Welding and cutting - 802 entries found
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Yamaguchi-Sekino S., Ojima J., Sekino M., Hojo M., Saito H., Okuno T.
Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time
The assessment of the electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding which uses relatively strong electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. This study measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders during their work. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to the subjects' wrists in order to place the sensor probe as close as possible to the magnetic source. Data was acquired every 5s. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT. Finite element analyses of human hand tissue were conducted for electromagnetic field dosimetry. Magnetic fields associated with grinders, air hammers and electromagnetic drills were also measured, but were found to be much lower than those generated during the welding process.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.274-279. Illus. 20 ref.
Measuring.pdf [in English]
Schoonover T., Conroy L., Lacey S., Plavka J.
Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders
The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3) were sampled for 38 workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on open-face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO2 and O3 exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher (474 μg/m3) for welders than non-welders (60 μg/m3). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations NO2 and O3 than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.63-72. 44 ref.
Personal_exposure_to_metal_fume.pdf [in English]
du Plessis L., Laubscher P., Jooste J., du Plessis J., Franken A., van Aarde N., Eloff F.
Flow cytometric analysis of the oxidative status in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of workers exposed to welding fumes
This study evaluated flow cytometry as a method to determine the oxidative status of 15 male welders occupationally exposed to welding fumes. Flow cytometric analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was carried out in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by using the probe 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Lipid peroxidation was measured by the decrease of fluor-DHPE fluorescence and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels by using mercury orange. All of the parameters were also observed under a confocal microscope. The oxidative stress ratio was calculated from the oxidative damage and the antioxidant capacity to give an accurate account of the cellular oxidative status. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels were elevated by approximately 87% and approximately 96%, respectively, and GSH levels lowered approximately 96% in PBMC of workers exposed to welding fumes compared with non-exposed controls. The oxidative stress ratio was significantly higher in the exposed group.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2010, Vol.7, No.6, p.367-374. Illus. 44 ref.
Flow_cytometric_analysis.pdf [in English]
Flynn M.R., Susi P.
Manganese, iron, and total particulate exposures to welders
Welders are exposed to a variety of metal fumes including manganese that may elevate the risk for neurological disease. This study examines several large data sets to characterize manganese, iron, and total particulate mass exposures resulting from welding operations. The data sets contained covariates for a variety of exposure modifiers, including the presence of ventilation, the degree of confinement, and the location of the personal sampler. The analysis suggests that exposures to manganese are frequently at or above the current ACGIH threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m3. In addition, there is evidence that local exhaust ventilation can control the exposures to manganese and total fume but that mechanical ventilation may not. The data suggest that higher exposures are associated with a greater degree of enclosure, particularly when local exhaust ventilation is absent. There were strong correlations among manganese, iron and total particulate mass exposures, suggesting simple equations to estimate one fume component from any of the others.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.115-126. Illus. 35 ref.
Manganese.pdf [in English]
Meeker J.D., Susi P., Flynn M.R.
Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks
The objective of this study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) during welding tasks, based on several sources of data. Findings are discussed. The OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m3) was exceeded in 9%-25% of the samples, depending on the dataset. Base metal, welding process and local exhaust ventilation (LEV) use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. It is concluded that while overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is widespread, it could be substantially reduced with proper use of LEV.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2010, Vol.7, p.607-615. Illus. 27 ref.
Laohaudomchok W., Cavallari J.M., Fang S.C., Lin X., Herrick R.F., Christiani D.C., Weisskopf M.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to manganese and other metals in welding fumes by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer
Elemental analysis of welding fume samples can be done using several laboratory-based techniques. However, portable measurement techniques could offer several advantages. This study sought to determine whether the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is suitable for analysis of five metals (manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium) on 37-mm polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Using this filter fitted on a cyclone in line with a personal pump, gravimetric samples were collected from a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.456-465. Illus. 30 ref.
Bondéelle A., Brasseur G., Richez J.P
Welding work - Engraving safety and health in the metal
Travaux de soudage - Graver la prévention dans le métal [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on occupational safety and health in welding operations: overview; main hazards encountered during welding operations; medical supervision of welders and brazing workers; examples of occupational safety and health measures in boilermaking, sheet metal working and ironwork enterprises; activities of a French regional occupational safety and health service; presentation of a DVD on safety and health in arc welding.
