Clothing and finished textile products industry - 108 entries found
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- Clothing and finished textile products industry
Olayinka O.S., Abdullahi S.A.
An overview of industrial employees' exposure to noise in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria
This study evaluates and compares industrial employees' noise exposure level in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin, Nigeria. The highest and lowest average noise exposure levels are recorded in mineral crushing mills (93.16 dB(A)) and the mattress making industry (84.69 dB(A)) respectively. The study shows that there is significant difference in noise levels in the industries surveyed. High percentages of machines emitting noise above FEPA and OSHA recommendation (90 dB(A)) were found: soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), tobacco industry (71.4%), mattress making industry (11.1%) and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the noise levels in the soft drink bottling industry was reduced by 0.58 dB(A) and that of the brewing and bottling industry by 9.66 dB(A), but that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On the average, the noise control measures put in place have had significant impact on the noise exposure.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.123-133. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/123/_pdf/-char/ja/ [in English]
Wang P.C., Ritz B.R., Janowitz I., Harrison R.J., Yu F., Chan J., Rempel D.M.
A randomized controlled trial of chair interventions on back and hip pain among sewing machine operators: The Los Angeles garment study
The objective of this study was to determine whether a height-adjustable chair with a swivel function can reduce back and hip pain in sewing machine operators. This four-month intervention study included 293 sewing machine operators with back and hip pain, divided into two intervention groups and a control group. Participants in the control group received a placebo intervention (miscellaneous items), and participants in the intervention groups received the placebo intervention and one of the two types of intervention chairs (with flat or curved seat pan). Compared with the control group, mean pain improvement for the flat chair was 0.43 points per month and mean pain improvement for the curved chair was 0.25 points per month. The findings may also be relevant in other manufacturing jobs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.255-262. Illus. 15 ref.
Wang P.C., Rempel D.M., Harrison R.J., Chan J., Ritz B.R.
Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between occupational and personal factors and the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among garment workers in Los Angeles. It involved 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on organizational factors, personal factors and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in interviews. Data were analysed using unconditional logistic regression models. The prevalences of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region the distal upper extremity were 24% and 16% respectively. Risk factors included an age of less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, working in large shops, higher work-rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand and low job satisfaction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.806-813. Illus. 37 ref.
Eighteenth synthesis report on working conditions in Cambodia's garment sector
The garment sector is the Cambodian main export industry and employs 300,000 mostly female workers. The "Better Factories Cambodia" Programme was established in 2001 to monitor and report on working conditions in over 200 Cambodian garment factories according to compliance with national laws and international standards. The project also helps factories to improve working conditions and productivity, and works with the Government and international buyers to ensure a rigorous, transparent and continuous cycle of improvement. This report summarizes information about working conditions and labour standards, compliance issues, and progress achieved in a number of indicators since the launch of the programme
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 21p. Illus.
http://www.primesourceforum.com/pdf/07_18_Better_Factories_Cambodia.pdf [in English]
10 steps for a safer and healthier workplace
The "Better Factories Cambodia" programme of the ILO aims to improve working conditions in Cambodia's export garment factories through independent monitoring, advice, training and information. This leaflet provides advice on how to make a home, office, factory or other workplace safer and healthier in quick, easy and economical ways. It is developed by using simple language for all levels of audiences.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 1p.
http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/1/10%20Steps%20for%20a%20Safer%20&%20Healthier%20Workplace%20(en).pdf [in English]
Akgun M., Mirici A., Ucar E.Y., Kantarci M., Araz O., Gorguner M.
Silicosis in Turkish denim sandblasters
Between August 2004 and March 2006, 16 young men with a history of working in small workplaces producing sandblasted denim were admitted to the respiratory diseases department of a Turkish hospital. Of these, 14 presented with respiratory symptoms. In the first two cases, open-lung biopsy was required to confirm the diagnosis of silicosis. Later cases were diagnosed through a combination of their work history and the clinical and radiological findings. The mean age at presentation was 23 years with mean duration of employment as a sandblaster being three years. The first two cases died and the remainder, except two, are still receiving treatment. The production of sandblasted denim fabric in small uncontrolled workplaces may entail significant exposure to silica dust and the development of rapidly fatal silicosis. Urgent action is required to prevent further cases.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.554-558. Illus. 7 ref.
