Diseases of the reproductive system - 246 entries found
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- Diseases of the reproductive system
Young E., Kreiger N., Purdham J., Sass-Kortsak A.
Prostate cancer and driving occupations: Could whole body vibration play a role?
This literature survey reviews the risk of prostate cancer among whole body vibration related occupations. Based on five case-control and three cohort studies involving driving published between 1996 and 2004, a pooled relative risk estimate of 1.14 was calculated. This increase was not statistically significant.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.551-556. 34 ref.
Marino J.L., Holt V.L., Chen C., Davis S.
Lifetime occupational history and risk of endometriosis
This case-control study investigated the relationship between lifetime occupational history and surgically confirmed endometriosis. Interviews were conducted with all reproductive-aged female members of a large health-maintenance organization who were diagnosed with endometriosis between 1996 and 2001. Interviews were also conducted with randomly selected reproductive-aged women affiliated in the same organization. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. It was found that an increased risk of endometriosis was associated with having worked as a flight attendant, service station attendant or health care worker, the odds ratios being 9.80, 5.77 and 1.49, respectively.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.3, p.233-240. 23 ref.
Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.
Wong E.Y., Ray R.M., Gao D.L., Wernli K.J., Li W., Fitzgibbons E.D., Camp J.E., Astrakianakis G., Heagerty P.J., De Roos A.J., Holt V.L., Thomas D.B., Checkoway H.
Dust and chemical exposures, and miscarriage risk among women textile workers in Shanghai, China
A retrospective cohort study of miscarriages among 1752 women in the Shanghai textile industry was conducted. Reproductive history was self-reported by women and occupational work histories were collected from factory personnel records. Occupational exposures were evaluated by linking work history to an industry-specific job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age at pregnancy, educational level, smoking status of the woman and her spouse, use of alcohol, and woman's year of birth. An elevation in risk of a spontaneously aborted first pregnancy was associated with exposure to synthetic fibres (OR 1.89) and mixed synthetic and natural fibres (OR 3.31). No increased risks were observed for women working with solvents, nor were significant associations observed with quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.161-168. 38 ref.
László K.D., Kopp M.S.
Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment at work are associated with painful menstruation: Results from the Hungarostudy epidemiological panel 2006
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between work stress, defined according to the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model, and painful menstruation. Data on 821 pre-menopausal and non-pregnant working women from a Hungarian epidemiological cohort were analysed. The association between work stress and dysmenorrhoea was investigated using logistic regression. After controlling for age, occupational class, education, marital status, parity, unsuccessfully trying to conceive for at least one year, previous miscarriage, smoking, body-mass index, physical activity and depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were associated with an increased risk of menstrual pain (odds ratios 1.42 and 1.07 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-163. 48 ref.
Documenting occupational exposures
Retracer les expositions professionnelles [in French]
This report presents proposals pertaining to the prevention of occupational hazards arising from carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic to reproductive health (CMRs), particularly from the standpoint of improved understanding workers' exposures by means of the traceability of occupational exposure data, the requirements with respect to the conservation of the data, the conditions governing access to this information and its relationship with general medical practice.
La Documentation française, 29, quai Voltaire 75007 Paris, France, Oct. 2008. 180p. Illus.
http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/cgi-bin/brp/telestats.cgi?brp_ref=084000684&brp_file=0000.pdf [in French]
Shirangi A., Fritschi L., Holman C.D.J.
Maternal occupational exposures and risk of spontaneous abortion in veterinary practice
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational exposures and spontaneous abortion in female veterinarians. It was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey of all graduates from Australian veterinary schools from 1960 to 2000. The response rate was 59%. Self-reported occupational exposures to anaesthetic gases, X-rays, pesticides and long working hours were examined. Data were subjected to multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Increased risks of spontaneous abortion were found among women exposed to anaesthetic gases for ≥1h per week, who performed more than five radiographic examinations per week or used pesticides at work, with odds ratios of 2.49, 1.82 and 1.88 respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.719-725. 43 ref.
Baste V., Moen B.E., Riise T., Hollund B.E., Řyen N.
Infertility and spontaneous abortion among female hairdressers: The Hordaland Health Study
This cross-sectional study investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers. A total of 16,907 women in their forties were invited to participate; the response rate was 71%. Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking and education was collected by means of questionnaires. Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks 1.30 and 1.31 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1371-1377. 30 ref.
Schoenfisch A.L., Dement J.M., Rodríguez-Acosta R.L.