Travail et sécurité, May 2010, No.706, p.16-31. Illus. 21 ref.
Pocock D., Saunders C.J., Carter G.
Health and Safety Executive
Effective control of gas shielded arc welding fume
The objective of this research was to establish whether efficient welding fume capture can be achieved using local exhaust ventilation (LEV) while at the same time maintaining weld metal integrity. It was carried out in three phases. Phase 1 provided the information necessary to develop an experimental plan. Phase 2 determined the maximum cross flow velocity of air that could be tolerated before the onset of weld metal porosity during gas shielded arc welding using parameters defined in Phase 1. Finally, Phase 3 measured capture efficiencies for a range of LEV hoods positioned at various distances and orientations to the welding arc. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that when using standard welding parameters, satisfactory fume extraction was possible without compromising the weld integrity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. x, 89p. Illus. 16 ref.
RR_683.pdf [in English]
Rodriguez M., Adebayo A., Brueck S.E., Ramsey J.
Evaluation of employees' exposures to welding fumes and powder paint dust during metal furniture manufacturing
In 2007, NIOSH received a confidential employee request for a health hazard evaluation at a metal furniture manufacturing plant. Employees were concerned about exposure to welding fumes and dust from powder painting and grinding operations. During the initial site visit, NIOSH staff met with management and employee representatives, toured the facility, observed work processes and existing engineering controls, observed the use of PPE and interviewed 10 employees. Bulk samples of powder paint were collected for particle sizing and to check for silica and asbestos content. Two of the 10 employees interviewed reported symptoms not related to exposures in the workplace. They described episodic transient shortness of breath that lasted a few minutes and also affected members of their families who were not employees of the plant. Their condition did not improve when they were away from work. Two other employees reported eye and throat irritation. The remaining six employees reported no symptoms. A second survey was conducted to evaluate exposures to welding fumes. No specific cause was identified and threshold limit values were mostly within acceptable levels. A number of recommendations were made concerning the use of paints that do not contain triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC), use of welding wire that does not contain manganese, ventilation, personal protection, engineering controls and information of personnel.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Jan. 2009. viii, 45p. Illus. 5 ref.
HETA_2007-0199-3075.pdf [in English]
Hobson A.J., Sterling D.A., Emo B., Evanoff B.A., Sterling C.S., Good L., Seixas N., Checkoway H., Racette B.A.
Validity and reliability of an occupational exposure questionnaire for parkinsonism in welders
This study assessed the validity and test-retest reliability of a medical and occupational history questionnaire for workers performing welding in the shipyard industry. This self-report questionnaire was developed for an epidemiologic study of the risk of Parkinsonism in welders. Participants were recruited from three similar shipyards and asked to complete the questionnaire at two different times approximately four weeks apart. Responses on the questionnaire were compared with information extracted from personnel records. Findings suggest that participants' self-reports were valid compared with employer records, generating reproducible answers and therefore allowing the use of the questionnaire for occupational exposure assessment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2009, Vol.6, No.6, p.324-331. 23 ref.
Welding occupations and mortality from Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases among United States men, 1985-1999
It has been hypothesized that occupational exposure to manganese fumes among welders could increase risk of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The present study examines the mortality from neurodegenerative diseases among male welders in the United States from 1985 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate mortality odds ratios of death from Parkinson's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases among welders compared with men of other occupations. During the study period, 49,174 deaths were attributed to Parkinson's disease, 54,892 to Alzheimer's disease, and 19,018 to presenile dementia. However there was no evidence of increased odds of mortality from either of these diseases among welders as compared with men with other occupations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2009, Vol.6, No.5, p.267-272. 17 ref.
Sharifian A., Gharavi M., Pasalar P., Aminian O.
Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on antioxidant activity in plasma and red blood cells in spot welders
The purpose of this study was to determine a possible relation between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and human antioxidant activity. The total serum antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in red blood cells were measured in 46 spot welders who were occupationally exposed to ELF-MFs. The results were compared with those of a non-exposed control group. The correlation between magnetic field strength and antioxidant activity in red blood cells and plasma was then assessed. No significant differences in TAS levels were observed. However, in red blood cells of the exposed group, there were significant decreases in SOD and GPX activities. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between SOD/GPX activities and magnetic field intensity was observed. The results indicate that ELF-MF could influence the red blood cell antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 20 ref.