Women and work in the garment industry
The "Better Factories Cambodia" programme of the ILO aims to improve working conditions in Cambodia's export garment factories through independent monitoring, advice, training and information. This study consisted of a survey in the garment industry designed to explore women workers' and managers' knowledge, attitudes and practices around a number of issues including health and nutrition, breastfeeding and child care, harassment including sexual harassment, workplace relations and dispute resolution.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 63p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/1/Women%20and%20Work%20in%20the%20Garment%20Industry%20(en).pdf [in English]
Milczarek M., Szczecinńska K.
Workers' active involvement in the improvement of occupational safety and health in a textile enterprise - A case study
This article describes the implementation of the Polish-Swedish OSHMAN (Occupational safety and health management) project in a Polish textile and clothing plant. The aim of the project was to implement and improve effective health and safety management with the active involvement of workers at all levels of the enterprise. Training courses, workshops and various practical activities were undertaken. As expected, there were changes in work organization and improvements in the way workstations were looked after, which led to improvements in safety performance. Workers were highly committed during the project. Nevertheless it is concluded that more training should be directed at middle management.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.12, No.1, p.69-77. Illus. 11 ref.
Improving competitiveness in textiles and clothing through decent work
The ILO's "Decent Work Pilot Programme" supports the design of national policies for the promotion of decent work. This booklet summarizes the status of the programme in the textile and garment sector of Morocco, one of the key industrial sectors in the country, employing over 200,000 workers, 71% of which are women. Social upgrading of enterprises includes measures relating to safety and health at work, minimum age, hours of rest and freedom from abuse, harassment and forced labour.
National Policy Group, Policy Integration Department, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, [ca 2006]. 29p. Illus.
Guide to Cambodian labour law for the garment industry
The "Better Factories Cambodia" programme of the ILO aims to improve working conditions in Cambodia's export garment factories through independent monitoring, advice, training and information. This guide covers all major areas of Cambodian labour law. It is based on the Labour Law, government regulations, international labour standards ratified by Cambodia and the Cambodian Constitution. It is aimed at business owners, managers, human resource personnel, unions and worker representatives as a guide to their responsibilities under Cambodian labour legislation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. PDF document. 61p. Illus. Price: USD 5.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/1/Guide%20to%20the%20Cambodian%20Labour%20Law%20(en).pdf [in English]
Working conditions in Cambodia's garment sector: A manual on occupational safety and health
The "Better Factories Cambodia" programme of the ILO aims to improve working conditions in Cambodia's export garment factories through independent monitoring, advice, training and information. Aimed at owners and managers of Cambodian garment factories, this manual provides guidance on how to improve safety and health within the factory so that it meets both national and international standards. It puts forward a series of practical, low-cost suggestions for improving working conditions and increasing productivity. Contents: introduction; policy and implementation; general workplace conditions; temperature, ventilation, noise and lighting; chemicals; workstation design; machine guarding; electrical safety; fire safety; welfare; risk mapping and the use of the checklist.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. 115p. Illus.
http://www.betterfactories.org/resourcedet.aspx?z=7&iddoc=48&c=1 [in English]
Sewing machine operator's workstation: Layout and environment
Poste de travail de mécanicien(ne) de confection: Implantation et environnement [in French]
This recommendation describes elements of workstation design for the prevention of muscular, visual and nervous fatigue among sewing machine operators in the clothing industry. Outlines requirements for the design characteristics of the machine itself, comfortable and adjustable seating and adequate lighting.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 3p. Illus.
