Aerospace manufacturing and maintenance industry - 64 entries found
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Lipworth L., Sonderman J.S., Mumma M.T., Tarone R.E., Marano D.E., Boice J.D, McLaughlin J.K.
Cancer mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers - An extended follow-up
In this extended cancer follow-up among 77,943 aircraft workers, comprehensive exposure information enabled detailed classification of trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), mixed solvents and chromate exposures. Exposure to TCE, PCE, mixed solvents or chromates was not associated with increased cancer risk overall or for most cancer sites. Elevated rates compared with the general population were seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma for PCE exposure, and colon and testicular cancers and multiple myeloma for mixed solvents exposure. Internal cohort analyses, however, showed no significant trends of increasing risk for these cancers with increasing years of exposure to TCE, PCE or mixed solvents. This large, long-term cohort study with comprehensive exposure assessment found no consistent evidence of increased cancer risk overall or by site among aircraft workers, including those with long-term exposure to TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.992-1007. 33 ref.
Cancer_mortality_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Brasseur G., Clergiot J., Lemarié J.
Spray painting booths - A sector of activity rich in colour
Cabines de peinture - Une industrie haute en couleur [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the prevention of occupational hazards in spray painting booths: regulatory aspects; French and European standards concerning booth ventilation; booth design; spray painting booth at an automobile body repair shop; design of a paint tunnel at a marine engine manufacturer; painting of aircraft.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2011, No.721, p.16-32. Illus. 2 ref.
Cabines_de_peinture.pdf [in French]
Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Mesothelioma and aircraft industry
This letter to the editor comments an earlier article published in the journal concerning a case-control study conducted in France, showing a high risk of pleural mesothelioma for various occupations and industries, including the manufacture of aircraft parts. The authors of the letter confirm similar findings in the aircraft industry in Italy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.494. 5 ref.
Liang G.F., Lin J.T., Hwang S.L., Wang E.M.Y., Patterson P.
Preventing human errors in aviation maintenance using an on-line maintenance assistance platform
In an effort to increase aviation maintenance and inspection safety, an on-line maintenance assistance platform (on-line MAP) was developed for technicians to perform maintenance tasks. In this platform, the risk of human error was defined for each task procedure. The platform was validated on a jet engine by comparing the current work-card instruction and the proposed on-line MAP in two high-complexity teamwork tasks and one low-complexity individual task. In addition, a subjective questionnaire survey (addressing maintenance behavior, issues related to the current work-card, performance shaping factor investigation, and mental workload), an objective performance measure (expert evaluation and situation awareness), and time performance were collected from 42 participants and analyzed to quantify the human errors into the human error impact risk index. The results revealed that teams' risk cognition, situation awareness, technicians' performance and their job satisfaction were all increased by the proposed on-line MAP instruction compared to the current work-card instruction system.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.356-367. Illus. 41 ref.
Dejours C., Bègue F.
Suicide at work: What can be done?
Suicide au travail: que faire? [in French]
This manual consists of a compilation of the main clinical and theoretical data on suicide at the place of work. Using the example of an intervention carried out in an aerospace enterprise after multiple suicides on a single site, it proposes a series of principles on which a preventive actions programme can be built.
Presses Universitaires de France, 6, avenue Reille, 75685 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2009. 130p. 13 ref. Price: EUR 12.00.
González Domínguez M.E., Rueda Ygueravide M.D., Gutiérrez Fernández D., Gómez Gutiérrez J.M., León Jiménez A., Pérez Álvarez J.
Exposure to airborne pollutants and respiratory pathology
Exposición a contaminantes ambientales y patología respiratoria [in Spanish]
This investigation was carried out following an outbreak of five cases of respiratory symptoms among workers of an aerospace industry in Spain exposed to various chemicals. Measurements included airborne aluminium dust, trichloroethylene and ethylene glycol. Workers were subjected to skin tests, blood tests, chest radiography, spirometry, metacholine challenge tests and electrocardiography. The peak-flow measurement and the direct bronchial hyperactivity test using metacholine were negative. The allergic tests performed were also generally negative. These findings practically exclude work-related asthma. These cases may have been caused by a reactive airways dysfunction syndrome having occurred at a specific moment before the investigation was carried out. Further implications of these findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.41-46. 12 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original3.pdf [in Spanish]
Zhao Y., Krishnadasan A., Kennedy N., Morgenstern H., Ritz B.
