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Butadiene - 95 entries found

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2011

CIS 12-0181 Cave M., Falkner K.C., Henry L., Costello B., Gregory B., McClain C.J
Serum cytokeratin 18 and cytokine elevations suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease in highly exposed elastomer/polymer workers
Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and styrene. A total of 82 chemical workers were evaluated. Cytokeratin 18 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Thirty-nine percent (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased in these workers compared with those with normal CK18 levels. These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated proinflammatory cytokines.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1128-1133. 42 ref.
Serum_cytokeratin_18_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

2008

CIS 09-659
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide)
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizing agent for hospital equipment. The largest single use for 1,3-butadiene is in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber for tyres, while vinyl chloride is primarily used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. Summary of final evaluations: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride are classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); vinyl bromide is classified in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), while there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of vinyl fluoride in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2008. ix, 510p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol97/mono97.pdf [in English]

2007

CIS 08-757 Ettel S., Winkler M., Zellner R.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Emissions of selected hydrocarbons from uses of liquid fuels for combustion engines and heating in Germany
Emmissionen ausgewählter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Anwendungen flüssiger Kraft- und Brennstoffe im Verkehrswesen, im Off-Road-Bereich und in der Wärmeerzeugung in Deutschland [in German]
This criteria document investigates the emissions of selected hydrocarbons through spillage and evaporation losses, and in exhaust gases as the result of incomplete combustion from liquid fuels in road, railroad, inland waterways and aircraft traffic, in other types of off-road engines and in heating. The analysis covered the period between 1990 and 2010 in Germany. The selected compounds are: buta-1,3-diene, pentane, cyclohexane, 2,4,4-trimethypent-1-ene, 2,4,4-trimethypent-2-ene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, styrene, cumene, mesitylene, tert-butyl benzene, tetrahydronaphthalene, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, 1-methyl naphthalene and 2,6-dimethyl naphthalene.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xix, 196p. (German); 139+38p. (English). 78 ref. Price: EUR 60.00.

CIS 08-600 McGregor D.
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in firemen
Risque de lymphome non hodgkinien chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Firefighting involves exposure to possible carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and diesel emissions. Some publications have hypothesized that these chemicals could be involved in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Available epidemiological data indicate either a slightly elevated risk or no increased risk of NHL among firefighters. The absence of a clearly defined mechanism also raises difficulties. Known or suspected risk factors for NHL are not found to be more prevalent among firefighters. Even if firefighters with NHL may have developed the disease as a result of their job, this conclusion cannot be derived from currently-available literature. See also CIS 08-598/599 and 08-601.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 23p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-520.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-519.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-179 Abbasi T., Abbasi S.A.
The boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE): Mechanism, consequence assessment, management
Among the most devastating of accidents likely in chemical industry is the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). It is accompanied by highly destructive blast waves. In most situations there is also a fireball or a toxic gas cloud. The damaging effect of these accidents is reflected in the fact that the 80-odd major BLEVEs that have occurred between 1940 and 2005 have claimed over a 1000 lives and have injured over 10,000 persons besides harming property worth billions of dollars. Releases of toxic chemicals like chlorine and phosgene from BLEVEs have damaged large chunks of areas surrounding the sites. This article presents an overview of the mechanisms, causes, consequences and preventive strategies of BLEVEs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 2007, Vol.141, No.3, p.489-519. Illus. 131 ref.

2006

CIS 08-386 Veraldi A., Seniori Costantini A., Bolejack V., Miligi L., Vineis P., van Loveren H.
Immunotoxic effects of chemicals: A matrix for occupational and environmental epidemiological studies
This literature survey based on 227 animal studies and 94 human studies evaluates the immunotoxicity of benzene, trichloroethylene, PAHs, crystalline silica, diesel exhausts, welding fumes, asbestos, styrene, formaldehyde, toluene, vinyl chloride monomer tetrachloroethylene, chlorophenols, 1,3-butadiene, mineral oils, p-dichlorobenzene, dichloromethane, xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and ethylene oxide. These substances were then classified on the basis of the evidence of toxicity and type of immunotoxic effects (immunosuppression, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity) on the basis of the immune responses. Finally substances were assigned an index of immunotoxic potency.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.49, No.12, p.1046-1055. 38 ref.

2005

CIS 06-645 Graf J.J., Sathiakumar N., Macaluso M., Maldonado G., Matthews R., Delzell E.
Chemical exposures in the synthetic rubber industry and lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality
This study evaluated the association between exposure to several chemicals and mortality from lymphohaematopoietic cancer (LHC) among 16,579 synthetic rubber industry workers who were followed up from 1943 to 1998. Poisson regression analyses examined LHC rates in relation to butadiene, styrene and dimethyl dithiocarbamate (DMDTC) exposure, after adjusting for other agents and potential confounders. Cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was associated positively with all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia and to a lesser extent with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Adjusting for styrene and DMDTC attenuated these associations. After controlling for butadiene, neither styrene nor DMDTC displayed a consistent exposure-response trend, whether for all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia, or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.47, No.9, p.916-932. 50 ref.

