and Turkey
These guidelines were adopted by the Interregional Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Safety and Health in Shipbreaking for Selected Asian Countries and Turkey, held in Bangkok, Thailand, 7-14 Oct. 2003. The guidelines start with the following general information: glossary; general objectives; characteristics of the industry (incl. a detailed list of occupational hazards in the industry). Two principal parts: I. Establishing national frameworks - general responsibilities, duties and rights, legal frameworks; OSH management; reporting and notification of work-related inquiries and diseases, ill health and incidents; occupational health services. II. Safe shipbreaking operations - operations planning; general preventive and protective measures; management of hazardous substances; measures against physical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards; safety requirements for tools, machines and equipment; competence and training; personal protective equipment and protective clothing; contingency and emergency preparedness; special protection (social insurance, working hours, night work, child labour, alcohol and drugs, HIV/AIDS); welfare measures. In annexes: workers' health surveillance; surveillance of the working environment; establishing an OSH management system; IMO inventory of potentially hazardous materials on board ships; example of a model risk assessment tool.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office (ILO), 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2004. xxi, 200p. 69 ref. Index. Price: CHF 35.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/download/e000020.pdf [in English]
Worker safety in the ship-breaking industries
This working paper examines the current situation in ship-breaking and makes suggestions for possible improvements in working conditions. Contents: current practices in ship-breaking; implications for occupational safety and health and the environment; existing standards and practices; national and international initiatives; future requirements.
Sectoral Activities Department, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2001. vii, 65p. Illus. 45 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/shpbreak/wp-167.pdf [in English]
Les ferrailleurs de la mer [in French]
This videocassette exposes the dangerous working conditions of the men who dismantle ships in the ship-breaking yards of India and Bangladesh. It reveals hazards such as manual handling of steel plates, work in extreme temperatures with primitive machinery, long hours of work and a lack of training and workers' rights. Interviews with shipowners, government and industry experts and the workers themselves reveal the complex issues that surround this industry.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2000. Videocassette 23 min. VHS PAL in English, VHS NTSC in French. Price: CHF 35.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/sectors/shipbrk/film/index.htm [in English]
Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Personal Protective Equipment for Shipyard Employment: Final Rule [USA]
This final rule became effective (except for some minor provisions) on 22 Aug. 1996. It updates, reorganizes and simplifies the standards related to the wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) during shipyard employment. Shipbuilding, ship repair and shipbreaking are all included within its scope. Where appropriate, the final rule deletes existing specification-oriented provisions that limit employer innovation and incorporates performance-oriented language. Contents: Part I (commentary and analysis): background; estimates of shipyard injuries involving lost workdays or body injury in the US in 1992 and 1994 (by body part injured and nature of injury); summary and explanation of the final rule; final economic analysis and environmental impact assessment summary. Part II (legal text of the final rule): scope, application and definitions; general requirements; eye and face protection; head protection; foot protection; hand and body protection; lifesaving equipment; personal fall arrest systems; positioning device systems. (Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134). In annex: guidelines to hazard assessment, PPE selection and PPE training programmes; testing guidelines for personal fall protection systems; list of relevant ANSI and ASME standards and TLV list from ACGIH.
Federal Register, 24 May 1996, Vol.61, No.102, Part III, p.26322-26360. 17 ref.
Ho S.F., Wong P.H., Kwok S.F.
Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters
The 54 scrap metal cutters employed by a shipbreaking and foundry plant in Singapore were matched with controls (construction workers), interviewed and given medical examinations. Most were contract workers paid on a piece-work basis. No respirators were provided or worn. The workers were unaware of the potential hazards of metal fumes. Cough, rhinitis and skin burns were more prevalent among the cutters than among controls. Blood lead levels exceeded the biological threshold limit value of 70µg/100L in 10 of them. The 10 were transferred temporarily to other work and advised in respirator use. Personal sampling for airborne lead in the workplace gave levels of 0.01-0.57mg/m3 (ACGIH TLV: 0.15mg/m3); the values were correlated with the lead content of paint on the metal being cut. Plant management was advised of the need for protective equipment and periodic medical examinations.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1989, Vol.30, p.535-538. 15 ref.
Shipyard industry: OSHA Safety and Health Standards Digest [USA]
This digest covers safety and health standards applying to the shipyard industry. Contents: general provisions; explosive and other dangerous atmospheres; surface preparation and preservation; welding, cutting and heating; scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces; general working conditions; rigging and materials handling equipment; tools; personal protective equipment; ship's machinery and piping systems; portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers; electrical machinery.
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC 20210, USA, Rev. ed., Sep. 1983. 143p.