Estimated effects of solvents and mineral oils on cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of aerospace workers
A retrospective study of cancer mortality was conducted in a cohort of 6107 male workers employed at a California aerospace company between 1950 and 1993. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess exposures to hydrazine, trichloroethylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils and benzene. High levels of trichloroethylene exposure were associated with the incidence of bladder cancer (relative risk (RR) 1.98) and cancer of the kidney (4.90). High levels of exposure to mineral oils increased mortality and incidence of lung cancer (1.56 and 1.99) and incidence of melanoma (3.32). Mineral oil exposures contributed to incidence and mortality of oesophageal and stomach cancers and of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia when adjusting for other chemical exposures. No associations were observed for benzene or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.48, No.4, p.249-258. 14 ref.
Kim J., Park H., Ha E., Jung T., Paik N., Yang S.
Combined effects of noise and mixed solvents exposure on the hearing function among workers in the aviation industry
This study investigated the effect of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss among aircraft maintenance workers. The study population comprised 542 male workers for whom exposure and medical examination data were available. The prevalence of hearing loss found in the group exposed to noise and mixed solvents simultaneously (54.9%) was higher than those in the other groups (6.0% in the unexposed, 17.1% in the noise-only exposed, and 27.8% in the solvents-only exposed). The relative risks, adjusted for age, were estimated to be 4.3 for the noise-only group, 8.1 for the noise and solvents group, and 2.6 for the solvents-only group. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to mixed solvents had a toxic effect on the auditory system. This raises the issue of whether hearing conservation regulations should be applied to all workers exposed to solvents.
Industrial Health, July 2005, Vol.43, No.3, p.567-573. 25 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-3-22.pdf [in English]
Jappe U., Geier J., Hausen B.M.
Contact vitiligo following a strong patch test reaction to triglycidyl-p-aminophenol in an aircraft industry worker: Case report and review of the literature
Epoxy resin systems are a frequent cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. A 50-year-old patient developed eczematous skin lesions on the back of his hands, lower arms and eye lids, two months after starting work in aircraft construction. Patch tests showed positive reactions to nickel sulfate and to epoxy resins based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F and on 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. Triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP) applied at 1% and 0.1% induced the strongest positive reaction. Four months later, the patient presented with two circular depigmented spots in the former TGPAP-patch test areas. Dermatohistopathology confirmed the diagnosis of contact vitiligo.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2005, Vol.53, No.2, p.89-92. Illus. 9 ref.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Isolation and infection control
A set of interim guidelines published with the aim of reducing the risk if infection by SARS for people occupationally exposed to the disease, in particular in a health care and air travel setting. Individual fact sheets are devoted to the protection of workers in the following areas: health care workers in close contact with SARS patients; cleaners of commercial aircraft following a flight with a passenger with suspected SARS; workers exposed to SARS patients in healthcare and other institutional settings; workers exposed to human remains (bodies) of SARS patients; specific guidelines devoted to aerosol-generating procedures on patients with suspected SARS; laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS.
Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, 2003. 16p.
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/ic.htm [in English]
Melhorn J.M., Wilkinson L., Riggs J.D.
Management of musculoskeletal pain in the workplace
In order to demonstrate the application and benefits of the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders, a risk-management programme based on the individual risk assessment of new employees in an aircraft manufacturing plant was set up. A subgroup was studied for medical management on the basis of individual risk scores. Outcome measures allowed estimated savings in direct workers compensation costs (USD 2.42 million) and estimated indirect savings (> USD 13.5 million).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.83-93. Illus. 58 ref.
An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs
According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a programme. The identification of hazards and mitigation efforts proceed along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a programme are exhausted. No conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, such as schedule, cost, reliability and performance in a judicious and cost-effective way.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2000, Vol.26, No.1, p.67-74. Illus. 8 ref.
McDonald N., Corrigan S., Daly C., Cromie S.
