Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found
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Birk T., Guldner K., Mundt K.A., Dahmann D., Adams R.C., Parsons W.
Quantitative crystalline silica exposure assessment for a historical cohort epidemiologic study in the German porcelain industry
A time-dependent quantitative exposure assessment of silica exposure among nearly 18,000 German porcelain workers was conducted. Over 8000 historical industrial hygiene (IH) measurements with original sampling and analysis protocols from 1954-2006 were obtained from the German ceramics industry association and used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM). Average silica concentrations were derived for six primary similar exposure groups for 1938-2006. Over 40% of the cohort accumulated <0.5 mg; just over one-third accumulated >1 mg/m3-years. Nearly 5000 workers had cumulative crystalline silica estimates >1.5 mg/m3-years. Similar numbers of men and women fell into each cumulative exposure category, except for 1113 women and 1567 men in the highest category. Over half of those hired before 1960 accumulated >3 mg/m3-years crystalline silica compared with 4.9% of those hired after 1960. Among those ever working in the materials preparation area, half accumulated >3 mg/m3-year compared with 12% of those never working in this area. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.516-528. Illus. 31 ref.
Prevention of exposure to alveolar crystalline silica
Prévenir l'exposition à la silice cristalline alvéolaire [in French]
This article presents the objectives and activities of the NEPSI platform (French acronym for European Network on Silica), a European project on the control of exposure to alveolar crystalline silica. This platform is the result of an agreement between European representatives of industries using crystalline silica, namely the aggregates, cement, ceramics, foundry, glass fibre, special glass, container glass, flat glass, industrial minerals, mineral wool, natural stones, mining, mortar, pre-cast concrete and clay sectors. NEPSI has developed a guide to safe work practices and ensures that it is duly applied by the signatories of the agreement.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2010, p.10-12. Illus.
Lipworth L., La Vecchia C., Bosetti C., McLaughlin J.K.
Occupational exposure to rock wool and glass wool and risk of cancers of the lung and the head and neck: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The objective of this literature survey and meta-analysis was to conduct a review of risks of cancers of the lung and head and neck (HN) from exposure to rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW) among workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs). Despite a small elevation in RR for lung cancer among MMVF production workers, the lack of excess risk among end users, the absence of any dose-risk relation, the likelihood of detection bias, and the potential for residual confounding by smoking and asbestos exposure argue against a carcinogenic effect of MMVF, RW, or GW at this time. Similar conclusions apply to HN cancer risk among workers exposed to MMVF.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.51, No.9, p.1075-1085. Illus. 55 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_rock_wool_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Alcaíno Lara J., eds.
The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Manufacture of ceramics
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición a sílice - Fábrica de cerámicas [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica applied to the manufacture of ceramics. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; unloading and storage; grinding and mixing; moulding; polishing; transport; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2009, 43p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Fábrica_de_cerámicas_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]
Alcaíno Lara J., eds.
The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Tile manufacture
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición a sílice - Fábrica de baldosas [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica in the manufacture of tiles. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; unloading and storage; material and pigment mixing; moulding; polishing; drying; transport; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2009, 43p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Fábrica_de_baldosas_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Easterbrook A., Brough P.
Health and Safety Executive
Silica baseline survey
The overall objective of this project was to establish employee exposures and the control of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in four United Kingdom sectors: brick and tile manufacture, stonemasonry, quarrying and construction. More specifically, the objectives were: to establish whether engineering controls and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) were adequate to reduce exposures below the workplace exposure limit (WEL) for RCS; to assess the reliability of the exposure controls; to identify common causes of failures of exposure controls; to provide data against which the effect of HSE interventions could be assessed in future. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 59p. 17 ref.
RR_689.pdf [in English]
Birk T., Mundt K.A., Guldner K., Parsons W., Luippold R.S.
Mortality in the German porcelain industry 1985-2005: First results of an epidemiological cohort study
The objective of this study was to evaluate mortality among German porcelain production workers potentially exposed to crystalline silica. Participants were the 17,644 workers during 1985-1987, who were followed until 2005. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for various causes. Women (SMR 0.85), but not men, demonstrated a healthy worker effect. Mortality was increased from silicosis (SMR 7.20) liver (SMR 1.99) and pancreatic (SMR 1.71) cancers among men, and diabetes among women (SMR 1.74). However, associations reported in previous studies between crystalline silica exposure and lung cancer, renal cancer and non-malignant renal diseases were not found.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.373-385. Illus. 37 ref.
Chen L., Ramsey J., Brueck S.E.