Control of gas hazards on vessels
This standard, approved as an American National Standard 28 July 1980, applies to ships carrying or burning as fuel flammable or combustible liquids. It also applies to vessels carrying or having carried flammable compressed gases, chemicals in bulk, or other products capable of creating a hazardous condition. It describes the conditions required before a space may be entered or work may be started on any vessel under construction, alteration, repair, or for shipbreaking. It applies to cold work, application or removal of protective coatings, and work involving riveting, electric welding, burning, or like fire-producing operations. Contents: minimum requirements precedent to the issuance of marine chemist's certificate; mandatory requirements for vessels; additional requirements for bulk chemical cargo tanks; and for flammable cryogenic liquid carriers. Appended: safe conditions obtained by cleaning and inerting.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1980. 27p. Illus. Price: US-$5.00.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Oct. 1977.
Schiffbau [in German]
These safety regulations, which apply to shipbuilding (including redesign and structural alterations), ship overhaul and repair, and shipbreaking, and construction, overhaul, redesign and repair of floating plant, contain provisions for: training and qualification of safety officers, observance of safe working loads, personal protective equipment, stability and load bearing capacity of hulls of vessels in dry dock, and of scaffolding, description and features of workposts and communication ways, protection against falls, transport of heavy loads, use of hot materials, safety measures for special operations (launching, dry or wet docking, winches). Additional provisions concerning ships or installations with tanks or holds for hazardous substances, shipbreaking and demolition work, trial runs. Supplementary booklet containing administrative and other rules for the enforcement of VBG 34, and commentary.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 11+12p. Price: DM.1.50.
Fell G.S., Ottaway J.M., Hussein F.E.R.
Application of blood cadmium analysis to industry using an atomic fluorescence method.
A flame photometric method using atomic fluorescence for cadmium (Cd) estimation is described. The system employs a modified, low-cost atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a high intensity Cd light source. The method permits 1 in 5 dilution of blood for analysis, and processing of 25 duplicates/h, with acceptable precision. In tests in general categories of worker (blood Cd:65.2nmol/l) demolition workers (137.9nmol/l) and shipbreakers (105.9nmol/l) there was a relation between increases in blood Cd and in blood Pb, which was statistically significant for the shipbreakers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1977, Vol.34, No.2, p.106-109. 9 ref.
Tola S., Hernberg S., Vesanto R.
Occupational lead exposure in Finland - VI. Final report.
2,209 workers in 30 occupations were studied for lead exposure in 1970-1973. The highest blood lead values (Pb-B) were found in: lead scrap smelting (median 79µg/100ml), storage battery manufacture (66µg), foundry workers (53µg), shipbreaking (49µg), crystal glass manufacture (41µg), engine radiator repair (38µg), and PVC manufacture (37µg). The maximum recommended Pb-B in Finland, 70µg/100ml, was also exceeded in: storage tank manufacture and repair, machine shop work, metal surface treating, paint manufacture, spray painting, railway machine shop work, storage battery repair. Each of the above, and other, less exposed, occupations are summarised. While the national poisoning register is a useful indicator of lead exposure in the most hazardous occupations, the hazard escaped recognition in metal foundry work, motor repairing and motor radiator repairing, for example. For parts IV and V, see CIS 76-240 and 76-1329; for the above data in Finnish, see CIS 76-190.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-127. 48 ref.
Tola S., Karskela V.
Occupational lead exposure in Finland - V. Shipyards and shipbreaking.
3 Finnish shipyards and 2 shipbreaking enterprises were studied for lead exposure. Blood lead (Pb-B) concentration was measured for 568 workers in the shipyards and 13 workers in the shipbreaking enterprises. Erythrocyte δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was determined for 139 workers in one shipyard and 7 workers in one shipbreaking enterprise. Haemoglobin level was determined for 545 workers in the 3 shipyards and 7 workers in one shipbreaking enterprise. Lead exposure in the shipyards was relatively low. No Pb-B value exceeded 70µg/100ml. The most exposed occupations were welders, plumbers, painters, repairmen, and sheet metal workers. The mean Pb-B did not exceed 40µg/100ml in any of these groups. In both shipbreaking enterprises one Pb-B value exceeded 70µg/100ml, the mean Pb-B values of all the workers in the two enterprises being 51 and 46µg/100ml, respectively. ALAD values corresponded well with the respective Pb-B values. All the haemoglobin mean values were normal, and there were no statistically significant differences between the haemoglobin values of different groups. For Part IV, see CIS 76-240.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1976, Vol.2, No.1, p.31-36. 8 ref.
Oliver T.P., Molyneux M.K.B.
Calculation of risks in burning and welding.
Problems associated with the fumes or gases generated during welding and cutting of metal plates in dockyards. Assessing the hazards of such fume is difficult since its composition depends upon the welding rods, the metal substrate, surface coatings, and the combination of atmospheric constituents due to the heat. Estimating the hazards is further complicated by differences in the work site, which outside the workshop may vary from a windswept ship deck to a small confined space. Air sampling, biological monitoring of blood and urine, and epidemiological studies are discussed as methods of evaluating exposure. The need for a more precise definition of parameters of risk and ventilation standards is emphasised.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1975, Vol.17, No.3-4, p.295-302. Illus. 11 ref.