Demographic, clinical and occupational characteristics associated with early onset of delivery: Findings from the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System, 2001-2004
This cross-sectional study explored associations between preterm delivery and demographic, clinical and occupational characteristics of women employed at a university hospital in the United States. A comprehensive surveillance system linking individual-level data from human resources, medical insurance claims and a job-exposure matrix was used to identify women with a single live birth between 2001 and 2004 and describe maternal characteristics during pregnancy. Preterm delivery occurred in 7.1% of the 1,040 cases examined, a lower prevalence than observed in the general United States population. Prevalence of preterm delivery was highest for nurses, nurses' aides and office staff. In multivariate analyses, preterm delivery was positively associated with several clinical conditions: placenta praevia, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.911-922. 84 ref.
Fucic A., Merlo D.F., Ceppi M., Lucas J.N.
Spontaneous abortions in female populations occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation
Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of miscarriages in 61 women exposed to radioisotopes was compared to that reported in 170 X-ray exposed women. Chromosomal aberrations were measured in both radiation-exposed groups and in 53 non-exposed women. Women exposed to radioisotopes experienced at least a threefold higher rate of spontaneous abortions than those exposed to X-rays. Although X-ray and radioisotopes exposed women had significantly higher levels of chromosome aberration frequency than referents, there was no clear difference between radiation-exposed women. For exposure levels within standard recommended guidelines, radioisotopes are far more likely to play a role in the occurrence of spontaneous abortions than X-rays. This effect is not detectable by a difference in chromosome aberration frequency.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.873-879. 49 ref.
Wernli K.J., Ray R.M., Gao D.L., Fitzgibbons E.D., Camp J.E., Astrakianakis G., Seixas N., Li W., De Roos A.J., Feng Z., Thomas D.B., Checkoway H.
Occupational risk factors for endometrial cancer among textile workers in Shanghai, China
A nested case-control study was conducted to investigate possible associations between occupational exposures and endometrial cancer within a large cohort of textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 176 incident endometrial cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 1998 and a randomly-selected age-stratified sub-cohort of 3061 controls. Study subjects' complete work histories were linked to a job-exposure matrix. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox models. An increased risk of endometrial cancer was detected among women who had worked for ≥10 years in silk production (HR 3.8) or who had exposure to silk dust (HR 1.7). Albeit with few exposed women (two cases and eight controls), there was a 7.4-fold increased risk associated with ≥10 years of silica dust exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.673-679. 29 ref.
MacArthur A.C., Le N.D., Abanto Z.U., Gallagher R.P.
Occupational female breast and reproductive cancer mortality in British Columbia, Canada, 1950-94
It has been postulated that recent increases in female breast and reproductive cancers may be, in part, attributable to occupational exposures. This case-control study based on the death registry aimed to identify occupational associations with female breast and reproductive cancer mortality among women living in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Cases included women 20 years of age or older who died from breast or reproductive cancer between 1950 and 1994 and resident in BC, Canada. Controls were randomly selected from non-cancer deaths, matched according to age at death and year of death. There was excess mortality from breast and ovarian cancer among teachers, nurses, secretaries, librarians, retail sales clerks and religious workers. An elevated risk of breast cancer mortality was also found among professionals employed as owners, managers and government officials, financial saleswomen, scientists, physicians, medical and dental technicians and accountants. Secretaries, telephone operators and musicians were at increased risk of death from endometrial cancer.
Occupational Medicine, June 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.246-253. 54 ref.
Frey G.M., Ott M.G., Messerer P., Nasterlack M., Queisser-Luft A., Zober A.
Pregnancy protection program in a large chemical company: design and initial survey results
This series of two articles describe the pregnancy protection programme of a large German chemical company and investigate reproductive outcomes relative to maternal exposures. For the 1148 pregnancies having occurred between 1997 and 2002, outcomes were documented by questionnaires administered after the pregnancy announcement, end of pregnancy and one year later. Maternal exposures were assessed via job histories, workplace inspections and questionnaires. Overall outcomes are consistent with findings from population-based studies. Pregnancy losses (11.5%) did not differ significantly by type of work. Among pregnancy symptoms vaginal bleeding was weakly associated with two exposure measures (research chemicals and toluene). Preterm births (8.7%) were in agreement with general population norms and did not vary by maternal exposure category. Rates of malformation were marginally higher in infants born to women assigned to chemical versus office jobs. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.507-518. Illus. 22 ref.;519-525. 11 ref.
Risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory system, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testes and skin in firemen
Risque de myélome multiple et de cancers des voies respiratoires, de l'œsophage, de l'estomac, du pancréas, de la prostate, des testicules et de la peau chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory tract, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testicles and skin. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not indicate that the cancers examined in this analysis can be assumed to occur in firefighters as a result of their occupation. This conclusion is based on the absence of a significant increase in risk in most of the studies and the minimal increase in risk in the cases where it is present. See also CIS 08-598/600.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 37p. 79 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-522.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-521.pdf [in French]
Meyer T.E., Coker A.L., Sanderson M., Symanski E.
A case-control study of farming and prostate cancer in African-American and Caucasian men
The objective of this population-based case-control study was to determine the risk of prostate cancer among African-Americans and Caucasians in the USA in the farming sector. Cases included 405 incident prostate cancer cases and 392 controls matched for age, race and region in South Carolina from 1999 to 2001. Data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Farming was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians (OR 1.8) but not in African-Americans (OR 1.0). Farmers who mixed or applied pesticides had a higher risk of prostate cancer (OR 1.6). Increased risk of prostate cancer was observed only for those farming less than five years. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.155-160. 41 ref.
Lindbohm M.L., Ylöstalo P., Sallmén M., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Nurminen T., Forss H., Taskinen H.
Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage
The objective of this Finnish study was to investigate whether dental workers are at an increased risk of miscarriage. The study was conducted among exposed women (dentists and dental assistants) and a control group of women occupationally unexposed to dentistry materials. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 normal births. An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression. In general, no strong association or consistent dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam and to some acrylates, solvents and disinfectants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.127-133. 40 ref.
Gresie-Brusin D.F., Kielkowski D., Baker A., Channa K., Rees D.
Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy and association with adverse reproductive outcomes
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy and adverse reproductive outcomes. The study population consisted of women working during 2004 at hospital sterilising units using ethylene oxide in a South African province. Data on the outcome of the pregnancy were gathered by means of questionnaires. Data on exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy was obtained from walk-through surveys, questionnaires and workplace atmosphere measurements. A total of 98 singleton pregnancies were analysed. Measurements of ethylene oxide showed that operators of sterilising units were potentially over-exposed. There was a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion (prevalence odds ratio POR 20.8) and pregnancy loss (POR 8.6) for women highly exposed to ethylene oxide compared to low exposed pregnancies. No associations were found between exposure to ethylene oxide and stillbirth.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2007, Vol.80, No.7, p.559-565. 19 ref.
Bonde J.P., Joffe M.
The influence of occupational exposure on male reproductive function
This literature survey reviews recent epidemiological studies exploring the effect of occupational exposures on semen quality, fecundity and the ability to conceive. The evidence for an adverse effect on male reproduction of several occupational and environmental exposures and toxicants, such as heat, ionizing radiation, inorganic lead, dibromochloropropane, ethylene dibromide, some ethylene glycol ethers, carbon disulfide and welding operations, is strongly supported in well-designed epidemiological studies. For other agents, the association is only suspected or suggested and needs further evaluation before conclusions can be drawn. Many workers in the developing countries are still exposed to substances that are banned in developed countries, sometimes in high concentrations.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.544-553. 128 ref.
Wu M.T., et al.
Sperm DNA damage correlates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomarker in coke-oven workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in men has an adverse effect on semen quality. Forty-eight coke-oven workers, including 16 topside-oven workers and 32 side-oven workers, were studied. Ambient PAHs exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels and parameters of semen quality were determined. Findings are discussed. A potential risk of sperm dysfunction should be considered for workers occupationally exposed to high levels of PAHs. Cigarette smoking may aggravate this risk. Urinary 1-OHP was found to be a useful a biomarker for predicting sperm dysfunction.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.349-356. Illus. 41 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/fx70q8u68g494803/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Magnusson L.L., Bodin L., Wennborg H.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes in offspring of fathers working in biomedical research laboratories
Laboratory work may constitute a possible health hazard for workers as well as for their offspring, and involves a wide range of exposures, such as organic solvents, carcinogenic agents, ionizing radiation and microorganisms. This study examined adverse pregnancy outcomes in the offspring of male employees of biomedical research laboratories. Pregnancy parameters of offspring to male workers employed between 1970 and 1989 at four Swedish universities were identified from birth registers. Offspring of 2281 fathers with laboratory work were considered exposed, and of 1909 non-laboratory employees unexposed. Exposure data were obtained by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals. There was no clear association between periconceptional paternal laboratory work and adverse reproductive outcomes, but use of radioactive isotopes showed increased risk of high birth weight in offspring.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.468-473. Illus. 28 ref.
Chen P.C., Pan I.J., Wang J.D.