Evaluation of exposures at a pottery shop
In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) from the management of a pottery shop. Although no health symptoms were reported, management was concerned about the potential for employees' long-term exposure to a variety of substances while performing duties at the pottery shop. Exposures of concern included silica from the clay mixing process, elements from mixing dry materials used in the glazes, and volatile organic compounds and gases during kiln firing. Because management requires the use of respirators during clay and glaze mixing, they also requested information on proper respirator use and maintenance. NIOSH staff toured the facility to review work processes, collected personal breathing zone, and area and wipe samples. An ergonomic evaluation of the work processes was also performed. Recommendations include improvements to the ventilation systems, implementing a formal respirator programme, implementing a safety and health training programme, adopting preventive maintenance for the forklift truck and keeping loading dock doors open while using the forklift to prevent the build-up of carbon monoxide.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug 2008. vi, 31p. Illus. 17 ref.
HETA_2007-0127-3068.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Glass recycling - Noise exposure from simulated roadside collection of recyclable glass - Follow-up measurements
This report describes the results of trials carried out relating to the noise exposure of workers engaged in roadside collection of glass for recycling. Previous tests under controlled conditions had established the dominant sources of noise when glass is collected into metal troughs on a roadside collection vehicle, and identified working factors likely to affect noise exposure. The trials described here were carried out to assess the effect of modifications to the design of the troughs on the noise levels produced. Results show that lining collection troughs with a suitable resilient material, and providing a flap to partially cover the opening of the trough, can significantly reduce the noise levels produced compared to a standard metal trough. Within the context of the reductions in noise that have been shown, working factors such as the speed and method of depositing glass in to the collection troughs remain a factor in the noise levels produced, with rapid depositing producing the highest noise levels and also preventing the full benefits of the modifications to the collection trough being realized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 43p. Illus. 5 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_651.pdf [in English]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Glas und Keramik" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Automatic production of hollow glass
Maschinelle Hohlglasherstellung [in German]
This code of practice addresses the hazard evaluation procedure and provides a list of hazards encountered at the feeder, press or blow machine used in the production of hollow glass and at the conveyor belts for the transport of the hot hollow glass products. Included in the hazard list are mechanical, physical and electrical hazards, hazards caused by the exposure to harmful substances and fire and explosion hazards. Protective measures against the mentioned hazards are specified.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2006. 51p. Price: EUR 7.80.
http://www.arbeitssicherheit.de/servlet/PB/show/1224530/bgr230.pdf [in German]
Occupational safety and health in action. Jewellery: Production and sales
La prévention en action. Les bijouteries: fabrication-vente [in French]
The purpose of this booklet is to offer guidance for the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in the jewellery manufacturing and sales sector. It is aimed at the heads of establishments as well as at workers and their representatives. It addresses the five steps of the prevention approach: preparation; hazard evaluation; definition of the action plan; implementation of the action plan; evaluation of the approach. Appendices include the main French laws and regulations, together with examples of a hazard evaluation checklist and a preventive action programme.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Jun. 2006. 36p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19042.PDF [in French]
Silva F., Campante H., Marques J., Baio Dias A.
Pottery, brick and tile industry - Sanitary ware and tile subsector - Safety manual
Indústria cerâmica - Subsector de cerâmica de acabamentos - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual describes the potential safety and health hazards inherent in each stage of the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles and sanitary ware together with the corresponding preventive measures.
Instituto para a Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho (ISHST), Rua Barata Salgueiro, 37, 5° 1250-042 Lisboa, Portugal, May 2005. 196p. Illus. 9 ref.
Silva F., Campante H., Marques J., Baio Dias A.
Pottery, brick and tile industry - Dishware and decorative chinaware industry subsector - Safety manual
Indústria cerâmica - Subsector de louça cerâmica utilitária e decorativa - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual on the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards in the dishware and chinaware industry describes the hazards that are inherent in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing processes, particularly for chinaware, stoneware and earthenware, together with the corresponding preventive measures.
Instituto para a Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho (ISHST), Rua Barata Salgueiro, 37, 5° 1250-042 Lisboa, Portugal, May 2005. 144p. Illus. 9 ref.
Chen W., Hnizdo E., Chen J.Q., Attfield M.D., Gao P., Hearl F., Lu J., Wallace W.E.
Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners, and pottery workers (I): An epidemiological study
This study examined the risk of silicosis among male cohorts of silica dust-exposed Chinese tin miners, tungsten miners and pottery workers and assessed whether gravimetric measurements of respirable silica dust sufficiently determine the risk of silicosis or whether other factors of exposure may play a significant role. Cohorts were selected from 20 mines and potteries. The cohorts included 4,028 tin miners, 14,427 tungsten miners and 4,547 pottery workers who had similar onset of employment and duration of follow-up. For a given exposure level, the risk of silicosis was higher for the tin and tungsten miners than for the pottery workers. The observed differences in the risk of silicosis among the three cohorts suggest that silica dust characteristics, in addition to cumulative respirable silica dust exposure, may affect the risk of silicosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 21 ref.
Masilla J.C., Ynoñan García P.
A global exploitative chain: The case of women making gold chains
Una cadena global de explotación: caso de las trabajadoras tejedoras de cadenitas de oro [in Spanish]
The aim of this document is to highlight the work of women in the Peruvian jewellery sector and in particular to analyse the conditions of work among women producing chains at home, a type of work requiring dexterity and fine fingers, which is why it is exclusively assigned to women. The document comprises two parts. A first part presents a brief overview of the Peruvian economy and the promotion of jewellery exports, followed by a description of the jewellery tasks carried out by the women, together with the main aspects of Peruvian labour legislation. The second part seeks to shed light on the real situation and the precarious nature of the work of women who make chains at home. It examines in particular the characteristics of this worker population, their conditions of work and the consequences of this work on their health.
Instituto de salud y trabajo (ISAT), Av. Almado Márquez 1875, Jesus María, Lima, Peru, 2004. 59p. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.ila.org.pe/publicaciones/docs/cadenitas_de_oro.pdf [in Spanish]
Mortality and cancer incidence in a Swedish art glassworks - An updated cohort study
Mortality and cancer incidence in a Swedish art glassworks was studied in a cohort of 1229 workers employed between 1964 and 1997. The observed number of cases was compared with expected numbers based on national rates for mortality and cancer incidence. Statistically-significant risks were found for colon and rectum cancer among men (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.92, 14 cases) and for cancer in the liver and bile ducts among refinement workers (SIR 3.96, two male and two female cases). Most of the causes of death associated with an elevated standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the 1985 cohort resulted in lower SMRs in this updated cohort, possibly as a result of preventive actions taken at the glassworks. On the other hand, the risk for cancers in the digestive system seems to remain, perhaps due to past asbestos exposure or to the inhalation or ingestion of larger particles in the ambient air.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.599-603. 9 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/9mkkh1tacee6qf23/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Occupational hazard prevention awareness spots
Spots de sensibilisation sur la prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
DVD containing video clips on various occupational safety and health topics that were shown on television in Tunisia as part of an awareness programme. Topics covered include: glass works; occupational medicine; scaffolds and railings; use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene in pesticide spraying operations; prevention of occupational hazards on trawlers.
Ministère des affaires sociales et de la solidarité, Institut de santé et de sécurité du travail, 5 bd. M. Khaznadar, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, [c2004]. DVD containing video clips.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of electric kilns in craft and education
This information note gives advice on the safe use of electric kilns in the craft and education sectors. Topics covered: legal requirements; hazards from electrical kilns; requirements for the location and installation of the kiln; electrical safety; safe operation; kiln maintenance; precautions to be taken with refractory ceramic fibre linings (carcinogens); control of fumes; manual handling of the ware being fired.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2003. 4p. 20 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ceis3.pdf [in English]
da Cruz Lima M.E., de Fátima Silva M.
Chemical hazards in the ceramics industry
Riscos químicos na indústria cerâmica [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, explains how to avoid or reduce chemical hazards in the ceramics industry. Contents: main chemical hazards in the ceramics industry; occupational accidents and diseases (intoxication, chemical burns or pulmonary oedema due to hydrofluoric acid, asbestosis, silicosis, lung and nasal cavity cancer, contact dermatitis, lead poisoning, chronic arsenic poisoning); prevention and protective measures (technical prevention, medical supervision, safety and health training); current legislation.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Oct. 2003. 48p. Illus.
Başaran N., Shubair M., Ündeğer Ü., Kars A.
Monitoring DNA damage in foundry and pottery workers exposed to silica by the alkaline comet assay
Workers in the foundry and pottery industries are exposed to a mixture of chemicals including silica, a substance widely suspected of causing genetic alterations. To investigate the potential hazard associated with the occupational exposure to silica, DNA damages in the peripheral lymphocytes of 30 foundry and 22 pottery workers were examined using the alkaline gel electrophoresis or comet assay method, and compared with 52 healthy subjects with no history of occupational exposure to silica or other chemicals. The DNA damage observed in the lymphocytes of both foundry and pottery workers was significantly higher than that among controls. DNA damage was also caused by cigarette smoking, since the damage observed in smoking silica-exposed workers compared with the non-smoking workers was significantly higher.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.602-610. 43 ref.