Monaghan B., Norrish J., Potter J., Yeo W., Naidoo V.
Self-reported health symptoms, cardiovascular risk and fume exposure in welders
Welding is one of the most common sources of occupational exposure to manganese, suspected to be linked to Parkinson's disease. There are however many clinical conditions which can be mistaken for Parkinson's disease. Traditionally, positive diagnosis has only been accepted on autopsy. The risk factors for other conditions that mimic Parkinson's disease are high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. It is likely that, 30 years ago, many workers would have been smokers and would not have had hypertension diagnosed or aggressively managed. This study investigated risk exposure and self-reported health symptoms in a cohort of welders by means of a questionnaire, to advance research in this area.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.223-230. Illus. 23 ref.
Christensen S.W., Bonde J.P., Omland Ø.
A prospective study of decline in lung function in relation to welding emissions
The aim of this study was to investigate if long-term exposure to welding fume particulates accelerates the normal age-related decline in lung function. Lung function was measured by spirometry in 1987 and 2004 among 68 steel welders and 32 non-welding production workers. The decline in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was analysed in relation to cumulated exposure to fume particulates among welders during the follow-up period. Among smokers, the decline in FEV1 was on average 150mL larger among welders than non-welders while the difference was negligible among non-smokers. The results did not reach statistical significance and within welders the decline in lung function was not related to the cumulated welding fumes exposure during follow-up period.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2008, Vol.3, No.6, 8p. 34 ref.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2288600/pdf/1745-6673-3-6.pdf [in English]
Nuernberg A.M., Boyce P.D., Cavallari J.M., Fang S.C., Eisen E.A., Christiani D.C.
Urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG concentrations in boilermakers with welding exposure
To investigate the association of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) with DNA damage and oxidative stress in boilermakers exposed to welding fumes, 41 workers were monitored over 24 hours during which baseline, post-shift, bedtime, and next morning urine samples were collected. Blood samples were also collected pre-shift and the following morning. Twenty-two unexposed workers participated as controls. Linear regression was used to model changes in u-8-isoprostane and u-8-OHdG. Acute welding fume exposure was found to be associated with a post-shift blunting of systemic inflammation, as measured by 8-isoprostane, in chronically exposed workers. The level of oxidative DNA damage as measured by 8-OHdG was less clear.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.182-189. Illus. 35 ref.
Fireman E., Lerman Y., Stark M., Schwartz Y., Ganor E., Grinberg N., Frimer R., Landau D.A., Zilberberg M., Barenboim E., Jacovovitz R.
Detection of occult lung impairment in welders by induced sputum particles and breath oxidation
This study evaluated particulate matter in combined induced sputum (IS) and oxidation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), in order to test whether underlying inflammatory changes are present in asymptomatic welders. Thirty welders from the Israel Defence Forces exposed to aluminium/iron (Group 1), 16 exposed to cadmium/chromium/iron/lead/nickel (Group 2) and 27 non-exposed administrative staff were studied. IS was recovered and particle size distribution, hydrogen peroxide and pH were measured; exhaled breath condensate also was collected. Group 2 had a higher percentage of neutrophils than all other participants and a higher percentage of particles of more than 2µm in diameter. Percent particles and years of exposure highly correlated. All welders' EBC samples had higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide than controls. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.503-511. Illus. 43 ref.
Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.
Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.
Keen C., Troughton M., Wake D., Pengelly I., Scobbie E.
Health and Safety Executive
Products evolved during hot gas welding of fluoropolymers
The project aim was to detect and quantify the products evolved during the hot gas welding of common fluoropolymers, to attempt to identify the causative agents of polymer fume fever. Carbonyl fluoride and/or hydrogen fluoride were detected from certain fluoropolymers when these materials were heated to their maximum welding temperatures. Significant amounts of ultrafine particles were also detected from all of the fluoropolymers investigated when they were hot gas welded. The report concludes that fluoropolymers should be hot gas welded at the lowest possible temperature to reduce the potential for causing polymer fume fever in operators. If temperature control is not sufficient to prevent episodes of polymer fume fever, a good standard of local exhaust ventilation should also be employed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 96p. Illus. Bib.ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr539.pdf [in English]
Welding safety: Ventilation is a breath of fresh air
Airborne particles are categorized into three main types: large particles greater than 100μ in diameter which can cause irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, but are not fine enough to reach the lungs; medium particles between one and 100μ in diameter which include pollen, large bacteria and coal dust, as well as dust produced during industrial processes including welding and grinding; they pose the greatest health risk, because they are able to penetrate the lungs where they settle; small particles of less than one micron in diameter which also pose serious health risks; they include viruses, small bacteria, metallic fumes and pigments. Given that there are an estimated 400,000 welders in the United States, it is important to understand the potential health consequences of particle inhalation and to choose the proper ventilation, filtration and protection systems for protecting welders from airborne particles.