Parental exposure to lead and small for gestational age births
This study was conducted to assess whether parental lead exposure was related to risks of low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age births. The cohort comprised lead-exposed workers listed in an occupational blood-lead notification database in Taiwan. Data on the birth outcomes of their offspring were obtained from the Taiwan birth registration database between 1993 and 1997. Only singleton births whose parental blood-lead concentrations were tested during pregnancy or within a one-year span before conception were included. Findings provide additional evidence of the effects of lead on adverse birth outcomes, especially for small for gestational age births. Maternal exposure to lead plays a more important role in the adverse effect on birth outcome than paternal exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.417-422. 38 ref.
Lauria L., Ballard T.J., Caldora M., Mazzanti C., Verdecchia A.
Reproductive disorders and pregnancy outcomes among female flight attendants
This study examined reproductive health among female flight attendants. A cross-sectional health survey was carried out among an occupational cohort of current and former flight attendants using a postal questionnaire including items on pregnancy outcome, menstrual characteristics and infertility. The questionnaire was sent to 3036 women with a response rate of 64% (74% for current and 48% for former flight attendants). Spontaneous abortion rates were similar for pregnancies of women in service and not (12.6 and 11.4% respectively). Induced abortion rates were lower for in-service pregnancies (7.9%) compared with pregnancies of women not in service (21.1%). Menstrual irregularities in the year preceding the survey for women aged under 40 years were more frequent among current than former flight attendants (20.6% and 10.4% respectively). Fertility problems were reported by 20.6% of respondents. An association between infertility and irregular menstrual cycles was found (odds ratio 1.6).
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.77, No.5, p.533-539. Illus. 35 ref.
Zhu J.L., Knudsen L.E., Andersen A.M.N., Hjollund N.H., Olsen J.
Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: A study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark
To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work, this prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference) used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). Laboratory technicians were asked about laboratory work tasks during pregnancy in an interview (at around 16 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linking the cohort to the national registers. Hazard ratios of late foetal loss and diagnosis of congenital malformations were calculated by using Cox regression, and odds ratios of preterm birth and small for gestational age were calculated by using logistic regression. The overall results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures in laboratory technicians. However, risks of preterm birth and congenital malformations were observed among subgroups with high exposures to radioisotopes and organic solvents.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.53-58. 33 ref.
Zhu J.L., Hjollund N.H., Nybo Andersen A.M., Olsen J.
Shift work, job stress, and late fetal loss: The National Birth Cohort in Denmark
Data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) were analysed to examine whether shift work or job stress correlated with late foetal loss. A total of 33,694 pregnancies of daytime workers and 8,075 pregnancies of shift workers were identified among women recruited to the DNBC between 1998 and 2001. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from national registers. Hazard ratios of foetal loss were calculated. Fixed night work was associated with foetal loss (hazard ratio = 1.85). No high risk of foetal loss was seen for other types of shift work. Job stress, as measured in the study, was not associated with foetal loss.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1144-1149. 40 ref.
Van Maele-Fabry G., Willems J.L.
Prostate cancer among pesticide applicators: A meta-analysis
This literature survey investigated the occurrence of prostate cancer in pesticide applicators. Relative risks (RRs) found in 22 were pooled. Findings are discussed. The pooled RR of 1.24 for prostate cancer in agricultural pesticide spraying provides evidence of a possible relationship between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer. The homogeneity observed between the individual study rate ratios, after the data had been regrouped according to geographic location, tends to increase the consistency of the association. However, the data available from the individual studies do not provide sufficient exposure information for firm conclusions to be drawn about pesticide exposure as the cause of prostate cancer.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.559-570. Illus. 77 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/xl4yxw2ax3uj0bwq/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Wang L., Wang X., Wang W., Chen C., Ronnennberg A.G., Guang W., Huang A., Fang Z, Zang T., Xu X.
Stress and dysmenorrhoea: A population based prospective study
Using a population based cohort of Chinese women, the independent effect of women's perceived stress in the preceding menstrual cycle on the incidence of dysmenorrhoea in the subsequent cycle was investigated. The analysis included 1160 prospectively observed menstrual cycles from 388 healthy, nulliparous, newly married women who intended to conceive. The perception of stress and the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea in each menstrual cycle were determined from daily diaries recorded by the women. After adjustment for important covariates, the risk of dysmenorrhoea was more than twice as great among women with high stress compared to those with low stress in the preceding cycle (OR=2.4). The risk of dysmenorrhoea was greatest among women with both high stress and a history of dysmenorrhoea compared to women with low stress and no history of dysmenorrhoea (OR=10.4). Stress in the follicular phase of the preceding cycles had a stronger association with dysmenorrhoea than stress in the luteal phase of the preceding cycles.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.61, No.12, p.1021-1026. 34 ref.