Safety management systems and safety culture in aircraft maintenance organisations
Safety management systems were studied at four aircraft maintenance organizations. Studies included the analysis of documentation, qualitative interviews, surveys of safety climate and attitudes, expected response to incidents and compliance with task procedures. A self-regulatory model was proposed, which was effective in analyzing each organization's safety management system. Findings included a strong, relatively homogeneous professional sub-culture of aircraft technicians spanning the different organizations. Differences in safety attitudes and climate were found between occupational groups, though in the case of climate the differences between occupational groups were a function of the organization, suggesting a differentiated notion of safety culture.
Safety Science, Feb.-Apr. 2000, Vol.34, No.1-3, p.151-176. Illus. 23 ref.
Two case studies
Deux témoignages d'intervention [in French]
When requesting advice in ergonomics, companies often describe the working environment as a series of unrelated elements, such as work schedules, task distribution, equipment used, physical environment, etc. Ergonomic consultants need to take the interactions among these factors into account in order to propose the best solution. Two case studies are used to illustrate this approach, one in the food processing industry (work postures, repetitive work, cold environment) and the other in precision casting in the aerospace industry (lighting, manual handling of components).
Performances Humaines et Techniques, Mar.-Apr. 1999, No.99, p.11-13.
Ritz B., Morgenstern H., Froines J., Moncau J.
Chemical exposures of rocket-engine test-stand personnel and cancer mortality in a cohort of aerospace workers
A retrospective cohort study of 6,107 aerospace workers was conducted to examine whether exposure to chemicals - primarily hydrazine fuels - during rocket-engine fuelling and testing affects cancer mortality. After adjustment for confounding variables, the estimated rate ratio for lung cancer mortality, comparing exposed to unexposed workers from the same facility, ranged from 1.68 to 2.10, depending on job-duration threshold (6 or 24 months) and lag (0 to 15 years). Similar results were obtained for haematopoietic and lymphopoietic cancer and for bladder and kidney cancer mortality, but estimates for these cancers were imprecise. It is concluded that occupational exposure to hydrazine or other chemicals associated with rocket-engine testing jobs increased the risk of dying from lung cancer, and possibly other cancers, in this population of aerospace workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.10, p.903-910. 15 ref.
Melhorn J.M., Wilkinson L., Gardner P., Horst W.D., Silkey B.
An outcomes study of an occupational medicine intervention programme for the reduction of musculoskeletal disorders and cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace
Upper-extremity musculoskeletal pains or disorders (MSDs) account for a significant number of work-related illnesses in the US workforce. In 1995, an aircraft manufacturer established a unique risk management programme based on the individual risk assessment of newly hired employees. The MSD intervention programme was designed to prospectively evaluate each new employee for their individual risk of developing MSDs in the workplace. Before job placement, individuals at higher risk were assigned to a period of transitional work. During the four years of the programme, workers' compensation cost decreases per year were 16%, 3%, 24%, and 12% respectively, while work hours increased by 56%.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.10, p.833-846. Illus. 69 ref.
Boice J.D., Marano D.E., Fryzek J.P., Sadler C.J., McLaughlin J.K.
Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers
To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE) and mixed solvents, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted. The standardized mortality ratios for 40 causes of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency and broad occupational group. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. The results from this large-scale cohort study of workers followed up for over 3 decades provide no clear evidence that occupational exposures at the aircraft manufacturing factory resulted in increases in the risk of death from cancer or other diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.581-597. 29 ref.
Lin C.T., Wang M.J.J.
Human-robot interaction in an aircraft wing drilling system
A robot drilling system in the Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation of Taiwan is examined. Work procedures, human errors and robot failures are also assessed. Based on those assessments, countermeasures and feasible recommendations are proposed to enhance the hybrid system's safety and performance. In addition, some of the recommendations are applied toward the system studied, along with the implementation results presented. Topics: aircraft industry; design of equipment; ergonomics; man-machine interfaces; robots; safety and productivity; safety by design; workplace design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 1999, Vol.23, No.1-2, p.83-94. Illus. 10 ref.
Blair A., Hartge P., Stewart P.A., McAdams M., Lubin J.