http://secure.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/media/R415.pdf [in French]
Clothing industry: Prevention of accidents on offset-arm sewing machines
Industrie de la confection: Prévention des accidents sur machines à coudre à bras déporté [in French]
This recommendation sets out procedures to be followed to ensure the safe and comfortable design of workstations for operators of offset-arm sewing machines. Covers the selection of a well-designed machine with adjustable seating and verification of the ergonomic qualities of the workstation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 1p. Illus.
http://secure.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/media/R414.pdf [in French]
Clothing industry: Protection against needlestick injuries on sewing machines
Industrie de la confection: Protection contre les piqûres aux doigts sur les machines à coudre [in French]
This recommendation explains how to ensure that sewing machines are correctly fitted with effective safety devices for the prevention of needlestick injuries to the operator's fingers.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 1p.
http://secure.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/media/R413.pdf [in French]
An overview to CERSSO's self evaluation of the cost-benefit on the investment in occupational safety and health in the textile factories: "A step by step methodology"
This article describes the development of a tool kit aimed at helping managers and line workers in garment factories to diagnose occupational hazards and to estimate the costs and benefits of investing in occupational safety and health (OSH) as a way to improve productivity and competitiveness. The procedures for using the tool kit and for calculating the prevention costs are described. Since July 2002, about 2400 workers, managers and officials from industry, government and training institutions in Central America and the Dominican Republic have used this instrument. They consistently found that investments in OSH were financially beneficial.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 215-229. Illus. 3 ref.
Perceived job stress of women workers in diverse manufacturing industries
An investigation of the impact of organizational factors on perceived job stress among women workers in the garment and electronics industries in the Philippines was undertaken. The sample included 23 establishments with 630 women respondents. Questionnaires, walkthrough surveys of the industries, and interviews were carried out. Workplace factors studied included job content, the nature of tasks, job autonomy, hazard exposure and management and supervisory styles. Statistical analysis highlighted the interactions among the organizational factors. It was found that workers experienced job stress when they were subjected to low job autonomy, poor work quality, close monitoring and high workload.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Summer 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.275-291. Illus. 19 ref.
Improving working conditions in the Haitian assembly industry - Project HAI/99/M01/USA
This project launched in 1999 was aimed at improving working conditions in the export-oriented Haitian garment sector, thereby meeting United States buyers' requirements regarding compliance with minimum standards of working conditions, safety and health, increasing the attractiveness of the country to investors, creating employment, boosting exports and earning foreign exchange. This CD-ROM presents the main achievements of the project. Contents: short commentaries of background, project achievements and acknowledgements; enterprise-level training materials; training needs analysis; reports of international consultants; social dialogue and working conditions.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, [c2004]. CD-ROM containing documents in PowerPoint, PDF and HTML formats.
Antincendio [in Italian]
Prévention des risques d'incendie [in French]
Prevención de incendios [in Spanish]
Contents of this safety training presentation on preventing fire hazards in the textile, garment and leather industries, aimed at workers in developing countries: introduction (description of fire and its effects, effects of combustion); extinguishing substances and systems; main components of fire extinguishers; use of fire extinguishers and hose reels; hazard identification; fire-fighting measures; evacuation; emergency procedures; personal protection; rules for safety (signalling anomalies, periodical controls, escape routes, storage of flammable materials, electrical systems, smoking ban, information and training of personnel, waste disposal, inspection of premises).
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation, 8 rue Joseph Stevens, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. CD-ROM containing PowerPoint presentations.
Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]
Rizzo S., Powney W., Saliba N.
Repetitive strain injury in the textile and garment industry in Malta - Results of a survey (2003)
This document presents the results of the survey carried out as part of the EuroSafe project. The first step of the project was to formulate and design a survey on repetitive strain injury (RSI), which would then be conducted in three of the partner states, namely Malta, Italy and the United Kingdom. The survey in Malta involved 306 workers in eight textile and garment factories. The questionnaires were analysed by the Workers Development Centre forming part of the University of Malta. Data on the factors contributing to RSI are analysed and it is concluded that these injuries are a major problem in the textile and garment industry in Malta.
