Shipbuliding and ship repair - 191 entries found
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Brasseur G., Clergiot J., Lemarié J.
Spray painting booths - A sector of activity rich in colour
Cabines de peinture - Une industrie haute en couleur [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the prevention of occupational hazards in spray painting booths: regulatory aspects; French and European standards concerning booth ventilation; booth design; spray painting booth at an automobile body repair shop; design of a paint tunnel at a marine engine manufacturer; painting of aircraft.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2011, No.721, p.16-32. Illus. 2 ref.
Cabines_de_peinture.pdf [in French]
Untimanon O., Geater A., Chongsuvivatwong V., Saetia W., Utapan S.
Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in Southern Thailand
Powdered lead oxide (Pb3O4) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 μg/m2 and 77.8 vs 43.8 μg/m2, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 μg/m2 and 434.8 vs 80.8 μg/g, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.39, No.1, p.37-46. 33 ref.
Skin_lead_contamination.pdf [in English]
Kim J.H., Moon J.Y., Park E.Y, Lee K.H., Hong Y.C.
Changes in oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds
This study was conducted to evaluate the change of oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds. Urine and blood samples were collected from 21 subjects before and after occupational exposure to VOCs. Muconic (MuA), hippuric (HA) mandelic (MaA) and methyl hippuric (MHA) acid were measures as urinary exposure biomarkers for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (collectively BTEX), while malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers in all subjects. BTEX-mediated RNA expression using cDNA microarray were also evaluated in 14 subjects. Findings are discussed. The study results suggest that exposure to VOCs, specifically toluene, induces oxidative stress and various gene expression changes, some being possibly responsible for oxidative stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.8-14. Illus. 28 ref.
Changes_in_oxidative_stress_biomarker.pdf [in English]
Jacinto C., Silva C.
A semi-quantitative assessment of occupational risks using bow-tie representation
This work proposes a semi-quantitative risk assessment methodology, which was applied and tested in the ship building industry. It covers a wide range of risks related to occupational accidents in a shipbuilding environment, more specifically a large shipyard in Portugal. The initial qualitative analysis focuses on the bow-tie diagram technique, but it also integrates concepts and classifications schemes defined by the Eurostat within the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) project. The structure of the diagram enables the identification of the relevant accident's causal pathways and their consequences, at the same time as it identifies the existing or needed safety barriers. A specific case study, in the shipyard's technological area of surface treatment and protection, is presented to demonstrate the method's applicability and usefulness.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.973-979. Illus. 17 ref.
Implementing WSH 2018 for the marine sector in Singapore - Towards a progressive and pervasive safety and health culture
This document consists of the sector-specific plan to guide collective effort in achieving significant and sustained improvements in occupational safety and health in the Singapore marine sector, including shipbuilding, ship repair, rig building, offshore engineering, marine surveying services, salvaging of distressed vessels and cargo, as well as work done at anchorages. Contents: key statistics of the marine sector in Singapore, including accident statistics; roles and responsibilities; implementing Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) 2018 strategy for the marine sector in Singapore; action plans.
Workplace Safety and Health Council, 5 Maxwell Road, 20-00 Tower Block, MND Complex, Singapore 069110, 2010. 31p. Illus.
Implementing_WSH_2018_marine.pdf [in English]
Boat maintenance - Hazards in real time
Entretien de bateaux - Des risques au fil de l'eau [in French]
This article presents the drydock maintenance and repair tasks of barges used in fluvial navigation, together with the organization and the safety measures implemented in a specialized French shipyard.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2010, No.703, p.2-9. Illus.
Entretien_de_bateaux.pdf [in French]
From shipyard to graveyard
Using the example of the high number of fatal accidents in a large Philippines shipyard owned by a foreign multinational firm, this article provides a critical review of the government's seemingly weak capacity to enforce safety standards in the workplace. Topics addressed include labour inspection, safety training in industry, compliance with safety regulations and the role of government. Several remedial actions are proposed.
Newsbreak, May-July 2009, p.31-35. Illus.
Zaebst D.D., Seel E.A., Yiin J.H., Nowlin S.J., Chen P.
Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates
An earlier nested case-control study at a U.S. nuclear naval shipyard primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and ionizing radiation. Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fumes, and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume. In this study, exposures to the potential confounders were estimated by an expert panel based on a set of quantitatively defined categories of exposure. Findings suggest that a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to asbestos and welding fumes. However, the levels of these exposures were not sufficient to affect the risk estimates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.404-414. Illus. 21 ref.
Hobson A.J., Sterling D.A., Emo B., Evanoff B.A., Sterling C.S., Good L., Seixas N., Checkoway H., Racette B.A.