Occupational safety and health standards for maritime employment.
This consolidated text of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Maritime Employment updates and republishes the standards, but does not make any substantive changes. It is divided into 5 main parts (ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking, longshoring, cargo gear certification) covering the following aspects: explosive and other hazardous atmospheres; surface preparation and preservation (toxic cleaning solvents, chemical paint and preservative removers, mechanical paint removers, painting, flammable liquids); welding, cutting and heating; scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces; general working conditions; gear and equipment for rigging and materials handling; tools and related equipment; personal protective equipment; ship's machinery and piping systems; portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers, other equipment; electrical machinery, opening and closing hatches, means of access, ship's cargo handling gear, etc. Subject index with each part.
Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter 17, Parts 1915-1919. Washington, D.C., USA, 19 June 1974, Vol.39, No.119, p.22001-22106.
Tola S., Hernberg S.
Industrial lead exposure in Finland
Ammatillinen lyijyaltistus Suomessa [in Finnish]
Blood lead concentrations (PbB), erythrocyte δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), blood haemoglobin and urinary δ-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) were determined in 2,245 workers from 30 types of work. The PbB levels found are tabulated. Median values per 100ml blood were: brass foundry, 79µg; lead scrap melting, 79µg; storage battery manufacture, 66µg; shipbreaking, 49µg; crystal glass manufacture, 41µg; car radiator repairing, 37.5µg; PVC manufacture, 37µg. In all these industries there was a definite danger of clinical lead poisoning. ALA-D activity gave a fairly good estimate of PbB, and is especially suitable as a screening test. Blood haemoglobin is useful in monitoring lead exposure only if a series of measurements is available. Recommendations for regular health examinations of lead-exposed workers are given. If PbB values exceed 40µg/100ml, annual determination of ALA is also recommended. If several values exceed 70µg/100ml, the workers should be examined at least 6 times a year. Detailed summary in English.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia 101, Institute of Occupational Health (Työterveyslaitos), Helsinki, Finland, 1974. 86p. 79 ref.
Decree of 30 July 1974, stipulating rules for the implementation of the Workers Protection Act of 1934, concerning certain types of dangerous work on board tankers (Tanker Safety Decree)
Besluit van 30 juli 1974, houdende regelen ter uitvoering van de Veiligheidswet 1934, betreffende bepaalde gevaarlijke werkzaamheden aan boord van tankschepen (Veiligheidsbesluit Tankschepen) [in Dutch]
This decree, parts of which entered into force on 1 Dec. 1974, stipulates safety rules for cleaning combustible-liquid holds, maintenance, rebuilding and repair work on board tankers, and shipbreaking. General safety provisions are followed by requirements for the selection and supervision of the cleaning personnel and rules for personal protective equipment, gas freeing, fire and explosion protection, prevention of poisoning by toxic atmospheres, safety certificates, the detection of explosive atmospheres, etc. The rules are commented upon in detail in a 7-page schedule. Repealed.
Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 1974, No.566, p.1-12.
Taylor W., Molyneux M.K.B., Blackadder E.S.
Lead over-absorption in a population of oxy-gas burners.
A full clinical investigation was made of 35 men occupationally exposed to lead and 35 non-exposed workers of comparable age. A sample of blood was taken from each for blood lead content and haematological studies and urinary lead levels were determined. An environmental study was carried out and blood and urine lead levels were again determined at 3-monthly intervals. High blood levels were found among all the exposed workers initially, but it was shown that by close supervision of the work situation it is possible to achieve an acceptable degree of lead absorption.
Nature, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.247, No.5435, p.53-54. 9 ref.
O'Riordan M.L., Evans H.J.
Absence of significant chromosome damage in males occupationally exposed to lead.
A study of the extent of chromosome damage in a population of men occupationally exposed to oxides of lead. 70 male workers employed by a shipbreaking yard were investigated. The results do not indicate an increased chromosome aberration frequency in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals chronically exposed to high levels of lead. Difficulties which may be encountered in the interpretation of chromosome aberration data are discussed, and the conflicting results of previous studies into the possible mutagenic effects of lead are evaluated.
Nature, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.247, No.5435, p.50-53. 20 ref.
Cramér K., Selander S.
Comparison between D-penicillamine and N-acetyl-D-penicillamine in the treatment of lead poisoning
D-Penicillamine and N-acetyl-D-penicillamine were compared in the treatment of 2 workers with excessive lead absorption. The acetylated compound did not produce any significant increase in urinary lead; the non-acetylated compound had a satisfactory chelating action and produced an immediate reduction in urinary concentration and 24-h elimination of δ-aminolevulinic acid. The existence of a free amino group is essential for the chelating of D-penicillamine.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.46-48. Illus. 7 ref.