Occupational Hazards, Dec. 2007, p.33-34. Illus.
Haguenauer D., Marchal P., Jacques M.
Validation of test methods for switchable welding filters
Validation des méthodes d'évaluation des filtres de soudage commutables [in French]
Manufacturers of welding protective equipment supply face shields with variable light transmission. At rest, they are clear but they darken as soon as the welding arc is activated, so as to ensure eye protection against the optical radiation emitted by the arc. The aim of this study was to check whether the test methods recommended by the EN 379 standard take into account the specific characteristics of this type of filter. Checks were carried out under the conditions specified by EN 379 as well as beyond, clearly showing that when the angle of incidence of the radiation reaches or exceeds 30° from the perpendicular to the screen, the efficiency of these filters drops significantly. The standard recommends taking transmission measurements up to 15°; however, a welder is likely to work at an estimated maximum angle of 30°, a value which will be proposed when the standard is revised.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.19-33. Illus. 6 ref.
Bowler R.M., Roels H.A., Nakagawa S., Drezgic M., Diamond E., Park R., Koller W., Bowler R.P., Mergler D., Bouchard M., Smith D., Gwiazda R., Doty R.L.
Dose-effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge workers
This study involved 43 welders exposed to welding fumes containing manganese during the construction of a bridge span, who were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Various outcomes were analysed in relation to blood manganese (MnB) and an estimated cumulative exposure index (CEI). The time weighted average of manganese in air ranged from 0.11-0.46mg/m3. MnB levels of more than 10µg/L were found in 43% of the workers. Lung function values were found to be below normal in 33.3% of the welders. Computer assisted tremor analysis tests, body sway tests and smell identification tests showed impairment in 38.5 to 88% of the welders. Significant inverse dose-effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ, executive function, sustaining concentration and sequencing, verbal learning, working and immediate memory. Dose-effect associations between CEI and sexual function, fatigue, depression and headache reported by the workers were significant. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.167-177. Illus. 45 ref.
Herrault J., Donati P.
Resistance welding - Magnetic field mapping and risk prevention
Soudage par résistance - Cartographie du champ magnétique et prévention [in French]
Metalworking shops are often equipped with several resistance welding machines. In this study, the distribution of the magnetic field around several resistance welding machines was analysed with a view to applying prevention measures if necessary. The results of the measurements confirmed that the emitted levels could exceed those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) beyond which health risks could exist. In addition to the field mapping, this article describes the principle of resistance welding, reviews the health risks linked to exposure to this type of magnetic field, presents current French and European regulations and offers guidance on prevention measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.21-31. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202252/$File/ND2252.pdf [in French]
Luo J.C.J., Hsu K.H., Shen W.S.
Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders
This study investigated the pulmonary function of automobile welders exposed to metal fumes in Taiwan. The all-male cohort consisted of 41 spot welders, 76 arc welders, 71 office workers and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity-coupled plasma mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect zinc, copper and nickel levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. Compared to non-exposed workers, there were significantly higher instances of abnormal forced vital capacity, abnormal peak expiratory flow and restrictive airway abnormalities among spot welders. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.407-416. 38 ref.
Triaa R., Zekri S., Kahouach L., Daly L., Nouaigui H.
Welding: Hazards and their prevention
Le soudage: risques et prévention [in French]
Contents of this special feature on hazards in welding operations and their prevention: main welding processes (arc welding, resistance welding, other processes); effects on health (vision impairment, respiratory disorders, metal fume fever, manganese poisoning, lead poisoning); other hazards (electrical hazards, noise, fire and explosion hazards); preventive measures (ventilation, masks, spectacles, personal protective equipment); protection against ultrasound exposure; and safe work in confined spaces.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2006, No.36, p.2-21. Illus. 11 ref.