Validity and reliability of an occupational exposure questionnaire for parkinsonism in welders
This study assessed the validity and test-retest reliability of a medical and occupational history questionnaire for workers performing welding in the shipyard industry. This self-report questionnaire was developed for an epidemiologic study of the risk of Parkinsonism in welders. Participants were recruited from three similar shipyards and asked to complete the questionnaire at two different times approximately four weeks apart. Responses on the questionnaire were compared with information extracted from personnel records. Findings suggest that participants' self-reports were valid compared with employer records, generating reproducible answers and therefore allowing the use of the questionnaire for occupational exposure assessment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2009, Vol.6, No.6, p.324-331. 23 ref.
Ergonomics for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders - Guidelines for shipyards
A major component of OSHA's approach to ergonomics is the development of industry-specific and task-specific guidelines to reduce and prevent workplace musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). These voluntary guidelines provide recommendations for shipyards to help reduce the number and severity of work-related MSDs, increase employer and employee awareness of ergonomic risk factors, eliminate unsafe work practices, alleviate muscle fatigue and increase productivity. In order to develop these guidelines, OSHA reviewed existing ergonomic practices in several shipyards, conducted site visits to observe these practices in action, and interviewed employees in shipyards. In addition, the Agency reviewed available scientific information regarding shipyard work activities that may benefit from implementing specific ergonomic solutions.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Feb. 2008. 49p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3341shipyard.pdf [in English]
Krstev S., Stewart P., Rusiecki J., Blair A.
Mortality among shipyard Coast Guard workers: A retrospective cohort study
The mortality causes of 4413 men and 289 women workers employed between 1950 and 1964 in a United States shipyard were determined. Subjects were followed until 2001 for vital status. Detailed shipyard and lifetime work histories found in the shipyard records and job descriptions were evaluated, enabling workers to be classified as having been likely to be exposed to potential hazardous substances. In addition, 20 job groups were created on the basis of their estimated exposure levels. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated based on the general population and adjusted for age, death period, sex and race. Findings are discussed. Employment in this shipyard revealed a small but significant excess mortality from all causes, lung cancer and mesothelioma, most of which is probably related to asbestos exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.64, No.10, p.651-658. 63 ref.
The construction of submarines requires stringent application of safety procedures for working in confined spaces. This article explains how a United Kingdom defence contractor entered into partnership with the Health and Safety Executive to improve confined-space working practices through the operation of an intervention plan. The dangers of confined-space working are outlined and changes in the company's working practices and the benefits resulting from the intervention are described.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 2006, Vol.24, No.4, p.55-58. Illus.
Hałatek T., Sinczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Rydzynski K.
Neurological and respiratory symptoms in shipyard welders exposed to manganese
This case-control study was performed to assess the use of neurophysiological tests for the detection of early effects of exposure to low manganese concentrations and to examine the use of Clara cell protein (CC16) as an early pulmonary biomarker of exposure to welding fumes. The study involved 59 shipyard welders and 23 controls, matched by age and smoking habits. Subjective neurological symptoms, visual evoked potentials and electroencephalography were examined. Relationships between manganese concentrations in the air, blood and urine as well as between cumulative exposure indices were investigated. CC16 as an early pulmonary biomarker in welding exposure was examined by immunoassay. Findings are discussed. It was confirmed that these sensitive tests could be used for the detection of early effect of exposure to low manganese concentrations.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2005, Vol.18, No.3, p.265-274. Illus. 51 ref.
A guide to the Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations [Singapore]
This guide explains the responsibilities of employers, owners and contractors in shipbuilding and ship repairing under the Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-10, amendments in CIS 00-12). Main topics covered: notification of work; safety supervision and coordination functions; workplace safety; electrical safety; hazardous work; safety training; permit-to-work systems; control of hazardous materials; shift hand-over procedures; welding and cutting; scaffolds; lifts; cranes; derricks; safety management systems and audits; materials handling.
Occupational Safety and Health Division, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road 03-02, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, rev. ed. 2005. 29p.
Delgado Ortega M., García García J.A., Rivas Mateos F., Almorza Daza J.M.
Study of backache in a shipyard
Estudio de las lumbalgias en una empresa de construcción naval [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis according to which there is a relationship between lumbar accidents and musculoskeletal pain in this location, and to formulate recommendations aimed at decreasing the rate of these accidents. The study involved 901 shipyard workers who responded to a questionnaire on their lumbar symptoms. Working conditions for various tasks were also examined and analysed with the help of graphical job profiles and check lists. Analysis shows that for most occupations, the rate of lumbar accidents is proportional to musculoskeletal pain, with high levels for welders and forgers. Among gas cutting operators, the accident/pain relationship was below average; these workers often complain of pain but have lower than average accident rates. Among electricians and pipe fitters, accident rates were high but complaints were lower than average.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2004, Vol.L, No.196, p.37-49. Illus. 18 ref.