Working under extreme heat conditions
Travailler dans une chaleur extrême [in French]
This study of heat stress during the maintenance and repair of glass furnaces was carried out after several workers of a glass products manufacturer presented physical disorders (headaches and muscle cramps) following long and repetitive work at the furnaces. Internal heat load during work was determined by measuring pulse rate, body-core temperature and weight loss. External load was determined by measuring WGBT values and noiseand lighting levels. Results indicate that cardiac load limits were clearly exceeded (CLV>100%). Water losses were close to the limit values specified by the WHO, namely 5L per daily period of work. WBGT values ranged between 38.1 and 49.1°C (the legal limit value is 25°C). During certain tasks using pneumatic picks, noise values between 98 and 101db(A) were recorded. In certain cases, the lighting level was below the required minimum of 100lux. Furthermore, certain postures adopted by workers increase the risk of overload of the back and upper extremities. Several recommendations are made based on these findings.
Travail et bien-être, Dec. 2002, Vol.5, No.5, p.11-14. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Priorities for health and safety in the glass industries
This information sheet identifies the major causes of accidents and ill health in the glass industries and contains information enabling employers to carry out a risk assessment, identify priorities for action and benchmark their safety and health performance with that of the rest of the industry. Contents: revitalizing health and safety in the glass industry; main causes of injury; significant accident factors and priorities for action; ill health factors and priorities for action.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 4p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/gis1.pdf [in English]
Fernández García G., García Menéndez R., Ganga Alonso A.
Possibility of replacing hazardous raw materials by less hazardous substances in the production process
Posibilidad de sustitución de materias primas peligrosas por otras que entrañen menor peligro en el proceso productivo [in Spanish]
The industrial production of pottery decorated using silk-screen printing techniques requires the use of synthetic pigments, most of which represent a hazard to workers' health due to their physical and chemical properties (instability at high temperatures) and their toxicology. Consequently, these cadmium- or lead-based pigments need to be replaced by less harmful products, in particular to prevent the risk of lead poisoning. The pigments industry has developed several low-toxicity products. A test was carried out with new low-toxicity red pigments in order to determine their high-temperature stability and to compare their shades with those of red pigments used until now. It was found that these new pigments exhibit comparable shades while at the same time having lower toxicities and lower costs of production than pigments in current use.
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.85, p.17-23. Illus. 8 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Worker's magazine: Accidents linked to pesticides (modules 1 and 2) - Manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly areas - Manual Harvesting of sugar cane - Work in potteries - Peroxydizable substances - Forestry work - Benzene - Agricultural tractors - Cashew nuts
Revista do trabalhador: Acidentes com agrotóxicos (Módulos 1 e 2) - Corte manual de cana em região amorrada - Corte manual de cana-de-açúcar - Trabalho em olarias - Substâncias peroxidáveis - Trabalhos na atividade florestal - Benzeno - Tratores agrícolas - Castanha de caju [in Portuguese]
These ten tapes are part of a collection entitled "Worker's magazine" published by the Fundacentro covering various occupational safety and health issues related to pesticides and other chemicals, as well as other agriculture and forestry-related activities. Topics covered: accidents due to pesticides (prevention of hazards among users and during production, and interviews of researchers and managers of occupational safety and health institutions, two cassettes); manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly regions; manual harvesting of sugar cane; work in potteries; peroxydizable substances; forestry work; benzene; tractors used in agriculture; cashew nut industry.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, no date. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 17min 50sec; 17min 11sec; 13min 42sec; 14min 31sec; 16min 13sec; 12min 46sec; 14min 05sec; 18min 52sec, 13min 20sec; 12min 45sec. Price: BRL 20.00 (each tape).
Brodkin C.A., Moon J.M., Camp J., Echeverria D., Redlich C.A., Willson R.A., Checkoway H.
Serum hepatic biochemical activity in two populations of workers exposed to styrene
Two independent cross sectional studies were performed in the state of Washington (USA) comparing serum hepatic transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), cholestatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)), and bilirubin in 47 workers of glass-fibre reinforced plastics who were exposed to styrene, as well as to 21 boat and tank fabricators, with separate referent groups of unexposed workers. Exposure to styrene was assessed in air by dosimetry, and in venous blood by headspace gas chromatography. A significant relationship between direct bilirubin and direct to total bilirubin ratio, and exposure to styrene was observed, by both air and blood monitoring, providing evidence for diminished hepatic clearance of conjugated bilirubin with associated cholestasis in workers exposed to styrene. Also, a significant linear association between the hepatic transaminases ALT and AST and exposure to styrene was found in regression analyses, consistent with mild hepatic injury and associated metabolic dysfunction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.95-102. Illus. 41 ref.