Dean B.B., Borenstein J.E.
A prospective assessment investigating the relationship between work productivity and impairment with premenstrual syndrome
The objective of this study was to assess life domain and work-related impairment in patients experiencing premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 456 women, 18 to 45 years of age, completed a questionnaire to record daily symptoms for two consecutive menstrual cycles. 29% of the respondents reported PMS symptoms. In the workplace, women with PMS reported higher absenteeism rates (2.5 days vs. 1.3 days) and more workdays with 50% or less of their typical productivity (7.2 days vs. 4.2 days). Women with PMS also reported a greater number of days with impairment in routine work, school and household activities in comparison with women without PMS.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.46, No.7, p.649-656. 29 ref.
Hanke W., Jurewicz J.
The risk of adverse reproductive and developmental disorders due to occupational pesticide exposure: An overview of current epidemiological evidence
This literature survey examines epidemiological studies on the association between parental occupation in agriculture and the incidence of infertility, congenital malformations, miscarriage, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age birth, pre-term delivery and stillbirth. The findings suggest the need to increase awareness of workers who are occupationally exposed to pesticides about their potential negative influence on fertility and pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, in the light of existing although still limited evidence of adverse effects of pesticide exposure on fertility during the pre-conceptual period, the exposure to pesticides should be reduced at all times.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.2, p.223-243. 80 ref.
Mills P.K., Yang R.
Prostate cancer risk in California farm workers
A nested case-control study of prostate cancer was conducted within a large cohort of predominantly Hispanic unionized farm workers in California. 222 newly-diagnosed cases of prostate cancer were identified for the years 1988 through 1999, and 1110 age-matched controls were randomly selected from the remainder of the cancer-free cohort. It was found that the risk of prostate cancer was not associated with any particular crop. Increasing duration of union affiliation was associated with decreasing prostate cancer risk. Although risk was not associated with total pounds of pesticides applied in the years and regions where farm workers were employed, risk increased with specific chemicals, including simazine, lindane, and heptachlor, and suggestive increases were observed with dichlorvos and methyl bromide. Farm workers exposed to higher levels of these compounds had an elevated risk of prostate cancer compared to workers with lower levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.45, No.3, p.249-258. 41 ref.
Mármol-Maneiro L., Fernández-D'Pool J., Sánchez B.J., Sirit Y.
Seminal profile of workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides
Perfil seminal en trabajadores expuestos a plaguicidas inhibidores de la colinesterasa [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to examine the physical and chemical properties of the sperm of workers exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and to highlight a possible relationship with the total cholinesterase level in blood. The study involved 29 subjects aged between 20 and 54 years, exposed for four hours a day during a minimum period of one year, and a control group of 30 unexposed subjects. Results of spermatograms and measurements of blood cholinesterase levels showed significant differences between exposed subjects and controls in terms of sperm concentrations and quality. Results suggest that cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides influence some sperm variables.
Investigación Clínica, June 2003, Vol.44, No.2, p.105-117. 50 ref.
Andersson E., Nilsson R., Torén K.
Testicular cancer among Swedish pulp and paper workers
The incidence of testicular cancer has increased in recent decades. The aims of the present study were to determine whether Swedish paper and pulp mill workers had an increased incidence of testicular cancer, and to investigate whether certain occupational groups within the pulp and paper mill workforce were at increased risk. The study was based on the Swedish Cancer Environment Register, which links the incidence of cancer for the period 1971-1990 with 1960 and 1970 National Census data on specific industries and occupations for all employed subjects in Sweden. It was found that among maintenance workers employed both in 1960 and in 1970 in paper mills, there was an increased risk for testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 7.4), especially for seminomas (SIR 10.1).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.642-646. 29 ref.
Cedergren M.I., Selbing A.J., Källén B.A.J.
Risk factors for cardiovascular malformation - A study based on prospectively collected data
This study included 277 women who had infants with a severe cardiac defect. Data on parental age, maternal reproductive history, disease in early pregnancy, reported maternal use of drugs and alcohol, smoking habits, parental occupation and maternal body mass index (BMI) were extracted from medical records. Maternal diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular malformation (odds ratio (OR) 2.38), as was a high BMI (> 29, OR 1.46). A tendency towards an increased risk was found for involuntary childlessness, spontaneous abortion, thyroid drugs and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Some known risk factors for cardiac defects (eg. maternal diabetes mellitus and the use of antiepileptics) could be identified in this study but other postulated risk factors could not be verified. It is possible, however, that there is an association with the use of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs or drugs for thyroid disease. The relationship between a high BMI and cardiovascular malformation observed in this study may be explained by impaired maternal glucose tolerance.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.12-17. 23 ref.