Code of practice for temporary electrical installations - Part 3: Shipbuilding and ship-repairing yards
This standard deals principally with the provision of temporary electricity supply from shore fixed installations or from mobile generating sets to vessels under construction and during repair and conversion work. It covers all temporary electrical installations in shipyards, in vessels moored alongside the yards and in confined repair spaces on board vessels. This code does not cover electricity supply for the vessels' regular electrical installation nor installations operating at low voltages.
SPRING Singapore, 2 Bukit Merah Central, Singapore 159835, Republic of Singapore, 2004. 40p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: SGD 34.00.
Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and Turkey
These guidelines were adopted by the Interregional Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Safety and Health in Shipbreaking for Selected Asian Countries and Turkey, held in Bangkok, Thailand, 7-14 Oct. 2003. The guidelines start with the following general information: glossary; general objectives; characteristics of the industry (incl. a detailed list of occupational hazards in the industry). Two principal parts: I. Establishing national frameworks - general responsibilities, duties and rights, legal frameworks; OSH management; reporting and notification of work-related inquiries and diseases, ill health and incidents; occupational health services. II. Safe shipbreaking operations - operations planning; general preventive and protective measures; management of hazardous substances; measures against physical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards; safety requirements for tools, machines and equipment; competence and training; personal protective equipment and protective clothing; contingency and emergency preparedness; special protection (social insurance, working hours, night work, child labour, alcohol and drugs, HIV/AIDS); welfare measures. In annexes: workers' health surveillance; surveillance of the working environment; establishing an OSH management system; IMO inventory of potentially hazardous materials on board ships; example of a model risk assessment tool.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office (ILO), 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. xxi, 200p. 69 ref. Index. Price: CHF 35.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/download/e000020.pdf [in English]
Śliwińska-Kowalska M., Zamyslowska-Szmytke E., Szymczak W., Kotylo P., Fiszer M., Wesolowski W., Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska M.
Ototoxic effects of occupational exposure to styrene and co-exposure to styrene and noise
The effects on hearing of occupational exposure to styrene and of combined exposures to styrene and noise were evaluated in 290 yacht yard and plastics factory workers and in a control group of unexposed and noise-exposed workers. Subjects were assessed by means of a detailed questionnaire and audiometric examinations. There was an almost four-fold increase in the odds of developing hearing loss from styrene exposure. In cases of the combined exposures to styrene and noise, the odds ratios were two to three times higher than the respective values for styrene-only and noise-only exposed subjects. The mean hearing thresholds were significantly higher in the solvent-exposed group than in the unexposed reference group at all frequencies tested. The study provides evidence that occupational exposure to styrene is related to an increased risk of hearing loss. Combined exposures to noise and styrene seem to be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 17 ref.
Dry dock at Concarneau: A careenage tool that integrates safety
Cale sèche de Concarneau: Un outil de carénage intégrant la sécurité [in French]
Since 2002, the town of Concarneau (in Finistère, France) has a new type of dry dock that can accommodate large ships for maintenance procedures. The integration of safety considerations into the design of the dry dock resulted in a careenage system with a high degree of safety. This article describes these safety features along with other safety and health measures including control of access to the site, protection against falls and improved circulation and emergency access routes on the dock.
Travail et santé, June 2003, No.630, p.2-9. Illus.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/ArchivesTS.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS630page2_1/$File/TS630page2.pdf?OpenElement [in French]
Abbate C., Giorgianni C., Brecciaroli R., Tringali M.A., D'Arrigo G.
Spirometric function in non-smoking workers exposed to aluminium
This study examined the relationship between occupational exposure to aluminium and respiratory function. A group of 50 male shipyard workers who were exposed to aluminium underwent medical examinations, standard chest X-rays and spirometry. The data were compared with those of a group of controls, all with blood aluminium levels below 7.5ng/mL. Statistical analysis was performed on the various spirometric parameters. Environmental aluminium levels were also measured at the various workstations. The subjects presented average blood aluminium levels of 32.64±8.69ng/mL. Environmental monitoring displayed aluminium levels higher than TLV TWA for all the workstations studied. None of the subjects displayed significant pathological conditions. Statistical comparison of the spirometric parameters showed a decrease in the examined values in exposed workers directly proportional to the blood aluminium level. It is concluded that aluminium affects the respiratory function and that limit values should be reassessed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p.400-404. 33 ref.