Mortality and cancer incidence of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other organic solvents and chemicals: Extended follow up
The aim of the study was to extend the follow-up of a cohort of 14,457 aircraft maintenance workers to the end of 1990 to evaluate cancer risks from potential exposure to trichloroethylene and other chemicals. In the combined follow-up period (1952-90), mortality from all causes and all cancer was close to expected. Significant excesses occurred for ischaemic heart disease, asthma and bone cancer, whereas significant deficits occurred for cerebrovascular disease, accidents and cancer of the central nervous system. Workers exposed to trichloroethylene showed non-significant excesses for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the oesophagus, colon, primary liver, breast, cervix, kidney and bone. None of these cancers showed an exposure-response gradient and relative risks (RRs) among workers exposed to other chemicals but not trichlorethylene often had RRs as large as workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Workers exposed to solvents other than trichloroethylene had slightly increased mortality from asthma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. These findings do not strongly support a causal link with trichloroethylene because the associations were not significant, not clearly dose-related, and inconsistent between men and women.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.55, No.3, p.161-171. 56 ref.
Koli S., Chervak S., Drury C.G.
Human factors audit programs for nonrepetitive tasks
In order to provide aircraft maintenance and inspection personnel with a rapid means of locating the human-system mismatches that can lead to errors, two human factors audits were developed. Both the inspection audit and the maintenance audit are in the form of measurement checklists, usable either on a portable computer or in paper form. Both were tested for reliability and modified until high reliability was achieved. Both were validated against human factors professionals, with both programmes identifying more mismatches than the practitioners. The programmes are in use at an airline as a complement to existing safety and quality audit systems.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Summer 1998, Vol.8, No.3, p.215-231. Illus. 28 ref.
Hazard control in hypersonic research
La maîtrise des risques à l'heure hypersonique [in French]
Topics: acenaphthene; aircraft industry; compressed air; compressors; implementation of control measures; live work; manual handling; noise control; overhead hoists; prevention of access; risk awareness; test equipment; toxic substances; wind tunnels; work at height; work in isolation.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 1998, No.574-575, p.2-9. Illus.
Big progress in wide-body aircraft
Grands progrès pour gros porteurs [in French]
Topics: aircraft industry; information of personnel; lifting of loads; load carriage; manual handling; manual lifting; work design.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1998, No.571, p.2-8. Illus.
Gianello G., Masci O., Carelli G., Vinci F., Castellino N.
Occupational exposure to chromium - An assessment of environmental pollution levels and biological monitoring of exposed workers
Topics: adhesives; aircraft industry; chromium and compounds; creatinine excretion; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure tests; Italy; personal sampling.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1998, Vol.36, No.1, p.74-77. Illus. 9 ref.
Multi-stage safety for the European rocket
Sécurité à plusieurs étages pour la fusée européenne [in French]
Topics: air-fed clothing; aircraft industry; airline respirators; control panels and desks; dangerous substances; description of equipment; materials handling; restricted areas; rocket launching; toxic substances.
Travail et sécurité, June 1997, No.561, p.20-38. Illus.
Martland D., Henry B.
From theory to best practice - The changing of a culture
The implementation of a new safety culture as part of a major business restructuring programme at a plant for the assembly of aircraft components is described. A strategy was proposed in which health, safety and the environment were identified as key business issues, accountability for which lay with line managers. Key factors in the plan included development of health, safety and environment plans, the introduction of regular review meetings involving business managers and staff, and training and communications. Achievements to date are outlined, including a reduction in accident incidence rates.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 1997, Vol.15, No.10, p.28-32. Illus.
A prospective study for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders of workers in aircraft manufacturing
To investigate the impact of measures for reducing the risk of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), 212 aircraft workers who used rivet guns were assigned to one of four primary factor groups: ergonomic posture training, exercise training, rivet gun type, or a control group. During the 15 month study, individual risk levels were established by questionnaire, physical measurements, and nerve sensitivity testing. Of the primary factors, only posture training showed a positive risk reduction benefit. However, when associated factors were taken into account, a positive benefit was demonstrated for posture training and exercise training in certain groups. The study helps to identify the possible benefits of worker training for controlling CTDs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1264-1271. 7 ref.
Alexander B.H., Checkoway H., Wechsler L., Heyer N.J., Muhm J.M., O'Keeffe T.P.