Zhuang Z., Hearl F.J., Odencrantz J., Chen W., Chen B.T., Chen J.Q., McCawley M.A., Gao P., Soderholm S.C.
Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin and tungsten miners
The development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers are described. Ambient total dust concentrations and crystalline silica concentrations in bulk dust were gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, airborne dust samples were collected in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and total dust concentrations. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron and copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry-wide conversion factors, or a weighted average of the two are discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.8, p.631-642. Illus. 26 ref.
Montero Simó R.
Hygiene hazards in the jewellery sector
Riesgos higiénicos en el sector de la joyería [in Spanish]
This article describes the steps involved in the manufacturing of precious-metal or costume jewellery and the chemicals used (metals in powder form, smoke and aerosols, acid salts and alkalis). The measures to be taken to limit exposure risks are described. Health hazards linked to chemicals used in jewellery manufacture are summarized in tabular form. Tables presenting threshold limit values for metals and chemicals used in jewellery manufacture are also included.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2001, No.12, p.18-24; 37-39. Illus. 15 ref.
Gao P., Chen B.T., Hearl F.J., McCawley M.A., Schwerha D.J., Odenkrantz J., Chen W., Chen J., Soderholm S.C.
Estimating factors to convert Chinese "total dust" measurements to ACGIH respirable concentrations in metal mines and pottery industries
Historical data on the dust exposures of Chinese workers in mining and pottery industries are being used in an ongoing epidemiological study to investigate the exposure-response relationship for silicosis, lung cancer and other diseases. Total particle concentrations were determined by a Chinese method, which does not provide data on particle size distribution. Therefore, in order to assess these exposures in light of American respirable dust exposure standards, conversion factors are needed to convert total dust concentrations to respirable dust concentrations. In order to estimate these factors, more than 100 airborne dust samples were collected in 20 mines and nine pottery factories in China during 1988 and 1989. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, a mean conversion factor of 0.25±0.04, was derived for all the job titles and industries, enabling respirable dust levels to be estimated from the historical total dust concentrations collected between 1952 and 1992.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2000, Vol.44, No.4, p.251-257. Illus. 13 ref.
Sisto R., Pinto I., Stacchini N., Giuliani F.
Infrared radiation exposure in traditional glass factories
A simple method for the evaluation of exposure to infrared radiation (IR-A, IR-B, IR-C) from high temperature (>1000°C) sources using a luxometric or a near-IR detector is presented. The method uses the universality of the Planck formula for the black body spectrum, which allows estimation of the radiated power in any wavelength range by measuring the power radiated in another range. This capability may be very useful when the range of interest is one in which radiometers are expensive and difficult to calibrate, as for the IR-B and IR-C ranges, because a more commonly available luxometer can be used instead. The method was applied to evaluate radiation in two traditional Italian glass factories. Intense exposures in the IR-B and IR-C ranges were found for some workers, exceeding the ACGIH limits by a large factor. This exposure must be reduced, as epidemiological studies confirm the existence of a correlation between cataractogenesis and work with fused glass and metals.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.5-10. Illus. 10 ref.
Srivastava A., Kumar R., Joseph E., Kumar A.
Heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass manufacturing unit in India
The heat exposure of workers in coastal areas of tropical countries such as India can have important consequences on productivity and product quality. The hot climate exacerbates the heat exposure close to sources like furnaces. In the present study, heat exposure to workers in glass manufacturing units in a coastal region of India have been assessed. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), the Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) were measured. The WBGT values much exceeded the threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Recommendations are made with respect to work and rest periods for hot workplaces suited to tropical conditions. Certain aspects of the AGCIH standard also need to be adapted to suit tropical conditions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 3 ref.
Sanz-Gallén P., Ribas Deix O., Nogué Xarau S.
Main toxicological hazards in the ceramic, glass, wood and tanning and fur industries
Principales riesgos toxicológicos de las industrias: cerámica, del vidrio, madera, y curtido y peletería [in Spanish]
The main hazards facing various industries are reviewed. In the brick and tile industry, components of clays and varnishes and kiln emissions give rise in particular to lung diseases, dermatitis and lead or arsenic poisoning. Health hazards in the glass industry include silicosis, asbestosis, burns and acute lung oedema, lung or nasal cavity cancer, contact dermatitis and poisoning (from lead, other metals and arsenic). In woodworking, wood dust, wood preservatives, varnishes and resins can give rise to contact dermatitis, respiratory diseases whether allergic or not, conjunctivitis and rhinitis, and lung, nasal cavity or scrotum cancers. In the tanning and fur industries, the hazards result primarily from exposure to mineral, vegetal or synthetic tannins which can give rise to contact dermatitis, perforation of the nasal septum, respiratory diseases or neoplasms of the nasal cavities, the lungs and the bladder.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2000, No.153, p.40-47. Illus. 12 ref.