Health hazards due to the machining of high-alloy steels
Gefährdungen beim Bearbeiten hochlegierter Stähle [in German]
Welding of high-alloy steels, in particular V2A steel, produces smoke that contains chromium (VI) and nickel (V) compounds, which are carcinogenic. Since this type of job is often subcontracted and because there are wide differences in the working conditions of welders, an evaluation of welders' exposure to this type of smoke was carried out using the example of a small boat galley, with and without exhaust ventilation. Ambient measurements show that whatever the ventilation conditions, permissible levels cannot be complied with consistently. The article emphasizes the need to make respirators available to the workers and to ensure, whenever the work is subcontracted, that the contractors comply with existing legislation, since the occupational safety and health responsibility remains with the principal.
G+S - Gesund und Sicher, Feb. 2003, No.2, p.46-47. Illus.
Valentino M., Rapisarda V., Fenga C.
Hand injuries due to high-pressure injection devices for painting in shipyards: Circumstances, management and outcome in twelve patients
Injuries due to high-pressure injections are frequently underestimated occupational accidents, which may have disabling outcomes. The occupational injuries logbooks of two shipyards were examined. Twelve accidents due to the utilization of high-pressure equipment were reported. Data were obtained by reviewing the employers' logbooks and hospital records. Contaminants were epoxy paint and stucco, paint solvent, hydraulic and industrial oil. The palm was injured in three cases and the fingers in nine. In 91% of cases, the accident occurred in the last two hours of the work shift. Causes were mishandling in nine cases and rupture of the high-pressure equipment in three. Mean time to medical treatment was 42.5hr. Ten workers were permanently disabled. Prompt surgical intervention with debridement and decompression was done in two workers, who healed completely. The ten patients who were not treated immediately eventually experienced a high rate of disability and five of them also suffered amputation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2003, Vol.43, No.5, p.539-542. Illus. 16 ref.
Safety briefing handbook for shipyard supervisors
This handbook aimed at frontline supervisors provides guidance for conducting effective safety briefings for workers carrying out jobs in shipyards, in order to ensure that workers are briefed on safety matters. Topics covered: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; hand tools; mechanical hazards; manual lifting; permits-to-work system; confined spaces; electrical safety; falling hazards; drowning hazards; falling object hazards; fire and explosion hazards; health hazards.
Association of Singapore Marine Industries (ASMI), Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 26p. Illus.
Guide for inspection and maintenance of cranes in shipyards
This guide provides guidelines for crane operators, lifting supervisors and crane maintenance personnel in shipyards for the purpose of ensuring safe working conditions while working with cranes, through inspection and enhancing the life span of cranes through planned maintenance. Contents: definitions; relevant regulations; different types of cranes; inspection programme (daily inspection for the different types of cranes, inspection by an approved person); maintenance programme (frequency of maintenance, monthly maintenance for different types of cranes, crane load test). In appendices: extracts from relevant regulations, sample forms of maintenance service reports for different types of cranes.
Association of Singapore Marine Industries (ASMI), Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 22p.
Guide for safety assessors on hot work certification
This guide provides guidelines for safety assessors appointed under Regulation 35(3) of the Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations (CIS 00-12) for the purpose of certification of hot work areas in relation to the issuing of work permits. Contents: definitions; relevant regulations; duties and responsibilities of safety assessors; hot work endorsement; validity of the hot work permit; other conditions to be observed by the safety assessor during hot work inspection; recording of inspections; general guidelines on the use of a combustible gas detector. In appendices: extracts from relevant regulations, sample forms of a hot work permit and of a record of failed inspection; safety checklists.
Association of Singapore Marine Industries (ASMI), Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 22p.
Guide on lock-out and tag-out procedures for the marine industry
This guide provides guidelines to assist companies in the marine industry in meeting the requirements for the establishment and implementation of lock-out procedures. It also contains guidelines on tag-out procedures so as to ensure that all energy sources to any plant, machinery or equipment are adequately isolated or discharged, and demarcated to prevent inadvertent activation or energization that could cause injury to workers and/or damage to equipment. Appendices include a sample lock-out/tag-out record sheet, a scheme of the general lock-out-tag-out procedure, a list of process and equipment requiring lock-out/tag-out in shipyards, and samples of tags.
Association of Singapore Marine Industries (ASMI), Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 18p. Illus.
Jang J.Y., Kim S., Park S.K., Roh J., Lee T.Y., Youn J.T.