Hałatek T., Sinczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Rydzynski K.
Neurological and respiratory symptoms in shipyard welders exposed to manganese
This case-control study was performed to assess the use of neurophysiological tests for the detection of early effects of exposure to low manganese concentrations and to examine the use of Clara cell protein (CC16) as an early pulmonary biomarker of exposure to welding fumes. The study involved 59 shipyard welders and 23 controls, matched by age and smoking habits. Subjective neurological symptoms, visual evoked potentials and electroencephalography were examined. Relationships between manganese concentrations in the air, blood and urine as well as between cumulative exposure indices were investigated. CC16 as an early pulmonary biomarker in welding exposure was examined by immunoassay. Findings are discussed. It was confirmed that these sensitive tests could be used for the detection of early effect of exposure to low manganese concentrations.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2005, Vol.18, No.3, p.265-274. Illus. 51 ref.
Code of practice for welding and cutting (and other operations involving the use of heat)
This standard covers the safety practices to be implemented for protecting persons from injury and illness and the protection of property and equipment from damage by fire and other causes arising from the installation, operation and maintenance of welding and cutting equipment. It includes specific provisions for gas welding, shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, brazing, resistance welding, and thermit welding. Replaces CIS 00-811.
SPRING Singapore, 2 Bukit Merah Central, Singapore 159835, Republic of Singapore, 2005. 64p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: SGD 54.00 (excluding GST).
Marini F., Boissin J.P., Peyresblanques J., Rollin J.P., Beaufils D.
Vision of welders in France
La vision des soudeurs en France [in French]
This case-control study on the vision of welders involved the pooling of data gathered by the medical services of 12 enterprises employing welders. The medical services also supplied data for controls other than welders, matched by age group. Altogether, the study population comprised 850 welders and 281 controls. There were no indications of more frequent visual function impairment among welders than among controls, nor any grounds to suspect any differences, despite more frequent eye injuries among welders than among controls.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.4, p.485-488. Illus. 5 ref.
Maier R., Heilig P., Winker R., Neudorfer B., Hoeranter R., Ruediger H.
This study investigated whether welders' maculopathy is due to occupational exposures and can be justifiably annexed to the list of occupational diseases. Multifocal electroretinography (MERG) and ophthalmologic examinations were performed in 89 welders and 81 controls that had never been exposed to welding. Results of the tests did not reveal any significant morphological or functional differences between the welders and the control group. On average, the welders' visual acuity appeared to be better than that of the control group. This phenomenon could be attributed to the healthy worker effect. Welders' maculopathy seems to be rather a sequel of occupational accidents and negligence of safety regulations. The results of this study indicate that the usual protective measures in professional welding appear to be sufficient in order to prevent an occupational risk of welders' maculopathy.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.681-685. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/9b6a71rqrq6tuklxjar6/contributions/p/2/6/2/p262p4651k8r326g.pdf [in English]
Rhodes L.H., Rhodes D.P.
Guidelines for developing a welding and cutting safety program
Welding, cutting and brazing activities in the USA pose a combination of safety and health risks to more than 500,000 workers. The lifetime risk of a fatal accident in this sector is four per thousand workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has developed guidelines offering safety managers a framework for preventing hot work injuries and fatalities. This article comments on these guidelines that are based on the following principles: management leadership and employee involvement; worksite analysis; hazard prevention and control; training.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2005, Vol.67, No.9, p.71-78. Illus. 6 ref.
Harris M.K., Ewing W.M., Longo W., DePasquale C., Mount M.D., Hatfield R., Stapleton R.
Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space
This study evaluated the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fumes when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. Results indicated that 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) general dilution ventilation may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.375-382. Illus. 24 ref.
Håkansson N., Stenlund C., Gustavsson P., Johansen C., Floderus B.
Arc and resistance welding and tumours of the endocrine glands: A Swedish case-control study with focus on extremely low frequency magnetic fields
This study examined the relationship between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields during welding and tumours of the endocrine glands. Subjects included 174 cases of tumours of the endocrine glands and 1692 controls matched by sex and age. Data on job tasks, exposure to different types of welding and exposure to solvents were obtained by means of questionnaires. Among arc welders, there was an overall increased risk for all tumours of the endocrine glands. An increased risk was also observed for the adrenal glands in relation to arc welding, and for the parathyroid glands in relation to both arc welding and resistance welding. A non-significant increase in risk was also noted for tumours of the pituitary gland for arc welding. No confounding effect was found for solvent exposure, and there was no sign of biological interaction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.304-308. 35 ref.