Lung cancer in chromate-exposed aerospace workers
A retrospective cohort study investigated the risk of lung cancer in 2429 chromium-exposed aerospace workers with a minimum of six months' employment between 1974 and 1994. Estimates of cumulative exposure to hexavalent chromium were based on industrial hygiene and work-history data. Overall, no increased risk of lung cancer was observed. Although based on few cases, an elevated lung cancer risk was found in subjects who had worked for five years or more as a chrome plater, surface processor tank tender, sander/masker or polisher. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1253-1258. 17 ref.
Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 16 and 17 November 1995
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séances des 16 et 17 novembre 1995 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 16-17 November 1995 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: risk of encephalopathy due to prions when performing autopsies; skin diseases in fish farming; skin diseases in hairdressing; carpal-tunnel syndrome in hairdressing; skin allergies in the rubber industry; prevention of eye injuries due to laser radiation in the aircraft industry; skin burns due to handling of vitamin K3; hospital hygiene in medical students; biological risk control in laboratory work; personnel in establishments for retired people; immune-allergic pulmonary pathology due to shiitake (mushroom from East-Asia).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.384-398.
Bruze M., Edenholm M., Engström K., Svensson G.
Occupational dermatoses in a Swedish aircraft plant
A survey of occupational dermatoses, based on a questionnaire, clinical examination and patch testing, was carried out among 341 workers in a Swedish aircraft plant. The questionnaire was answered by 330 workers (96.8%). Present or previous skin disease was reported by 92 employees, who were all subjected to physical examination and patch testing. Patch testing was conducted with a standard series, as well as with a series of substances and products representing the work environment, including anticorrosion paints, adhesives, sealants and detergents. Occupational contact allergies were established in 12 employees. In total, the figure for occupational skin diseases was 16.1% (55 workers), when calculated for all employees.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1996, Vol.34, No.5, p.336-340. 24 ref.
New materials and the working environment
Papers presented at an interdisciplinary seminar (Lyngby, Denmark, 22-24 August 1994). Titles: new materials and implications for the work environment; production and use of powder metallurgy products; production and use of advanced technical ceramics; fabrication of advanced polymer matrix fibre composites; new methods in surface treatment; particle deposition, retention and toxicity of poorly soluble dusts; toxicity of man-made mineral fibres; formation and emission of tungsten oxide fibres during hard-metal production; occupational hazards during machining of fibre-reinforced plastics; exposure to reactive compounds during production of fibre-reinforced plastics; life-cycle assessment in a historical perspective; integrated environmental and occupational assessment of new materials (in Denmark); the management response to new materials and their growing impact on safety, health and environment.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Mar. 1995. 166p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Battié M.C., Hansson T., Bigos S., Zeh J., Fisher L., Spengler D.
B-scan ultrasonic measurement of the lumbar spinal canal as a predictor of industrial back pain complaints and extended work loss
B-scan ultrasonic measurements of lumbar spinal canal diameter were examined as predictors of industrial back pain complaints and extended work loss. Baseline data were collected on 3020 aircraft manufacturing workers, and over a mean 3.7 year follow-up period 352 subjects reported industrial back pain complaints. Mean diameters of subjects with back pain were smaller at all spinal levels than in subjects without complaints, but the differences were extremely small, and not always statistically significant. No association was found between canal measurements and work loss if greater than one month. B-scan ultrasonography, as used in this study, is of dubious screening value.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1250-1255. Illus. 36 ref.
McElearney N., Irvine D.
A study of thorium exposure during tungsten inert gas welding in an airline engineering population
To investigate the theoretic possibility of an excessive exposure to thorium during the process of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding using thorinated rods a cross-sectional study was carried out of TIG welders, non TIG welders and controls. No excess morbidity was found either among the TIG welders or the controls. The internal radiation doses were estimated at less than an annual level of acceptable intake in all cases. Some additional precautionary measures are suggested to reduce further any potential hazard from this process.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1993, Vol.35, No.7, p.707-711. 18 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.
Chen T.J., Chiang H.C., Chen S.S.