Quantitative exposure assessment for shipyard workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration from a variety of vibration tools
The relationship between lifetime exposure to vibration from using vibrating tools and the hand-arm vibration syndrome was studied in 344 shipyard workers and 53 unexposed workers. Vibration levels and actual exposure times for the vibratory tools were measured. Participants responded to questionnaires on personal, occupational and health factors. A lifetime vibration dose was calculated for each worker using job categories, usage pattern of vibratory tools, and the measured vibration acceleration magnitude. Each worker was asked about vascular and neurological symptoms, and symptoms were classified according to the Stockholm scale. The prevalence of vascular and sensorineural symptoms for workers exposed to vibration was 22.7 and 78.2% respectively, compared to 0 and 34.0% for controls. The lifetime vibration dose also showed a significant association with both vascular and sensorineural symptoms.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.305-310. 20 ref.
Sińczuk-Walczak, Jakubowski M., Matczak W.
Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to manganese
To assess the effects of manganese on the functions of the nervous system in exposed workers in the shipbuilding and electrical industries, 75 male workers, 62 welders and fitters and 13 workers involved in battery production, were studied. The control group consisted of 62 non-exposed men matched by age and work shift distribution. Of the 62 welding workers, 30 worked in the area with Mn concentrations exceeding the MAC value of 0.3mg/m3. In battery production, six subjects were subject to concentrations exceeding MAC values. Clinically, the increased emotional irritability, dysmnesia, concentration difficulties, sleepiness and limb paresthesia predominated among the disorders of the nervous system functions in exposed workers. Generalized and paroxysmal changes were the most common recordings in the abnormal electroencephalography. Visual evoked potentials examinations showed abnormalities which could be a signal of the optic neuron disorders. The results show that manganese exposures within the range of <0.01-2.67mg/m3 can induce sub-clinical effects on the nervous system.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.329-337. 16 ref.
Viaene M.K., Pauwels W., Veulemans H., Roels H.A., Masschelein R.
Neurobehavioural changes and persistence of complaints in workers exposed to styrene in a polyester boat building plant: Influence of exposure characteristics and microsomal epoxide hydrolase phenotype
To investigate neurobehavioural effects in workers exposed to styrene and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) activity, a cross sectional study was performed among former workers of a polyester boat plant. A structured neurological anamnesis into former and present complaints, the NSC-60 questionnaire, and computer assisted neurobehavioural tests were administered. It was observed that most subjective symptoms were reversible, while dysfunction of visual-motor performance and perceptual speed seemed to persist. Duration of exposure at lamination tasks and duration of exposure multiplied by exposure concentration were found to be the best predictors of worsening visual-motor and perceptual speed performances. Activity of the mEH phenotype may play a modulating part in styrene neurotoxicity. The results suggest that less than 10 years of exposure to styrene at an average concentration of 155mg/m3 may result in persistent neurotoxic effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.103-112. Illus. 34 ref.
Puntoni R., Merlo F., Borsa L., Reggiardo G., Garrone E., Ceppi M.
A historical cohort mortality study among shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy
A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 3984 shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy. These workers were exposed between 1960 and 1981 to asbestos fibres, welding fumes and gases, silica dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and solvents. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using male residents of the Province of Genoa as the referent population. For the whole cohort, significantly increased SMRs were detected for all causes, for all cancers, for liver, larynx, lung, pleural and bladder cancers, for respiratory tract diseases and for cirrhosis of the liver. Analysis by job title showed increased SMRs in occupations entailing heavy asbestos exposure not only for pleural cancer, but also for lung and laryngeal cancers and for respiratory tract diseases. Bladder and liver cancers and liver cirrhosis mortality also appeared to be related to occupational exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.363-370. 28 ref.
Bianchi C., Brollo A., Ramani L., Bianchi T., Giarelli L.
Asbestos exposure in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: A survey of 557 cases
A series of 557 cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosed in the Trieste-Monfalcone area, Italy, in the period 1968-2000 was reviewed. The cases included 492 men and 65 women, aged between 32 and 93 years. Necropsy findings were available in 456 cases (82%). Occupational histories were obtained from the patients or their relatives. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 442 cases. In 109 cases isolation and counting of asbestos bodies were performed. A majority of people had histories of working in shipyards. Asbestos bodies were observed in lung sections in 67% of the cases. Latency periods (time intervals between first exposure to asbestos and death) ranged between 14 and 75 years. Latency periods among insulators and dock workers were shorter than among the other categories. High asbestos consumption occurred in many countries in the 1960s and in the 1970s. The data on latency periods obtained in the present study suggest that a world mesothelioma epidemic is to be expected in the coming decades.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.161-167. 32 ref.