Eurosafe Project, www.eurosafeproject.org, Aug. 2003, PDF document, 20p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.eurosafeproject.org/report.pdf [in English]
Occupational safety and health manual - Clothing industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria do vestuário [in Portuguese]
This manual covers the safety and health aspects that are specific to the Brazilian clothing industry. It describes the hazards of this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting workers and improving productivity. Contents: types of clothing industries; general work organization; types of workers at special risk (children, home workers, women, handicapped persons, elderly workers); risk factors and methods of control; enterprise safety and hygiene committees; determining the risk chart; environmental hazard prevention programmes; medical supervision programmes, profiles of the enterprises examined in the context of a study aimed at providing an overview of the variety of activities in the clothing sector; legal aspects.
SESI, Departamento Regional de São Paulo, Av. Paulista 1313, CEP 01311-923, São Paulo, Brazil, 2003. 241p. Illus. 94 ref. Index.
Carvalho M.J., Maia E., Maia J., Cunha G., Vinheiras V., Baptista M.C., Lapa N.
Manual handling of loads - Practical ergonomics guide - Garment industry
Movimentação manual de cargas - Guia prático de ergonomia - Subsector de vestuário [in Portuguese]
The purpose of this practical guide is to reduce the risks of injuries related to manual handling in the garment industry. After describing the musculoskeletal system, the most frequent injuries and the risks due to repetitive movements, it goes on to present the various operations that involve injury risks together with the ergonomic measures for their prevention. Tasks that involve risks in this sector include: handling of rolls, packing of and manual handling of garments, moving of garment batches, work in sitting postures (sewing), work in standing postures (starching and folding) and crate handling. The guide also describes the correct postures to be adopted in various situations as well as several gymnastic exercises for reinforcing back and abdominal muscles.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Dec. 2002. 44p. Illus.
Byrns G., Agnew J., Curbow B.
Attributions, stress, and work-related low back pain
To assess the association between worker attributions of the causes of occupational low back pain (LBP) and the incidence of LBP, a cross-sectional study was carried out involving 278 women garment workers. Data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire and through direct observation. Workers who attributed LBP to internal factors were more likely to be knowledgeable of back safety (odds ratio OR=3.7). Workers reporting high demand were more likely to report LBP (OR=2.3). Workers attributing LBP to job tasks were also more likely to report LBP (OR=3.2), and those reporting high supervisor support were less likely to report LBP (OR=0.23). Workers with annual incomes above USD 15,000 were more likely to report LBP in the test of both the Demand-Control-Support and Attribution models (OR=2.8), although superior correlation was found with the Attribution model.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.17, No.11, p.752-764. Illus. 41 ref.
Carvalho M.J., Maia E., Cunha G., Maia J., Ramoa A.F., Santos G., Gomes P.
Garment industry - Manual on the prevention of occupational hazards
Vestuário - Manual de prevenção dos riscos profissionais [in Portuguese]
This manual on the prevention of occupational hazards in the garment sector consists of three parts. The first specifies the legal framework together with the main hazards to which workers are subjected, their effects on health and the appropriate preventive measures; the second part describes the various steps involved in the production of garments; the third part contains 30 sheets that refer to specific tasks and equipment in garment manufacturing, including the definition of the task, the equipment and the materials used, together with descriptions of the task operation, hazards and preventive measures. Appendices include literature references and relevant legislation. An electronic version of this manual is available on CD-ROM.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Jan. 2002. 183p. Illus. 19 ref. + CD-ROM.