Wulff M., Högberg U., Stenlund H.
Occupational and environmental risks of spontaneous abortions around a smelter
To evaluate the effects of working or living near a smelter on reproductive outcome, a case-control study was conducted in Sweden involving employees at the smelter, a sample of residents near the smelter and a sample of residents at a distance from the smelter, as controls. Participants were given a questionnaire, in 1992, and cases of live births and spontaneous abortions were obtained for the period between 1982 and 1990 from the population registry. Risk factors were studied by logistic regression. A validity study between register and questionnaire data on spontaneous abortions and legal abortions was completed. The results indicate that there was no increase in the level of spontaneous abortions associated with smelter work or to living close to the smelter.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 49 ref.
Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.
Cho S.I., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L.M., Chen D., Hu Y.A., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Effects of exposure to organic solvents on menstrual cycle length
To investigate the association between organic solvent exposure and menstrual disturbance, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 1408 women petrochemical workers in China. The workplaces were classified according to the presence or absence of organic solvents (benzene, styrene, toluene or xylene). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oligomenorrhoea (average cycle length >35 days during the previous year) associated with the exposure. After adjustment for confounders, each additional year of work in an exposed workshop was associated with a 7% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.07). Compared with no exposure, 3 or more years of exposure was associated with a 53% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.53). It was concluded that exposure to organic solvents is associated with a trend toward increased frequency of oligomenorrhoea.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.567-575. Illus. 30 ref.
Bates M.N., Fawcett J., Garrett N., Arnold R., Pearce N., Woodward A.
Is testicular cancer an occupational disease of fire fighters?
A previous investigation showed an increased risk of testicular cancer among firefighters in Wellington City, New Zealand, during the 1980s, while other studies of firefighters had not identified testicular cancer as an occupational disease. The present cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence involved all professional New Zealand firefighters, from 1977 to 1995. It confirms the increased risk of testicular cancer, even after excluding cases from the previous investigation, with a standardized incidence ratio for 1990-96 of 3.0. There was no evidence that firefighters were at increased risk from other cancers nor from any particular cause of death. While this study confirmed that New Zealand firefighters are at increased risk of testicular cancer, the reasons remain unknown.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.263-270. 26 ref.
Vassilev Z.P., Robson M.G., Klotz J.B.
Outdoor exposure to airborne polycyclic organic matter and adverse reproductive outcomes: A pilot study
To investigate the association between outdoor airborne polycyclic organic matter (POM) and adverse reproductive outcomes in New Jersey, a cross-sectional design combining U.S. air quality data and individual data on pregnancy outcomes from birth and foetal death certificates at the census tract level were used. After excluding plural births and chromosomal anomalies, 221,406 live births and 1,591 foetal deaths registered during the years of 1990 and 1991 were included. The exposure estimates were derived from modeled average POM concentrations for each census tract in the state. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (OR) for very low birth weight for the highest exposure compared to the lowest exposure group was 1.31; high POM exposure was associated with low birth weight (OR = 1.31) among term births, with foetal death (OR = 1.19) and with premature birth (OR = 1.25). In conclusion, this study found associations between outdoor exposure to modeled average airborne POM and several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.255-262. 21 ref.
Weiderpass E., Pukkala E., Vasama-Neuvonen K., Kauppinen T., Vainio H., Paakkulainen H., Boffetta P., Partanen T.
Occupational exposures and cancers of the endometrium and cervix uteri in Finland
An exploratory study was conducted in Finland to assess the role of occupational exposures on incidence rates of cancers of the endometrium and cervix uteri. Occupational risk factors for endometrial and cervical cancers were explored in a 25-year follow-up of 413,877 female workers born between 1906 and 1945 identified through the 1970 population census of Finland. Job titles in census records were converted to exposures of 31 occupational agents through a job-exposure matrix. Poisson regression models estimated relative risks for each agent, standardized for birth sub-cohort, follow-up period, and socio-economic status. It was found that endometrial cancer (2,833 cases) was associated with exposure to animal dust and sedentary work. Cervical cancer (1,101 cases) was associated with exposure to aliphatic and cyclo-aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons, silica dust, and wood dust.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.572-580. 42 ref.
Charlot A., Godfroid I.O.
Premenstrual syndrome: Cause for work incapacity?