Chen R., Dick F., Semple S., Seaton A., Walker L.G.
Exposure to organic solvents and personality
To study the effects of exposure to solvents on personality, 260 male dockyard painters in the United Kingdom, 539 local community controls, 109 Chinese dockyard painters, and 255 dockyard controls completed the personality questionnaires. Both British and Chinese data showed that mean neuroticism scores of painters were significantly higher than those of controls, whereas scores of social conformity did not differ. The relative risk of being a painter increased significantly with increasing neuroticism (N) scores, but social conformity or dissimulation (L) scores showed no such trend. In a case-control analysis, there were significant exposure response relations for the N score. Neuroticism was significantly positively related to neuropsychological symptoms in all subjects. Social conformity showed no association with neuropsychological symptoms in British painters and a negative relation among the Chinese painters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.14-18. 22 ref.
Guidelines on the handling of asbestos materials
These guidelines prepared by the Department of Industrial Health are aimed at those who undertake work with asbestos or asbestos containing materials. Contents: relevant legislation; health risks; identification of asbestos containing materials and notification of work involving asbestos; procedures for the handling of asbestos-based materials in the building and civil engineering industries; removal of asbestos-based insulating lagging; removal of asbestos-based materials from buildings; protective clothing and equipment; personal hygiene; dust monitoring; medical examinations. Appendices include: notification form of processes involving asbestos; list of asbestos-analysing laboratories and of companies supplying industrial vacuum cleaners and dust extracting systems; threshold limit values; sampling strategies for in-plant environmental surveillance programmes; hygiene monitoring report form and example of report; proposed environmental management courses; list of organization conducting air monitoring and/or sample analysis; application form for permission to dispose of asbestos waste.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Safety and Health Division, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, June 2000. 30p.
http://www.mom.gov.sg/MOM/OHD/Publications/586_HandAsbestos.pdf [in English]
Alkhuja S., Miller A., Mastellone A.J., Markowitz S.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as spontaneous pneumothorax: A case series and review
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is thought to arise from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavities. Most patients initially experience the insidious onset of chest pain or shortness of breath, and it rarely presents as spontaneous pneumothorax. Case reports of four patients who presented in this manner are included. Three of the patients were exposed to asbestos directly or indirectly at shipyards during World War II; the fourth was exposed as an insulator's wife. Two of our cases were not recognized to have MPM on histological examination at first thoracotomy and remained asymptomatic for 12 and 22 months, respectively. In none of the patients was spontaneous pneumothorax the cause of death. Since many people were exposed to asbestos during and after World War II, spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with the possibility of such exposure should raise the suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.219-223. Illus. 29 ref.
Act of 9 Nov. 2000 on maritime safety [Poland]
Ustawa z dnia 9 listopada 2000 r. o bezpieczeństwie morskim [in Polish]
This law concerns occupational safety in shipbuilding and the operation of ship machinery and equipment. It defines minimum qualifications of personnel at sea, requirements for the composition of crew, and standards for safe navigation and rescue at sea.
Dziennik Ustaw, 13 Dec. 2000, No.109, p.6149-6164.
http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/du/2000/1156.htm [in Polish]
Bianchi C., Brollo A., Ramani L.
Asbestos exposure in a shipyard area, northeastern Italy
To monitor asbestos exposure in the Monfalcone area of northeastern Italy where a large shipyard is based, the results of 3,640 necropsies carried out between October 1979 and September 1998 in a local hospital were scrutinized. Thoracic cavities were examined for small, moderate or large pleural plaques. Routine histological sections of lung tissue were examined for asbestos bodies. Isolation and counting of asbestos bodies were performed in 1,075 cases. Lifetime occupational data were collected in 1,277 cases. Pleural plaques were observed in 70.5% of cases among men and in 23.8 % among women, but their prevalence did not show significant variations during the study period. Asbestos bodies were found on routine lung sections in 23.7% of men and 3.0% of women. Shipyard workers were characterized by high prevalence of pleural plaques, high prevalence of asbestos bodies on routine lung sections, and high amounts of lung asbestos bodies after isolation. The present data indicate that asbestos exposure may reach alarming levels in the shipyard areas.
Industrial Health, July 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.301-308. 37 ref.
A guide to the Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations [Singapore]
This guide provides a detailed outline of the responsibilities employers, owners and contractors in shipbuilding and ship repairing resulting from Singapore's 1994 Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations (see CIS 95-10, amendments in CIS 00-12). Main topics covered: notification of work; safety supervision and coordination functions; workplace safety; electrical safety; hazardous work; safety training; permit-to-work systems; control of hazardous materials; shift handing-over procedures; welding and cutting; scaffolds; lifts; cranes; derricks; safety management systems and audits; work in closed spaces.