Ministerial standard on occupational health and safety in the clothing industry [Nicaragua]
Norma ministerial en materia de higiene y seguridad del trabajo en el sector maquilas de prendas de vestir en Nicaragua [in Spanish]
Contents of this regulation: definitions; obligations of employers, workers and contractors and sub-contractors of services; role and responsibilities of employers in OSH matters; training and information of workers; health maintenance and supervision; fire prevention and safety; structural safety of buildings, minimum workplace requirements and welfare facilities; boilers, machinery and tools; electrical safety; soldering; noise and vibration; lighting; temperature, humidity and ventilation; chemical contaminants; industrial ergonomics and physical workload; establishment of joint health and safety committees; personal protective equipment; safety signs; industrial waste; prohibitions.
La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 20 Nov. 2002, Vol.106, No.221, p.7321-7338.
http://www.ops.org.ni/opsnic/tematicas/salud-trabaj/d/norma-ministerial-maquila.pdf [in Spanish]
Jia X., Xiao P., Shen G., Wang X., Jin T., Nordberg G.
Adverse effects of gasoline on the skin of exposed workers
Gasoline is widely used as a cleaning solvent in industry. Its effects on the skin were studied in 52 exposed workers and 52 control subjects in the clothing industry (all women). Information about general conditions, history of dermatosis and changes in skin after exposure to gasoline was obtained through interviews. Ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol collected on the last working day before the weekend from the backs of the hands were analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results showed that prevalences of hyperkeratosis, dryness, onychosis and dermatitis were clearly higher in exposed workers than in the control group, prevalence ratios being 3.33, 3.00, 11.25 and 5.00, respectively. Fissures and onychorrhexis were the common symptoms in exposed workers. The stratum corneum lipid levels of ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol were significantly lower in the exposed group than in the control group.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.44-47. 27 ref.
Occupational Health and Safety (Clothing Factory Registration) Regulation 2001 [Australia - New South Wales]
The Shops and Industries Act 1962 (formerly the Factories, Shops and Industries Act 1962, see CIS 90-1406) used to require occupiers of factories to register their establishment with the authorities for purposes of inspection. The Occupational Health and Safety Amendment Act 1997 (CIS 99-1401) repealed the 1962 Act, but made no provision for such registration, which is still deemed necessary for clothing factories. This Regulation makes up for this lack, and requires occupiers of clothing factories (including those making footwear, buttons and hats) to ensure that the premises are registered as a clothing factory for purposes of inspection and for the enforcement of OSH requirements.
New South Wales Government Gazette, 21 Dec. 2001, No.196, p.10587-10595.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_reg/ohasfrr2001668/ [in English]
Garment manufacturing units
Talleres de confección [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in garment manufacturing units and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 37p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_017.pdf [in Spanish]
Hague J., Oxborrow L., McAtamney L.
Musculoskeletal disorders and work organisation in the European clothing industry
Occupations in the garment industry are recognized as being associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disease (MSD). For example, studies have shown that the work of a sewing machinist may involve repeating a work cycle 1,500 times a day and lifting 400kg of fabric. The European garment industry is highly fragmented, consisting of over 50,000 mostly small enterprises, which generally devote few resources to training. This report offers a comprehensive review of existing scientific knowledge related to MSD in the garment industry. It also examines organizational changes in the sector and their impact on occupational safety and health. It presents practical examples of how approaches based on worker participation have addressed MSD problems in different workplaces across Europe. Finally, it emphasizes the importance of developing industry-based approaches.
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), 5 bd du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2001. 91p. Illus. 155 ref.
Labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries
Les pratiques de travail dans les industries de la chaussure, du cuir, des textiles et de l'habillement [in French]
Las prácticas laborales de las industrias del calzado, el cuero, los textiles y el vestido [in Spanish]
In November 1998, the Governing Body of the International Labour Office decided to organize a tripartite meeting on labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries. It invited 20 countries to participate in a meeting aimed at exchanging views on labour practices in the footwear, leather, textiles and clothing industries, using this report prepared by the Office as the basis for its discussions. The Meeting, which took place in Geneva in October 2000, adopted conclusions that included proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level, and by the ILO.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 20.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf [in English]
Homeworkers - Towards improving their working conditions in the textile, clothing and footwear industries
Home work is growing in importance in the textile, clothing and footwear (TCF) industries. A first part of this report gives a broad outline of the conditions of work among home workers in these industries, highlighting their problems. Contents: globalization of home work; definition of home work in the TCF industries; regional trends in industrialized counties; role of home work in subcontracting schemes; recent trends in OECD countries, in Latin America and in Asia; statistical data; competitive advantages of home work; socio-economic profile of home workers; advantages of home work for the worker; remuneration; hours of work and insecurity of employment. A second part of the report reviews national and multilateral efforts aimed at promoting equality of treatment and improving working conditions of home workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. ix, 312p.