Le syndrome prémenstruel: une cause d'incapacité de travail? [in French]
Premenstrual syndrome is a disorder which affects about one woman in four. It is characterized by the cyclical onset of physical and psychological symptoms which normally culminate in the start of a period. In two to ten percent of cases, the clinical signs are of such severity that they seriously disrupt the personal and professional life of the patient. This state is known as the premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which may give rise to temporary sick leave or absenteeism and which workplace physicians may well encounter. The article reviews the literature findings relating to this often little understood syndrome and considers them in the context of occupational health and the right to treatment for women in the workplace.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2000, Vol.XXXVII, No.1, p.39-41. Illus. 5 ref.
Sharma-Wagner S., Chokkalingam A.P., Malker H.S.R., Stone B.J., McLaughlin J.K., Hsing A.W.
Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden
36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 were linked with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer were calculated within industries and occupations. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers and white-collar occupations. Results suggest that elevated prostate cancer risks exist among farmers, in certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers, and among men with low occupational physical activity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.517-525. 57 ref.
Wennborg H., Bodin L., Vainio H., Axelsson G.
Pregnancy outcome of personnel in Swedish biomedical research laboratories
Reproduction outcomes of female laboratory personnel in Sweden from 1990 to 1994 were investigated in a questionnaire-based study. Controls included personnel in non-laboratory departments. With regard to spontaneous abortions, no risk factors were found for laboratory work in general, but an odds ratio of 2.3 was connected to exposure to chloroform. The odds ratio for high birth weights (corrected for gestational age) in association with the mother's laboratory work was 1.9. The result with regard to spontaneous abortion partly supports previously reported increased risks of miscarriage related to laboratory work with solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.438-446. 51 ref.
Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E., Jensen T.K., Henriksen T.B., Andersson A.M., Kolstad H.A., Ernst E., Giwercman A., Skakkebćk N.E., Olsen J.
Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders
Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among spouses of stainless-steel welders in Denmark. A cohort of men among couples planning a first pregnancy was recruited from members of the union of metal workers and three other trade unions. The cohort was followed for 6 menstrual cycles from the cessation of contraceptive use. Information on pregnancy outcome was collected for all 245 clinically recognized pregnancies. Increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found for pregnancies with paternal exposure to stainless-steel welding (adjusted relative risk 3.5). A mutagenic effect of hexavalent chromium has been found previously in both somatic and germ cells, and the findings could be due to mutations in the male genome.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 25 ref.
Thurston S.W., Ryan L., Christiani D.C., Snow R., Carlson J., You L., Cui S., Ma G., Wang L., Huang Y., Xu X.
Petrochemical exposures and menstrual disturbances
An exploratory, cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to examine the effects of benzene exposure on menstrual problems. The study was based on a survey administered to more than 3,000 women working in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China. An abnormal menstrual cycle length (AMCL), defined as an average menstrual cycle length of greater than 35 days or less than 21 days, was the major factor observed. After 7 years of benzene exposure, the adjusted odds ratio of having AMCL, for each additional 5 years of exposure was 1.71. Feeling stressed at work was also an important predictor. This study suggests a significant association of benzene exposure and perceived stress with menstrual disturbance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.555-564. Illus. 45 ref.
Kang H.K., Mahan C.M., Lee K.Y., Magee C.A., Mather S.H., Matanoski G.
Pregnancy outcomes among U.S. women Vietnam veterans
Since the Vietnam War, there has been persistent concern that women who served in the U.S. military in Vietnam may have experienced adverse pregnancy outcomes. Self-reported pregnancy outcomes for 4,140 women Vietnam veterans were compared with those of 4,140 contemporary women veterans who were not deployed to Vietnam. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression adjusting for age at conception, race, education, whether engaged in nursing or in combat, smoking, drinking and other exposures during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant association between military service in Vietnam and pregnancies resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth, low birth weight, pre-term delivery or infant death. However, the risk of having children with moderate-to-severe birth defects was significantly elevated among Vietnam veterans (adjusted OR = 1.46).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.447-454. 32 ref.
Fertility among workers exposed to solvents or lead
To investigate whether occupational exposure to solvents or lead is associated with reduced fertility, data on time to pregnancy were collected for female workers and wives of male workers biologically monitored for exposure to these agents. Exposure assessment was based on biological exposure measurements and on self-reported data on work and use of chemicals. Also, a register-based study on infertility was conducted among the families of lead-exposed men. Daily or high maternal exposure to organic solvents was associated with reduced fertility, particularly among women working in dry-cleaning shops, shoe factories and in the metal industry. No clear connection was found between maternal exposure to lead and fecundity. There is some indication that paternal exposure to solvents is associated with decreased fertility and that paternal exposure to lead may be associated with delayed conception. Five research articles on these topics are reproduced in the Annex (the author being among the co-authors in every case).