Department of Industrial Safety, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road 03-02, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 31p.
Lindsell C.J., Griffin M.J.
Thermal thresholds, vibrotactile thresholds and finger systolic blood pressures in dockyard workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration
Thermal thresholds (for perception of heat and cold), vibrotactile thresholds (for perception of vibration at 31.5 and 125Hz) and finger systolic blood pressures were measured in 107 dockyard workers, including 31 controls and 76 workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration (50 reporting finger blanching consistent with vibration-induced white finger). A history of vibration exposure and symptoms associated with hand-transmitted vibration were obtained for each subject. Increased duration of exposure to vibration resulted in a deterioration of both thermal thresholds and vibrotactile thresholds. Finger systolic blood pressures were lower in subjects reporting finger blanching and were related to the extent of blanching on the measured finger. Reported sensations of tingling were not correlated with any of the threshold measures; thermal thresholds and vibrotactile thresholds showed evidence of deterioration with reports of increasing numbness. Both numbness and tingling were correlated with reports of finger blanching. Finger systolic blood pressures were not correlated with either thermal or vibrotactile thresholds.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1999, Vol.72, No.6, p.377-386. Illus. 33 ref.
Chen R., Dick F., Seaton A.
Health effects of solvent exposure among dockyard painters: Mortality and neuropsychological symptoms
A mortality study of 1292 male painters who had worked in a dockyard in Scotland for ≥ 1 year between 1950 and 1992 comprised a nested cross-sectional study of 953 surviving painters from the cohort and 953 male non-painters randomly selected from the local population together with a case-control study of those with high symptom scores. Mortality, symptoms and risks associated with painting, adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol and personality were measured. Standardized mortality ratios were not signficantly increased. Among the 260 surviving painters and 539 community controls who responded to the questionnaire, there was a significant excess of symptoms among painters; adjusted relative risk (RR) increased significantly with increasing symptom score. These RRs suggested an exposure-response relation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.383-387. Illus. 28 ref.
Kim Y., Lee N.R., Sakai T., Kim K.S., Yang J.S., Park S., Lee C.R., Cheong H.K., Moon Y.
Evaluation of exposure to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetates and their possible haematological effects on shipyard painters
The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to mixed solvents containing ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) in shipyard painters in order to determine if EGEEA is toxic to the bone marrow. The mean exposure concentration to EGEEA in the high and low exposure groups were 3.03ppm and 1.76ppm, respectively. The concentrations of methyl hippuric acid and ethoxyacetic acid in the high exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The mean white blood cell counts in the high exposure group were significantly lower than in the control group, and a significant proportion, six of the 57 painters, were leucopenic; none of the controls were affected. The high rate of possible haematological effects among shipyard painters and a hygienic evaluation of their working environment in the present study suggests that EGEEA might be toxic to bone marrow.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.378-382. 19 ref.
Jang J.Y., Lee S.Y., Kim J.I., Park J.B., Lee K.J., Chung H. K.
Application of biological monitoring to the quantitative exposure assessment for neuropsychological effect by chronic exposure to organic solvents
Environmental and biological monitoring were carried out at a shipyard to evaluate the exposure of workers to organic solvents. Cumulative exposure and lifetime-weighted average exposure variables were developed with both environmental and biological monitoring data. A neuropsychological questionnaire and function tests were performed for confirmation of a disorder or dysfunction in attention, executive function, visuospatial and constructional abilities, learning and memory, and psychomotor function. The abnormal rate in neuropsychological diagnosis was 9.3% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the nonexposed group. The neuropsychological abnormal rate showed a significant dose-response association with cumulative exposure assessed with biological monitoring data. Topics: cognitive performance; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; long-term exposure; neuropsychic effects; organic solvents; shipyards.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.107-114. 57 ref.
Bui A.M., Maugars Y., Nguyen J.M., Géraut C., Esnault A., Riet D.
Elbow and wrist disorders in shipyard grinders
Lésions des coudes et des poignets chez les meuleurs des chantiers navals [in French]
Topics: bone lesions; elbow lesions; grinding machines; hand-arm vibration; questionnaire survey; radiography; shipyards; vibrating tools; vibration arthropathy; work posture; wrist lesions.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, July 1998, Vol.59, No.4, p.236-241. Illus. 21 ref.
Koskinen K., Zitting A., Tossavainen A., Rinne J.P., Roto P., Kivekäs J., Reijula K., Huuskonen M.S.