Taller de cerámica [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of possible hazards in ceramic workshops and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 49p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_014.pdf [in Spanish]
Mäittälä J., Pennanen S., Puputti M., Haapa K., Liesivuori J.
Occupational exposure to alkoxysilanes in a fibreglass manufacturing plant
To assess the exposure of workers to alkoxysilanes and to determine the main route of exposure during the manufacture of fibreglass, samples were taken from workers and their environment. The silane concentrations in the air samples were below the detection limit of the analytical methods used. The mean dermal exposure to 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane was analysed from cellulose patch samples as well as in handwash samples. The results showed that the workers were clearly exposed to silanes. The main route of potential exposure was through the skin, especially the hands, which emphasized the importance of wearing appropriate protective gloves. According to patch sampling, on average two thirds of the cases of total dermal exposure were caused by exposure of the forearm, as indicated by the amounts of silanes analysed in the forearm patches. Since almost every worker wore protective gloves, the main cause of exposure to silanes was from the wearing short-sleeved T-shirts which did not provide any protection to the arms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.539-545. 30 ref.
Montagnani R., De Merich D., Bavazzano P., Li Donni V., Bellussi A.L., Stradella G., Biondi S.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure in Murano craft shops producing handmade glass
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione lavorativo in aziende artigiane muranesi che producono vetro lavorato a mano [in Italian]
The manufacture of glass articles is heavily concentrated in Murano (Venice, Italy). 125 craftsmen working in 120 small enterprises were monitored for arsenic, antimony and cadmium in urine, and lead in blood. Against reference values from a non-exposed population, a significant proportion of the workers exhibited higher heavy metal levels. The persons most heavily exposed (the owners preparing the glass blends) were not available for the tests. Few companies have adequate local ventilation. However, with the introduction of glass beads (pioneered in Sweden) replacing the powdered ingredients, the substitution of arsenic by antimony, and the relatively low lead levels in Murano glass, exposure to harmful substances is being greatly reduced.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.151-156. Illus. 11 ref.
Montagnani R., De Merich D., Marinaro M., Sepulcri D., Scalet B.
Exposure to cerium oxide in the polishing of handmade glass
Esposizione ad ossido di cerio nella brillantatura del vetro lavorato a mano [in Italian]
Cases of pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis and dyspnoea have been recorded for workers using cerium oxide in manual glass polishing. Approx. 100 glass works in Murano (Venice, Italy) were studied with respect to the exposure of their workers to aerosols containing cerium oxide. Without local air exhaust, the ACGIH TLV/TWA of 10mg/m3 would be exceeded by a wide margin. Local aspiration was shown to reduce dust exposure by a factor of ten. Wet work does not provide sufficient protection, since fine powders (particles measuring 1-2µm) are particularly hard to wet.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.37-40. 11 ref.
Infra-red radiation and occupational cataracts
Topics: cataract; exposure evaluation; fuel burning equipment; glass industry; heat reflective glass; infrared radiation cataract; infrared radiation; iron and steel industry; limitation of exposure; retinal damage; risk factors; safety spectacles; tank furnaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1999, Vol.17, No.8, p.28-32. Illus. 8 ref.
Sali D., Boffetta P., Andersen A., Cherrie J.W., Chang Claude J., Hansen J., Olsen J.H., Pesatori A.C., Plato N., Teppo L., Westerholm P., Winter P., Saracci R.
Non-neoplastic mortality of European workers who produce man made vitreous fibres
Workers employed for at least 1 year in the production of rock or slag wool (RSW), glass wool (GW) and continuous filament (CF) were followed up from the beginning of production, between 1933 and 1950 to 1990-2, and contributed 256,352 person-years of observation. Mortality from bronchitis, emphysema and asthma was not increased. In RSW workers, there was no overall increase in mortality from non-malignant renal diseases, although there was the suggestion of an increase in risk with duration of employment. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease was not increased overall, but RSW and CF workers with ≥30 years since first employment had a higher risk. RSW and CF workers showed an increased mortality from external causes, mainly motor vehicle accidents and suicide, which was higher among workers with a short duration of employment. Mortality from most non-neoplastic diseases does not seem to be related to employment in the MMVF industry. The results on mortality from ischaemic heart disease and non-malignant renal diseases, however, warrant further investigations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.612-617. 27 ref.