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41aA, Helsinki 00250, Finland, 2000. 80p. + Annex (49p.). Illus. 157 ref.
Valanis B., Vollmer W.M., Steele P.
Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents: Self-reported miscarriages and stillbirths among nurses and pharmacists
Antineoplastic agents are mutagenic and teratogenic, with potential effects on reproduction among workers exposed to these agents. This study investigates pregnancy loss associated with occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs by comparing rates of spontaneous abortion and stillbirths for pregnancies with and without antineoplastic exposure for either parent, before or during pregnancy. A total of 7,094 pregnancies of 2,976 pharmacy and nursing staff were examined. Exposure of the mother to antineoplastic agents during the pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio = 1.5) and combined risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (odds ratio = 1.4). Among the wives of exposed men, too few stillbirths occurred to allow analysis. However, for spontaneous abortion and any loss, the patterns of increased risk were similar to those seen for women, although the odds ratios were not statistically significant.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.632-638. 24 ref.
Pagčs M., Falcy M.
Evaluation of the risk to pregnancy caused by exposure to solvents
Evaluation du risque solvants pour la grossesse [in French]
The questions frequently addressed directly to INRS or transmitted through the CRAT (Information centre for teratogenic agents) in the context of a common prospective programme having begun in 1995 led to a review of human epidemiological studies on occupational exposure to solvents among pregnant women published between 1980 and 1997. A total of 28 studies focussed on occupations or activity sectors and 20 focussed on solvents are analysed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1999, No.80, p.335-353. 59 ref.
Taskinen H., Chia S.E., Lindbohm M.L., Hong C.Y., Thein M.M.
Risks to the reproductive health of working women
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; lead; mercury; nickel; complications of pregnancy; developing countries; expectant mothers; harmful substances; ionizing radiation; legal aspects; manufacturing industries; noise; office work; pesticides; risk factors; service and sales workers; sexual harassment; shift work; stress factors; toxic substances; violence; women; work time schedules.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1999. 76p. Illus. 331 ref.
Aspholm R., Lindbohm M.L., Paakkulainen H, Taskinen H., Nurminen T., Tiitinen A.
Spontaneous abortions among Finnish flight attendants
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in order to investigate whether work as a cabin attendant is related to an increased risk for spontaneous abortion. Data on female cabin crew members were linked to medical records on pregnancies. There were 1,751 eligible pregnancies for the final analysis. Flight attendants who worked during early pregnancy had a slightly elevated risk of spontaneous abortion when compared with attendants who were pregnant outside a time span of active flying. During the earliest years of the study period, the risk seemed to be lower, whereas during the later years the risk was increased. The results are in agreement with earlier studies, showing evidence of a slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion among cabin crew members.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.486-491. Illus. 24 ref.
Padungtod C., Hassold T.J., Millie E., Ryan L.M., Savitz D.A., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Sperm aneuploidy among Chinese pesticide factory workers: Scoring by the FISH method
Cases from a pesticide-manufacturing plant in Anhui, China, and controls from a nearby textile factory were recruited. Pesticide workers were exposed to ethyl parathion or methamidophos at a median level of 0.02mg/m3. Semen was collected from each subject. Scoring was based on three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Median semen parameters for exposed (and unexposed) men were: abstinence period, 3 days (4 days); sperm concentration, 52.8 x 106/mL (53.1 x 106/mL); proportion of sperm with normal motility, 50.5% (61.3%); and proportion of sperm with normal morphology, 59% (61.5%). The crude proportion of all aneuploidy combined was 0.30% and 0.19% for sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Poisson regression yielded significantly different crude risks of aneuploidy - 3.03 and 1.94 per 1,000 sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Regression coefficients remained statistically significant after adjustment for inter-technician variability giving a rate ratio of 1.51. It is concluded that occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides moderately increases the prevalence of sperm aneuploidy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.230-238. Illus. 32 ref.
Irgens Ĺ., Krüger K., Ulstein M.
The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway
The objective of the study was to assess whether reduced semen quality in male workers is associated with occupational exposures known to be hazardous to fertility. Results of semen analysis in 365 men investigated for infertility were linked to occupational exposure data from a self-administered questionnaire. Reduced semen quality was found in men exposed to electromagnetic fields. A tendency toward reduced semen quality was seen in commuters, shift workers and men exposed to heavy metals. In general, the impact of occupational exposure on semen quality in male workers in Norway seemed to be minor. However, the lack of significant results may be explained by the small number of responses and further investigations would be necessary.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.12, p.1116-1120. 25 ref.
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