Marcelloni A.M., Panebianco A., Plebani C., Salerno A., Tranfo G., Gabrielli P., Zanin T.
Occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide: Complementary use of biological and environmental monitoring
Esposizione professionale ad N,N,-dimetilformammide: complementarità del monitoraggio biologico ed ambientale [in Italian]
Exposure evaluation of N,N,-dimethylformamide (DMF), used as a solvent in the garment industry. Monitoring of air contamination by DMF and urine monitoring of one of the DMF metabolites (NMF) have also been performed. Results indicate that workers are exposed to dermal and inhalation absorption of DMF, which might be responsible of gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.115-117. 5 ref.
Świderski J., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in garment manufacturing workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach produkcji odzieży - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in garment manufacturing workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998. 22+33p. 54+55 ref.
Improving working conditions and productivity in the garment industry - An action manual
Topics: check lists; clothing industry; conditions of work; handling and storage; ILO; lighting; machinery; manual handling; natural ventilation; preventive maintenance; sewing; small enterprises; thermal environment; training manuals; training material; welfare facilities; work efficiency; work organization; work posture; workers participation; workplace design.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. x, 165p. Illus. Price: CHF 30.00.
The thread of life: Hazards in the textile, garment and leather industry
Le fil de la vie: les risques dans l'industrie textile, de l'habillement et du cuir [in French]
El hilo de la vida. Riesgos en las industrias textil, del vestido y de la piel [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical hazards; child labour; clothing industry; electricity; leather and fur industries; leather goods industry; mechanical hazards; physical hazards; safety films; textile industry; textile machines and processes; videotape; women.
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation, 8 rue Joseph Stevens, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1998. VHS videotape (length = 35 min). ###
Work improvement in small enterprises for garment manufacturing - Action manual
Topics: check lists; clothing industry; conditions of work; dangerous substances; lighting; safe working methods; small enterprises; training manuals; training material; welfare facilities; work organization; workplace design.
Bureau of Working Conditions, Department of Labor and Employment, Quezon City 1104, Philippines, May 1997. 109p. Illus.
Herbert R., Plattus B., Kellogg L., Luo J., Marcus M., Mascolo A., Landrigan P.J.
The Union Health Center: A working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services
Topics: clothing industry; medical supervision; occupational diseases; occupational medicine; plant health services; programme evaluation; role of workers organizations; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.31, No.3, p.263-273. 31 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Chain mail and other cut resistant gloves as protection against powered blades in clothing factories
A powered circular blade cut test was developed to simulate the effects of a severe accident with a typical cloth cutting device. The test was used to compare the cut resistance of a range of protective gloves. Chain mail gloves provided a significantly higher level of protection against mechanically driven blades than the other products investigated. Knitted aramid, steel reinforced knitted aramid, leather and aramid reinforced leather, and rubber coated knitted cotton gloves all provided negligible protection. The test apparatus and procedure are described and standard cut resistance tests are reviewed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 26p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Adjusting for the healthy worker selection effect in cross-sectional studies
In this cross-sectional study of musculoskeletal disorders, women employed in highly repetitive manual work (garment assembly) were found to have approximately double the risk observed in a population with more varied tasks (hospital work). The relative risk for garment work increased over the 20-year period preceding the year of the survey. The trend was not explained by age or length of employment, or by any known changes in work demands. In the absence of longitudinal cohort data, alternative explanations (the most plausible of which is the healthy worker effect) for these results cannot be excluded.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Oct. 1996, Vol.25, No.5, p.1068-1076. Illus. 24 ref.