Radiographic abnormalities among Finnish construction, shipyard and asbestos industry workers
The prevalence of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities was investigated in 4,133 workers employed in the construction industry, shipyards and the asbestos industry. Radiological findings included signs of pulmonary fibrosis (3%), changes in the visceral pleura (7%), bilateral plaques (17%) and unilateral plaques (10%). Occupational disease was diagnosed according to the Finnish insurance regulations for 75% of those referred for further examination, 96% being abnormalities in the pleura and 4% asbestosis. Topics: asbestos processing industry; asbestos; chrysotile; anthophyllite; construction industry; geographical variables; length of exposure; opacities; pleural thickening; pulmonary fibrosis; radiological changes; retired workers; shipyards; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1998, Vol.24, No.2, p.109-117. Illus. 30 ref.
Delgado Ortega M., Almorza Daza J.M.
New risk factors in a cardiovascular prevention campaign among shipyard workers
Nuevos factores de riesgo en campaña de prevención cardiovascular de una empresa de construcción naval [in Spanish]
Topics: alcohols; cardiovascular disorders; plant safety and health organization; safety and health campaigns; safety training in industry; shipbuilding industry; shipyards; Spain; tobacco.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1998, Vol.65, No.176, p.41-62. Illus. 36 ref.
Aitken K., O'Driscoll M.
A goal-setting and feedback intervention to enhance organisational safety: Implementation problems and implications
A simple and cost-effective behaviour modification intervention was implemented at a marine engineering company. Goal-setting and feedback were predicted to increase employee utilization of safety behaviours and to enhance employee safety awareness. Results revealed no significant decrease in monthly accident statistics, but did illustrate an increase in safety awareness among participants. Topics: frequency rates; human behaviour; occupational accidents; programme evaluation; risk awareness; safety and health training; safety programmes; shipbuilding industry; workers participation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 1998, Vol.14, No.3, p.245-254. Illus. 23 ref.
Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) (Amendment) Regulations 1997 [Singapore]
Regulations (entry into force: 1 May 1997) amending the Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations 1994 (CIS 95-10). Topics: law; maintenance and repair; occupational safety; shipbuilding industry; shipyards; Singapore.
Photocopy, 7p. On file at CIS.
Gutierrez J., Le Lay F.
Fire performance of fireproofed composites
Tenue au feu des composites ignifugés [in French]
Topics: bending strength; building materials; fire behaviour; flame retardants; flammability testing; France; ignition time; materials testing; plastics; shipbuilding industry; strength of materials.
Face au risque, Dec. 1997, No.338, p.16-24. Illus. 5 ref.
McLean A.N., Patel K.R.
Clinical features and epidemiology of malignant pleural mesothelioma in west Glasgow 1987-1992
Topics: asbestos; epidemiologic study; morbidity; pleural mesothelioma; Scotland; shipbuilding industry; United Kingdom.
Scottish Medical Journal, Apr. 1997, Vol.42, p.37-39. 15 ref.
Giarelli L., Grandi G., Bianchi C.
Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in the Trieste-Monfalcone area, with particular regard to shipyard workers
Topics: asbestos; epidemiologic study; Italy; latency; pleural mesothelioma; shipbuilding industry.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1997, Vol.88, No.4, p.316-320. 18 ref.
Atzeri S., Vacca L.
Noise exposure in a dry dock
Esposizione al rumore in un bacino di carenaggio [in Italian]
Personal noise exposure was monitored in a small dry dock by fitting a microphone to each worker's helmet. Six different occupations were investigated: supervisors, welder/shipwrights, painters, electricians, woodworkers and unskilled workers. Measurements were repeated over 13 days and randomly distributed over four months. Daily noise exposure levels ranged from 15 to 30dBA for all tasks except those of the woodworkers. Statistical analysis of the data is described. Results may have an important role in defining sampling strategies for collecting noise exposure data for compliance and epidemiological purposes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1997, Vol.88, No.1, p.37-48. Illus. 11 ref.
A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders
This meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies carried out on the lung cancer risk among shipyard, mild steel and stainless steel welders consisted of calculating combined relative risks (RR). Similar values were observed in studies of the "any welding" or "study design" category. Furthermore, welders are likely to be exposed to asbestos and seem to smoke more than the general male population. A 30-40% increase in the RR of lung cancer cannot be explained by hexavalent chromium and nickel exposure among stainless steel welders. The combination of the carcinogenic effects of asbestos exposure and smoking may account for part of the observed lung cancer excess.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.104-113. 73 ref.
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