Iwasaki T., Fujishiro Y., Kubota Y., Ojima J., Shibata N.
Some engineering countermeasures to reduce exposure to welding fumes and gases avoiding occurrence of blow holes in welded material
Open-type push-pull ventilation systems are increasingly being adopted as effective substitutes for conventional local exhaust ventilation systems at many welding workshops in Japan. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the compliance of these systems with Japanese regulations and to establish design requirements and flow rate limitations necessary for avoiding welding defects.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.2, p.351-357. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-2-13.pdf [in English]
Ostiguy C., Asselin P., Malo S., Nadeau D., DeWals P.
Management of occupational manganism - Consensus of an experts' panel
Prise en charge du manganisme d'origine professionnelle - Consensus d'un groupe international d'experts [in French]
In response to a request from the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST), a literature review was undertaken on the possible health effects (mainly to the nervous system) resulting from occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air of mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the CSST by workers exposed to this substance during operations to weld steel to manganese. This report describes the process of manganese assimilation by the body, its biomarkers and its various health effects. It also compares the standards and recommendations for guidelines of various organizations. Current Quebec standards are similar to American, British and Australian standards. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field favour making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 56p. 202 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-416.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-417.pdf [in English]
Guimon M., Mercier A.
Le brasage tendre [in French]
Soft soldering is widely practised in numerous industrial sectors and can give rise to several hazards. Following an overview of various soldering tools and processes, this information sheet lists the main hazards associated with soft soldering and describes the human health effects of substances that may be released during the process.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2005. 4p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/4F4DD37C0400823AC1256FF7002EC64B/$FILE/ed122.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement and analysis of magnetic fields from welding processes
This research report comprises a review of information on magnetic fields associated with arc and resistance welding processes, an analysis of the spatially varying magnetic field levels to which welders are exposed during arc and resistance welding and a tabulation of magnetic field data from a range of welding processes. Magnetic field measurements were carried out under typical operating conditions and at varying distances from the welding equipment and cables. Results indicate that the reference levels for magnetic fields issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are likely to be exceeded for many resistance welding machines at the location where the operator would normally stand. These levels may also be exceeded for arc welding in some circumstances.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vii, 40p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr338.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Replacement of radiography by ultrasonic inspection
One of the main disadvantages of radiographic inspection of welds is the potential hazard to health associated with ionizing radiation, which forms the basis of the method. Ultrasonic inspection does not present any inherent health hazards. However, it is important that the associated safety and economic advantages are not gained at the expense of reduced confidence in weld integrity. The objective of this project was to provide guidelines on the extent to which ultrasonic testing can replace radiography for welds where radiography is currently the preferred inspection method. The project concentrated on pulse-echo techniques. Guidelines on the extent to which ultrasonic testing can replace radiography for weld inspection are provided.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 119p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr301.pdf [in English]
Stridsklev I.C., Schaller K.H., Langård S.
Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method
This study investigated exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welding of stainless steel. Seven FCW welders were monitored by measuring Cr and Ni in the workplace atmosphere, blood and urine. The welders were also questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni, the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The mean workplace air concentrations were 200µ/m3 for total Cr, 11.3µ/m3 for Cr(VI) and 50.4µ/m3 for Ni. For Cr in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25, 1.68 and 0.9µ/l respectively. For Ni, most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 and 2.50 µ/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. Monitoring of Cr in the urine may be a versatile method for evaluating the exposure of FCW welders to Cr(VI) in air. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding stainless steel is low in general.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.587-591. 12 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/88mwnwttk4jc835u/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Letzel S., Buchta M., Zschiesche W.