Textile and clothing industry
Tekstil- og beklædningsindustri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish textile and clothing industry. The industry is characterized by the handling and treating of textile and leather. It includes 37 different occupations with a total of 30,000 employees. The main problems are: strain injuries, exposure to chemicals and noise. Monotonous work in combination with an accelerated work rate seems to be very common. Exposure to dust, solvents, respiratory irritants and formaldehyde is the most common chemical factor. Another widespread factor is psychological effects. The incidence of reported sickness due to the working environment is high. Ready-made clothing factories, which include 1/3 of the employees in the industry, report most of such sicknesses but tanneries, cotton-mills, weaving mills and the clothing industry seem to be the most exposed occupations considering the number of employees.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 69p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Cole B., Foley G.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries. Issue No.5 - Clothing and footwear industry
This report highlights potential safety and health problem areas in the Australian clothing and footwear industry. The statistics of injury and disease are based on workers' compensation data and are analyzed by occupation, age group, sex, the nature, bodily location, mechanism and agency of the injury or disease and by time of accident. Data on compensation costs by State and Territory are included. Areas of concern are machine operations, muscular stress during manual handling, falls associated with hazardous indoor traffic areas and noise.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, May 1995. viii, 26p. Illus. 6 ref.
The ready-to-wear garment trades in Paris
Les métiers parisiens de la confection [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to ready-to-wear dress makers (cutters, machine operators, pressers, particularly those in the Paris area): definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases (musculoskeletal and cardiovascular problems) and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures, specific first-aid measures - mostly relating to hand injuries); regulations applicable in France. Final remarks: it is the role of the occupational physician to provide guidance on the ergonomic layout of workplaces and the improvement of the thermal environment of ironing workers; it is also his/her responsibility to increase safety consciousness among cutters and machine operators, and to educate workers in proper handling techniques.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1994, Vol.34, No.2. Insert.
Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2: Particular requirements for sewing machines
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les machines à coudre [in French]
This standard deals with the safety of electric sewing machines for household and similar use, their rated voltage being not more than 250V for single-phase appliances and 480V for other appliances. Sewing machines intended to be used by non-professionals in shops and in light industry are within the scope of this standard.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 1994. 21p. Illus.
Andersen J.H., Gaardboe O.
Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and upper limb among sewing machine operators: A clinical investigation
Results of a clinical study of an age-stratified random sample of 82 sewing machine operators and 25 controls (auxiliary nurses and home helpers). Four groups, according to years of being a sewing machine operator, consisted of: (controls) 25; (0-7 years) 21; (8-15 years) 25; and (more than 15 years) 36. The numbers of the main clinical diagnoses in the four groups were: cervicobrachial fibromyalgia (myofascial pain syndrome) 2, 4, 11, 24; cervical syndrome 0, 1, 3, 10; and rotator cuff syndrome 1, 1, 6, 11. The observed exposure-response relationship between clinical outcomes and years as a sewing machine operator was maintained when adjusting for current exposure musculoskeletal strain and other potential confounders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.689-700. Illus. 10 ref.
Andersen J.H., Gaardboe O.