Effects of aircraft noise on hearing and auditory pathway function of airport employees
The effects of aircraft noise on the hearing and the auditory pathway function of 112 airport employees were studied. Audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were used to evaluate cochlear function and to verify the possibility of retrocochlear involvement. The typical audiogramme pattern of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was a dip at 3 or 4kHz and moderate hearing loss in the frequency range of 6 to 8kHz. Audiogramme results revealed that the prevalence rate of high-frequency loss in all employees was 41.9%. Incidence of NIHL was highest in maintenance workers (65.2%) and firemen (55.0%). For BAEPs, both click threshold and latencies showed that the impairment was most severe in maintenance workers and firemen. The degree of auditory damage coincided with job patterns. Furthermore, damage of both peripheral cochlear organs and the central auditory pathway by high-frequency aircraft noise exposure was confirmed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.613-619. Illus. 39 ref.
Egeland G.M., Bloom T.F., Schnorr T.M., Hornung R.W., Suruda A.J., Wille K.K.
Fluorocarbon 113 exposure and cardiac dysrhythmias among aerospace workers
The cardiotoxic effects of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (fluorocarbon 113 or FC113) exposures among healthy workers cleaning rocket and ground support equipment for the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) programmes were investigated. Exposure and ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring data were evaluated on 16 workers, each of whom was examined on exposed and non-exposed workdays. Overall, no subject differences in the rate of ventricular and supraventricular premature beats (number per 1,000 heart beats), fluctuations in the length of the P-R interval, or heart rate were found. The levels of FC113 exposures below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8h time-weighted-average (TWA) standard of 1,000ppm did not induce cardiac dysrhythmias or subtle changes in cardiac activity. However, because fluorocarbons may sensitise the heart to epinephrine, this study's negative findings based on sedentary and fairly health workers may not be generalised in relation to other populations of workers who are not as healthy or engaged in more physically demanding work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.22, No.6, p.851-857. 15 ref.
Castelain P.Y., Com J., Castelain M.
Occupational dermatitis in the aircraft industry: 35 years of progress
A comparison of the occupational dermatitis occurring in the same aircraft factory during two separate decades, 1955-1965 and 1981-1990, is presented. Subungual pulpitis is highly specific to this industry, because of the handling of resins and sealing agents. The number of cases dropped from 122 to 40, in accordance with progress in preventive medicine and technological changes in the factory. Irritant contact dermatitis nevertheless remained appreciable, while allergic contact dermatitis greatly decreased.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1992, Vol.27, No.5, p.311-316. Illus. 11 ref.
Spirtas R., Stewart P.A., Lee J.S., Marano D.E., Forbes C.D., Grauman D.J., Pettigrew H.M., Blair A., Hoover R.N., Cohen J.L.
Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. I - Epidemiological results. II - Exposures and their assessment
Article I presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of 14,457 workers at an aircraft maintenance facility in order to evaluate mortality associated with exposures (particularly, exposures to solvents with an emphasis on trichloroethylene) in the workplace. Though there were a few statistically significant SMRs for deaths due to certain cancers (particularly among women), as well as some significant deficits, the study showed no significant or persuasive association between exposure to trichloroethylene and any excess of cancer. Significant excesses of multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in white women could not be associated conclusively with any exposures either. Article II presents the methodologies used in standardizing job histories and assessing exposures in the cohort study.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.48, No.8, p.515-530 (I), p.531-537 (II). 74+20 ref.
Dimethylformamide and testicular cancer
Letter to the editor. Studies on leather tanners and aircraft maintenance men have associated testicular cancer with exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF). However, DMF lacks mutagenic activity in animals and other studies of industrial populations have shown no causal relation between exposure to DMF and the cancers studied. It is suggested that DMF may simply be acting as a solvent which facilitates absorption through the skin of dissolved carcinogens.
Lancet, 2 Feb. 1991, Vol.337, No.8736, p.306-307. 7 ref.
Dimberg L., Oden A.
White finger symptoms: A cross-sectional study
In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 2,933 employees of a Swedish aircraft company, the prevalence of white finger was correlated with information on personal and anthropometrical data and on job and leisure related activities. A positive association with age and with work with vibrating hand-tools and a negative association with body weight was found. The highest proportion of white finger was found among polishers/grinders, sheet-metal workers and cleaners. It is concluded that work with vibrating hand-tools of the type used in this industry probably increases the prevalence of white finger and that better ways to insulate tools need to be evaluated.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.62, No.9, p.879-883. Illus. 9 ref.