Health risks from new technologies using the example of aluminium welding
Gesundheitsgefahren durch neue Technologien am Beispiel des Aluminiumschweissens [in German]
Because of its interesting properties, aluminium is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications including vehicles and storage tanks. New techniques for the welding of aluminium have been developed for these applications. This article discusses the toxic effects related to aluminium welding, mainly due to the inhalation of welding fumes, and the risks from working with aluminium-containing components, together with the related prevention measures (threshold limit values, biological exposure limits, determination in urine, medical supervision).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2004, Vol.54, No.6, p.202-207. Illus. 23 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Electric arc welding - Oxyacetylene welding
Revista do trabalhador: Soldagem ao arco elétrico - Soldagem oxiacetilênica [in Portuguese]
These two videotapes explain the physical and chemical health hazards associated with electric arc and oxyacetylene welding and describe measures for their prevention.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 9min and 11min.
Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders
Welders inhale gases and respirable particles. To investigate the relationship between fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders using basic electrodes containing calcium fluoride, 63 railroad track welders were interviewed. Fluoride was measured in post-shift urine samples. Seventeen welders reported respiratory symptoms related to welding fume exposures. Respiratory symptoms were somewhat more common with increasing concentrations of fluoride in urine. The association between welding fume exposure and respiratory symptoms seems related more to fluorides than to other particles among welders using basic electrodes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.310-312. 19 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Sjogren.pdf [in English]
Li G.J., Zhang L.L., Lu L., Wu P., Zheng W.
Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: Alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and lead in body fluids and the oxidative stress status
Welders in this study were selected from a vehicle manufacturing plant; control subjects were from a nearby food factory. Airborne manganese levels in the breathing zones of welders and controls were 1.45±1.08mg/m3 and 0.11±0.07 mg/m3 respectively. Serum levels of manganese and iron in welders were 4.3 fold and 1.9 fold respectively higher than those of controls. Blood lead concentrations in welders increased 2.5 fold, whereas serum zinc levels decreased 1.2 fold, in comparison with controls. Linear regression revealed the lack of associations between blood levels of five metals and welder's age. Furthermore, welders had erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum malondialdehyde levels 24% less and 78% higher, respectively, than those of controls. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to welding fumes among welders disturbs the homeostasis of trace elements in systemic circulation and induces oxidative stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.241-248. Illus. 52 ref.
Alonso Valle F.
Hazards during welding operations
Riesgos en operaciones de soldadura [in Spanish]
Primarily aimed at SMEs, this publication summarizes the main hazards encountered in welding. A first chapter defines the concept of welding and the various welding techniques (fusion welding, hard and soft brazing, other methods). The second chapter presents the general hazards that are inherent in welding work, together with the corresponding preventive measures. Finally, the third chapter covers hazards related to specific welding and cutting operations (laser welding, resistance welding, submerged-arc welding, inert atmosphere welding and tungsten electrode welding), the use of gas cylinders and welding in confined spaces.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 91p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 12.79.
http://www.mtas.es/Insht/information/estudiostec/et_103.htm [in Spanish]
Electro-optical filters used for arc welding - Development of a methodology for the validation of operational safety
Filtres électro-optiques de soudage à l'arc - Elaboration d'une méthodologie et validation de la sûreté de fonctionnement [in French]
This article is primarily intended for standardization experts, designers and certification bodies. It proposes answers to problems related to the safety of the electronic circuits fitted to auto-darkening electro-optical filters used for arc welding, in particular by taking design requirements into account and applying a validation method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.193, p.9-18. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_date1_view_view/550BE5E478AC5877C1257026003214CE/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]
El-Zein M., Malo J.L., Infante-Rivard C., Gautrin D.
Prevalence and association of welding related systemic and respiratory symptoms
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence among welders of coexisting symptoms indicative of metal fume fever (MFF) and respiratory symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, systemic symptoms and occupational history was administered by telephone to a sample of 351 welders from two cities in Quebec, Canada. The co-occurrence of possible MFF together with welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA was 5.8%, these two groups of symptoms being significantly associated. In conclusion, there is a strong association between welding-related MFF and welding-related respiratory symptoms suggestive of OA. As such, MFF could be viewed as a pre-marker of welding-related OA, a hypothesis that requires further investigation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.655-661. 28 ref.
Meo S.A., Azeem M.A., Subhan M.M.F.
Lung function in Pakistani welding workers
This matched case-control cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effects of welding fumes and their duration of exposure on lung function. The study group consisted of 50 male nonsmoking manual metal arc welders who work without the benefit of welding fume control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Controls included 50 shopkeepers and salesmen, matched by age. Welding workers with exposures longer than nine years showed a significant reduction in spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC%), and peak expiratory flow (PEF)) relative to controls. A dose-effect relationship was found between of years of welding and lung function. This effect primarily shows an obstructive pattern of airways disease. Preventive measures have to be adopted to avert long-term lung damage among welders in developing countries.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.45, No.10, p.1068-1073. Illus. 21 ref.