Prevalence of persistent neck and upper limb pain in a historical cohort of sewing machine operators
424 sewing machine operators from a historical cohort of garment industry workers answered questionnaires concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and job exposure. They were compared with 781 women from the general population of the region and an internal control group of 89 women from the garment industry. The risk for persistent neck and shoulder complaints increased with years of being a sewing machine operator: (up to 7 years, 8-15 years, and more than 15 years: prevalence proportion ratio 1.8, 3.5 and 4.4 [neck] and 1.5, 4 and 6.8 [shoulder] compared with the controls [n=781]). The exposure-response relationships remained when adjusted for potential confounders, of which age, current shoulder-neck exposure, and child bearing were the most contributing. The study revealed that work for more than eight years as a sewing machine operator probably has a cumulative deleterious effect on the neck and shoulders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.677-687. 13 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances des 13 octobre, 10 novembre, 8 décembre 1992 et 12 janvier 1993 [in French]
Themes of papers presented at the meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France): the clothing industry in the centre of Paris (recommendation to include arthrosis of the navicular bone of the hand in the French Schedule as an occupational disease among garment-cutters); protection of garbage workers against risks due to medical refuse present in domestic waste; occupational lead poisoning in connection with the renovation of an older building; cholinesterases: value of isolated variations of their levels; one case of thallium poisoning in a mineralogy laboratory; a case of chronic transfusion hepatitis affecting a nurse; occupational stress: in-plant experimental approach; sleep apnoea and aptitude to work in fire brigades; comments on the Decree of 29 May 1992 pertaining to the prohibition of smoking at work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.587-606.
The textiles and clothing industry
Tekstil- og beklædningsindustri [in Danish]
Volume No.8 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. The occupational safety and health problems in the textiles and clothing industry sector are mainly repetitive work, and exposure to chemical substances, dust and noise. Most of the diseases in this sector are those affecting hearing, the skin, the respiratory system, the brain and the musculoskeletal system.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 66p. 33 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Folding, cutting and sewing machines - Safety regulations and enforcement rules [Germany]
Lege-, Zuschneide- und Nähmaschinen - VBG und Durchführungsanweisungen [in German]
The regulations deal with machines used to work flat and flexible materials but do not cover machines for leather or paper, shoemaking, and band-knife cutting machines with automatic feed. General provisions pertain to construction and operation; special requirements apply to various categories of machines. The rules provide additional information and refer to the relevant standards in force.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1993. 18p. + 14p.
Vezina N., Tierney D., Messing K.
When is light work heavy? Components of the physical workload of sewing machine operators working at piecework rates
An ergonomic technique for assessing the physical workload of sewing machine operators is described. The work activity of ten workers in a trouser factory was observed and timed and forces were measured with a dynamometer. Components of the workload (force exerted, repetitions, time allocation and postures) could be related to types of reported musculoskeletal complaints and to existing epidemiological data. This type of examination may be applied by health and safety personnel in the design of tasks to minimize the probability of musculoskeletal problems.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1992, Vol.23, No.4, p.268-276. Illus. 27 ref.
Aberer W., Kager B., Ziegler V., Horak F.
Rhinitis caused by tailor's chalk - Allergy, pseudo-allergy, rhinopathy, or imagination?
Schnupfen durch Schneiderkreide - Allergie, Pseudoallergie, Rhinopathie oder Einbildung? [in German]
Benzoic acid contained in tailor's chalk was identified as the cause of nasal hyperreactivity among the students of a fashion school. This result was obtained by interviewing the manufacturer of the chalk and the 87 students of the school subsequent to the complaints. In addition, provocation tests with healthy volunteers were conducted. Benzoic acid is added to chalk to facilitate its removal from clothes during ironing.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Nov.-Dec. 1992, Vol.40, No.6, p.231-234. 8 ref.
Reiche K., Müller C., Börngen K.
Partial reversibility of morphological and functional changes of the nasal mucosa after termination of long-term exposure to formaldehyde
Partielle Reversibilität der morphologischen und funktionellen Veränderungen der Nasenschleimhaut nach Beendigung langjähriger Exposition gegenüber Formaldehyd [in German]
In comparison to a non-exposed control group, mucociliary clearance was impaired in 50% and olfactory function in about 30% of 18 workers in a felt manufacturing plant. The workers had been exposed to formaldehyde for an average of 11.3 years. Reexamination of 6 workers 1 year after termination of the exposure to formaldehyde yielded evidence of metaplastic changes returning to normal.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1992, Vol.42, No.5, p.182-186. Illus. 16 ref.
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