Costa G., Merletti F., Segnan N.
A mortality cohort study in a north Italian aircraft factory
Mortality in a cohort of 8,626 workers employed between 1954 and 1981 in an aircraft manufacturing factory in northern Italy was studied. Total follow up was 132,042 person-years, with 76% accumulated in the age range 15 to 54. Median duration of follow up from the date of first employment was 16 years. Vital status was ascertained for 98.5% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated based on Italian national mortality rates. Altogether 685 deaths occurred (SMR = 85). There was a significant excess of mortality for melanoma (6 cases, SMR = 561). Six deaths certified as due to pleural tumours occurred.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.738-743. 8 ref.
Garabrant D.H., Held J., Langholz B., Bernstein L.
Mortality of aircraft manufacturing workers in southern California
A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among men and women employed between 1958 and 1982 at an aircraft manufacturing company in San Diego County. Specific causes of death included cancer of the brain and nervous system, malignant melanoma, and cancer of the testicle, which previous reports have suggested to be associated with work in aircraft manufacturing. Follow-up of the cohort of 14,067 subjects for a mean duration of 15.8yr from the date of first employment resulted in successful tracing of 95% of the cohort and found 1,804 deaths through 1982. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on U.S. national mortality rates and separately based on San Diego County mortality rates. Mortality due to all causes was significantly low (SMR = 75), as was mortality due to all cancer (SMR = 84). There was no significant excess of cancer of the brain, malignant melanoma, cancer of the testicle, any other cancer site, or any other category of death.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.686-693. 12 ref.
Montagne C., Chatelard R., Medvedeff M.
Occupational pathology in the aeronautical industry
La pathologie professionnelle dans l'industrie aéronautique [in French]
Article in 2 parts. Part 1 analyses occupational accidents and diseases among French aeronautical engineering workers in 1982. Part 2 analyses the same among maintenance workers of a large airline. The main occupational risks seem to be those of highly-skilled engineering workers in general (exposure to toxic fumes, metal dust and cutting fluids), those of workers in the chemical and petroleum industry (exposure to fuel, solvents and detergents), those of workers in the electroplating and surface-treatment industries, and those specific to aeronautics: radar maintenance, materials testing by x-rays and gamma rays, pickling and coating the fuselage, puttying the fuel tanks. Medical surveillance and work schedules.
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 1986, Vol.25, No.97, p.71-78.
Contribution of the occupational physician to the prevention of occupational deafness
Contribution du médecin du travail à la prévention de la surdité professionnelle [in French]
This medical thesis is based on an analysis of the working conditions of 22 workers in a maintenance and repair shop for jet aircraft fuel systems of a large air transport company. The shops and test beds are described, unfavourable features of the environment are stated, and measurements of noise and vibration are presented. Auditory and extra-auditory effects were studied in connection with complaints mentioned by the workers. A review of French legislation on the protection of workers exposed to noise shows that the most important provision is for the audiometric monitoring of noise-exposed workers. The occupational physician has a primary role, both in preventive work and in sensitising workers to the hazards of noise and the importance of wearing personal protective equipment (examples).
Université Paris-Nord, Faculté de médecine de Bobigny, France, 1985. 86p. Illus. 25 ref.
(Comité technique national des industries des transports et de la manutention, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Run-up operations on aircraft
Opérations de point fixe effectuées sur des aéronefs [in French]
Recommendations adopted 8 Dec. 1983. They relate to the testing and/or inspection of aircraft on the ground, when they require the running of one or more engines outside the normal operation of the aircraft. Listing of hazards and definitions; accident prevention in the danger zones, infrastructure and equipment in these zones; inspection of operations; training and continuing education of personnel. Detailed comments on hazards and on the enterprises affected by these recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, Note No.1484-115-84 (Recommendation N.239), p.235-237.