Rapiti E., Sperati A., Miceli M., Forastiere F., Di Lallo D., Cavariani F., Goldsmith D.F., Perucci C.A.
End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica
To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease, a cohort of 2,980 male ceramic workers was enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data and X-ray film readings were available. Vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2,820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as of June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. A total of 6 cases was detected when 1.87 were expected. The excess risk was present among non-smokers and smokers, as well as among workers without silicosis and workers with silicoses. The risk was higher among subjects with <20 years since first employment than among those employed >20 years. These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.559-561. 28 ref.
Carelli G., Masci O., Altieri A., Castellino N.
Occupational exposure to lead - Granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment
The Permissible Exposure Limit for lead of 50µg/m3 set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is based on a number of assumptions, including that which predicts that the first 12.5µg/m3 are made up of fine particles of less than 1µm diameter and the remaining 12.5mgg/m3 consist of particles >1µm. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50µg/m3 and a granulometric distribution as above leads to a mean blood level of 40µg/m3. The validity of OSHA's assumption was tested in a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. Results indicate that the assumption cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study and that lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. It is therefore essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.
Industrial Health, July 1999, Vol.37, No.3, p.313-321. Illus. 18 ref.
Chiazze L., Watkins D.K., Fryar C., Fayerweather W., Bender J.R., Chiazze M.
Mortality from nephritis and nephrosis in the fibreglass manufacturing industry
The possible association between exposure to silica or respirable glass fibre and mortality from nephritis or nephrosis was investigated among workers in fibrous glass wool manufacturing facilities. There is no consistent relation between respirable fibres or respirable silica and nephritis or nephrosis when the analysis is based either on underlying cause only or on underlying plus contributing cause of death. None of the socio-demographic variables considered suggests an increased risk when considering both underlying and contributing cause of death. Data would seem to support the contention that the most accurate picture of renal disease will be gained from the use of all information on the death certificates and not only the underlying cause. Although results do not prove that there is no association between nephritis and nephrosis and exposure to fibreglass or silica in the fibreglass manufacturing environment, they do not support the assertion that such an association exists. Topics: silica; case-control study; fibrous glass industry; glass fibre; mortality; nephritis; nephrosis; renal diseases; respirable dust; statistical evaluation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.164-166. 8 ref.
Development of an exposure matrix for respirable crystalline silica in the British pottery industry
Processes associated with occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica in the British pottery industry were investigated to develop estimates of worker exposures from 1930 to 1995. Information was derived from more than 1300 air samples, published literature and unpublished reports of dust control innovations and process changes. A matrix was developed specifically to support a mortality study of 5115 pottery workers in North Staffordshire, UK. Matrix values range from 2µg/m3 for pottery support activities performed in the 1990s to 800µg/m3 for firing activities in the 1930s. Although exposure estimates within particular decades varied, median concentrations for all process categories displayed an overall trend towards progressive reduction in exposure during the 65 year span. Potential methods to validate the matrix as well as sources of error are discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.209-217. Illus. 22 ref.
Bartoli D., Battista G., Bertoncini S., De Santis M., Giusti S., Orsi D., Pirastu R., Zingoni A., Valiani M.
Study of a cohort of art glass workers in the province of Empoli, Italy
Studio di coorte dei lavoratori del vetro artistico nel territorio empolese [in Italian]
Cause-specific mortality was investigated among a cohort of 3,390 art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Italy for at least one year. Separate analyses were carried out for the job titles of glass makers, batch mixers and grinders. Among the 3,180 male workers of the cohort in general, observed mortality was above expected for cancers of the lung, larynx, stomach and brain. For non-cancer causes, observed mortality was above expected for hypertensive diseases and diseases of the genitourinary system. These increases for the general cohort were also shown among the glass makers sub-group. Mortality from larynx and lung cancers increased with time since first exposure and significantly increased Standard Mortality Ratios were observed for 21 or more years since first exposure, with this pattern still present after adjustment for smoking. This consistently increased mortality applies to the overall cohort and glass makers. Topics: arts and crafts; brain cancer; cohort study; gastrointestinal cancer; genito-urinary system diseases; glass industry; hypertension; Italy; laryngeal cancer; lung cancer; mortality.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.424-436. 53 ref.
Gordon S.B., Curran A.D., Fishwick D., Morice A.H., Howard P.
Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle workers - Cough and airways irritancy syndrome?