Walls C.A., Dryson E.W.
Failure after 5 years of self-regulation: A health and safety audit of New Zealand engineering companies carrying out welding
The aim of this study was to audit the degree of compliance with new health and safety legislation five years after enactment. 299 randomly selected New Zealand enterprises using a welding process were visited. An interviewer-administered questionnaire concerning the nature of the hazards encountered in the enterprise and the chosen control measures employed to protect the health of their employees was undertaken and analysed. Only 40% of New Zealand businesses in this sample undertaking welding had adopted the most basic of regulatory requirements to control health and safety risks. This percentage seemed independent of employer size. Fundamental safety issues (e.g. welding in confined spaces) were ignored by >50% of enterprises. In conclusion, self-management of health and safety risks had not occurred in over half the enterprises surveyed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.52, No.6, p.305-309. 5 ref.
Pfäffli P., Hämeilä M., Keskinen H., Wirmoila R.
Exposure to cyclic anhydrides in welding: A new allergen - chlorendic anhydride
To determine whether welding fumes contain irritating and sensitizing anhydrides, air samples were collected during the repair welding of forest harvesters, which were painted with chlorinated polyester paint. Samples were collected and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Sensitizing anhydrides released from the paint into the air were primarily chlorendic anhydride (<2-44µg/m3) and phthalic anhydride (11-21µg/m3). Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hexachlorocyclopentadiene were also found. Airborne HCl was measured with Dräger tubes. Since paint films are electrical insulators, the film around the welding seam was removed before arc welding. Removal of paint with an abrasive wheel caused the least exposure to HCl (<0.5ppm) in contrast to burning with a gas fuel torch, (HCl=ca. 5ppm). HCl exposure was the highest (<0.5-20ppm) during welding. It is recommended that dry paint coating be removed from an area around the seam with an abrasive wheel, not by burning, before welding.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.17, No.11, p.765-767. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Fume emissions from resistance welding through adhesives and sealants
Modern manufacturing practices, especially in the automotive industry, often involve resistance welding through adhesives and sealants. During welding, fumes that are possibly harmful to health may be inhaled by workers. Little is known about the concentration or composition of the fumes emitted, making it difficult to assess the risks to health arising from welding activities. In this study, fume composition data were generated for resistance welding through a representative range of epoxy-based adhesives and polybutadiene-based sealants for the purpose of enabling a comprehensive risk assessment. Benzene, 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile were the most harmful compounds identified. However, concentrations were low. Concentrations of carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also low, less than 1µg/m3.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. vi, 26p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01388.pdf [in English]
Håkansson N., Floderus B., Gustavsson P., Johansen C., Olsen J.H.
Cancer incidence and magnetic field exposure in industries using resistance welding in Sweden
To investigate cancer incidence in workers exposed to high levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), a cohort based on the engineering industries assumed to use resistance welding was established. All men and women employed in these sectors during 1985-94 were selected (537,692 men and 180,529 women). Occupation, based on census information from 1980, 1985, and 1990, was linked to a job exposure matrix on ELF-MF. Four exposure groups were identified on the basis of their mean workday ELF-MF exposure. Cancer incidence was obtained by linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. It was found that the risks of cancer of the liver, kidney, and pituitary gland among men were in accordance with previous observations. Regarding brain tumours and leukaemia, the outcome for women provided further support of an association. The hypothesis of a biological mechanism involving the endocrine system was partly supported.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.481-486. 38 ref.
Herrault J., Donati P.
Resistance welding - Magnetic field mapping and risk prevention
Soudage par résistance - Cartographie du champ magnétique et prévention [in French]
The magnetic field distribution around several resistance welding machines was determined with a view to applying prevention measures if found necessary. Measurement results confirmed that the emitted levels could exceed the standard reference values beyond which health hazards may exist. In addition to field mapping, this article describes the principle of resistance welding, reviews the health hazards related to exposures to this type of magnetic field, refers to the current regulations and offers some guidance with respect to prevention measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.43-51. Illus. 14 ref.
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