Design of vibration dampers to reduce riveting noise in aircraft construction
Entwicklung von Schwingungsdämpfern zur Nietlärmminderung im Flugzeugbau [in German]
Research report on the humanisation of work. Contents: analysis of the problem of riveting noise, principle and construction of vibration dampers, tests and measurement of noise (in laboratory conditions and in the workplace). The dampers consist of vibration-absorbing mats which press against the workpiece, using suction pads connected to a vacuum pump. Noise reduction was between 6 and 9dB(A).
Fachinformationszentrum Energie, Physik, Mathematik, 7514 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 63p. Illus. 19 ref.
This standard (adopted as an American National Standard 28 July 1980) covers minimum fire protection requirements to be followed during aircraft maintenance (electrical systems, oxygen systems, fuel tank repairing, cleaning, painting and paint removal, welding operations in hangars, cabin cleaning, and refurbishing operations). Other sections are devoted to: electrical maintenance operations (battery charging and equipment; ground power units; repair of aircraft electrical systems and of communications and navigational equipment; cleaning of electrical components; testing of electrical equipment; energising and de-energising of electric circuits during complete engine change); oxygen breathing systems.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1980. 84p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: US-$5.25.
Williams R.A., Webb T.S.
Exposure to radio-frequency radiation from an aircraft radar unit.
Case study of a flight mechanic who had the major portions of his head and trunk accidentally exposed to a radio-frequency level of 379mW/cm2 (i.e. 38 times above the permissible exposure level in the USA) when working for 20min close to an aircraft radar unit. The mechanic experienced a warm felling on his left side, head and neck immediately after the exposure, and complained of nausea, lightheadedness, apprehension, loss of appetite and photosensitivity 7 days later. No evidence of neurological disease was found. Anxiety and hypertension problems were resolved with therapy. The necessity of using protective clothing and shields is underlined.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.51, No.11, p.1243-1244. 6 ref.
Aircraft hangars 1979
This standard contains minimum requirements for the construction and protection of aircraft hangars from fire. Definitions are followed by sections on: construction and fire protection of 3 types of hangar, classified according to dimensions and fire area; general construction types; internal subdivisions and separation; common structural requirements; drainage of aprons and hangar floors; hangar services and utilities; grounding facilities for static electricity; exit and access requirements; primary protection systems; supplementary systems for external aircraft protection; hand hose systems; wheeled and portable extinguishers; protection system alarms and fire detection systems; fire drills and fire safety organisation.
National Fire Protection Association, 470 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, USA. 4 Feb. 1980. 69p. 48 ref. Price: US$6.00.
OSH in the aircraft industry
Prévention et sécurité dans l'industrie de la construction aéronautique. [in French]
This article studies OSH measures practised in the assembly hangars for the "airbus" built by the Aérospatial Corporation, Toulouse (France): regrouping of riveting areas; use of data processing in OSH organisation; OSH training; personnel information; safety and health engineering solutions (noise control; safety equipment for work at height; fire precautions; safety aspects of painting work).
Revue de la sécurité, May 1980, Vol.16, No.168, p.9-17. Illus.
Precision foundry hazards.
The 9 stages involved in making aircraft engine turbine blades are described, with a list of hazards due to molten wax, metal and steam, refractory material, molten metal and water explosions, dust and flying ceramic silicate chips, cutting blades, electric arc cutting, hydrofluoric acid, caustic solution, ionising radiation, and environmental factors. Precautions taken are: pre-employment examination, safety footwear, machinery guarding, restricted entry to high hazard areas, protective clothing, dust extraction systems, lip extraction on chemical process tanks, barrier creams, face and nose masks, antidotes for dangerous chemicals, eye wash bottles, ventilation, fluids with added salt, hygiene audits, automation of dangerous processes, specialist health and safety training of personnel.
Occupational Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.32, No.3, p.123-127. Illus.
Dalager N.A., Mason T.J., Fraumeni J.F., Hoover R., Payne W.W.
Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.
250 painters at 2 aircraft maintenance bases were studied since 1959. There was a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract, in the 202 deaths among spray painters, and no excess of cancer in the 48 deaths among electropainters not exposed to chromate. The relative increase of respiratory cancer correlated with estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings are consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, but other factors may be operative.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.22, No.1, p.25-29. 25 ref.
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