In a study of a cohort of 69 glass bottle workers, symptoms, employment history and clinical investigations including radiology, spirometry and serial peak expiratory flow rate records were retrospectively analyzed from clinical records. The results showed a consistent syndrome of work-related eye, nose and throat irritation followed after a variable period by shortness of breath. The latent interval between starting work and first developing symptoms was typically 4 years. The interval preceding the development of dyspnoea was longer and much more variable. Spirometry was not markedly abnormal in the group, but 57% of workers had abnormal serial peak expiratory flow rate charts. Workers in this industry experience upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms consistent with irritant exposure. The long-term functional significance of these symptoms should be formally investigated. Topics: chest radiography; cohort study; eye irritation; glass industry; irritants; irritation; latency; maximal expiratory flow; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; spirometry; symptoms.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.455-459. Illus. 23 ref.
Bartoli D., Battista G., De Santis M., Iaia T.E., Orsi D., Tarchi M., Pirastu R., Valiani M.
Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: Mortality from non-malignant diseases
Cause-specific mortality was investigated among a cohort of 3,390 art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males, observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease, pneumoconiosis and diseases of the genitourinary system. Increases for the these causes were also found among makers and formers. For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer was above expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer. Previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed. Topics: cancer; carcinogenic effects; circulatory disorders of the brain; cohort study; genito-urinary system diseases; glass industry; glass moulding; hypertension; Italy; mortality; pneumoconiosis; Tuscany.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.441-445. 26 ref.
Wingren G., Persson B.
Male reproductive pattern in a glass producing area
The objective of the study was to evaluate the reproductive pattern among male crystal glassworkers in comparison to other males in a restricted area in the south-east part of Sweden. The comparison of reproductive patterns was made between groups of glassworkers, farmers, and workers of other occupations. As an indicator of fertility, birth rates and time to first child-birth were calculated. Male sex ratios (number of boys/all child-births) were calculated as a measure of reproductive disturbances. The total birth rates as well as the birth rates for sons were slightly decreased among glassworkers when compared to the group of non-farmers/non-glassworkers and significantly decreased when compared to farmers. The total birth rate of the non-farmer/non-glassworker group was also significantly decreased when compared to farmers. Among the glassworkers, the reduction in birth rates was most pronounced among engravers/grinders both in comparison to farmers and others. The results indicate that paternal exposure in crystal glassworks might somewhat negatively affect the male reproduction at least in a historical perspective. Topics: agricultural operations; antifertility effects; epidemiologic study; glass industry; male workers; manufacturing industries; statistical evaluation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.227-234. 24 ref.
Cherry N.M., Burgess G.L., Turner S., McDonald J.C.
Crystalline silica and risk of lung cancer in the potteries
In a cohort of 5,115 men employed in the pottery, refractory and sandstone industries of Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated against mortalities for the region were raised for all causes, for lung cancer and for non-malignant respiratory diseases. Average concentration and duration of exposure to silica were, taken together, significantly related to the presence of small opacities. The association between risk of lung cancer and quantitative estimates of silica exposure supports the SMR analysis and implies that crystalline silica may well be a human carcinogen. Topics: silica; cohort study; confounding factors; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; lung cancer; mortality; opacities; pottery industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.779-785. 12 ref.
Corazza M., Mantovani L., Bertelli G., Virgili A.
A goldsmith with occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to ethylenediamine in a detergent
Topics: ethylenediamine; ethanolamine; case study; detergents; eczema; jewellery manufacture; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1998, Vol.38, No.6, p.350-351. Illus. 10 ref.
Apostoli P., Giusti S., Bartoli D., Perico A., Bavazzano P., Alessio L.
Multiple exposure to arsenic, antimony and other elements in art glass manufacturing
Topics: antimony; arsenic; arts and crafts; cancer; carcinogens; lead; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; glass industry; Italy; job-exposure relation; mixed dust; mortality.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1998, Vol.34, No.1, p.65-72. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in the production of pottery
Topics: air sampling; lead; hydrofluoric acid; cleaning of workplaces; contamination; directive; disposal of harmful waste; dust control; enclosure; exhaust ventilation; exposure evaluation; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; health service records; information of personnel; medical supervision; pottery industry; prohibited work; protective clothing; respirators; United Kingdom; welfare facilities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, reprinted with amendments 1998. iv, 30p. 24 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Olaiz Fernandez G., et al.
High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico
Replies to a questionnaire survey of Mexican ceramic folk art workers showed that they are at risk of lead poisoning. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, even though they were lower than those found in a previous study conducted in 1970.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1997, Vol.52, No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 12 ref.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
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