CIS 05-671
Health and Safety Executive
1,3-Butadiene in air - Laboratory method using diffusive samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography
This revised analytical method describes the sampling of 1,3-butadiene in air using diffusive samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. The main changes with respect to the earlier edition are the restriction of the maximum diffusive sampling time to 10 hours when using Molecular Sieve 13X sorbent and the addition of validation data for Molecular Sieve 13X and uptake rate data for graphitized carbon sorbents. The method can be used for the determination of personal exposure or for fixed location monitoring. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 91-585).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2rd ed., Mar. 2005. 12p. 25 ref. Price: GBP 13.50.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs63-2.pdf [in English]

2004

CIS 04-652 Henderson M.H., Lipscombe R.P., Blakley K.C.
Method for monitoring exposure to LPG containing small amounts of 1,3-butadiene
This report provides a detailed validation of a sampling and analytical methodology based on gas chromatography for occupational exposure monitoring of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and its components, including trace amounts of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Dec. 2004. iv, 35p. 3 ref.
http://www.concawe.org/Content/Default.asp?PageID=31 [in English]

CIS 03-1024 Commission Directive 2004/73/EC of 29 April 2004 adapting to technical progress for the twenty-ninth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances [European Union]
Directive 2004/73/CE de la Commission du 29 avril 2004 portant vingt-neuvième adaptation au progrès technique de la directive 67/548/CEE du Conseil concernant le rapprochement des dispositions législatives, réglementaires et administratives relatives à la classification, l'emballage et l'étiquetage des substances dangereuses [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2004/73/CE de la Comisión, de 29 de abril de 2004, por la que se adapta, por vigésima novena vez, al progreso técnico la Directiva 67/548/CEE del Consejo relativa a la aproximación de las disposiciones legales, reglamentarias y administrativas en materia de clasificación, embalaje y etiquetado de las sustancias peligrosas [in Spanish]
This Directive contains an updated Annex I to Directive 67/548/EEC (see CIS 92-23), with a list of dangerous substances together with their identification numbers, chemical name, EC and CAS numbers, classification and labelling codes, concentration limits (if any) and notes relating to preparations containing them. Certain entries from previous lists have been deleted or changed. The labelling of preparations containing 1,3-butadiene is to be modified, as the substance has been reclassified as mutagenic. Annex V of the 1967 Directive, concerning the methods for the determination of the physical and chemical properties, the toxicity and the ecotoxicity of substances and preparations, is also modified in order to reduce to the maximum extent possible the number of animals needed for experiments.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 30 Apr. 2004, Vol.47, No.L 152, p.1-316 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2004/l_152/l_15220040430en00010311.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2004/l_152/l_15220040430fr00010316.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2004/l_152/l_15220040430es00010315.pdf [in Spanish]

2003

CIS 03-1827
Health and Safety Executive
1,3-Butadiene in air: Laboratory method using pumped samplers, thermal desorption and gas chromatography
This revised analytical method is aimed at occupational hygienists, safety practitioners and laboratory technicians. It describes the sampling of 1,3-butadiene in air using pumped samplers, thermal desorption and gas phase chromatography. The main changes with respect to the earlier edition include the recommendation for using a drying pre-filter when using molecular sieve 13X sorbent, and for adding new validation data for molecular sieve 13X and graphitized carbon black sorbents. Contents: requirements of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (see CIS 03-1023); scope; reagents; apparatus; procedure; calculation of results; method performance; quality control measures. Replaces CIS 92-589.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2003. 11p. 24 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

2002

CIS 03-779 Heikkilä P., Riala R., Hämeilä M., Nykyri E., Pfäffli P.
Occupational exposure to bitumen during road paving
The exposure of workers to total particulates, bitumen fumes, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), low-molecular-weight amines, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene was studied at 13 road paving sites where 11 different asphalt mixtures were laid. 1-hydroxypyrene was analysed in the workers' pre- and post-shift urine samples. Mean concentrations of total particulates, bitumen fumes, SVOCs, and PAHs in the breathing zone of road pavers were 0.6mg/m3, 0.29mg/m3, 5.6 mg/m3, and 5.03µg/m3, respectively. Over 90% of air impurities were in the vapour phase. Exposure to PAHs during road paving operations was more than 10-fold higher than was the exposure of a traffic controller (0.34µg/m3) caused by automobile exhausts from background traffic. Concentrations of amines, impurities from polymer-modified bitumens, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene were below detection limits. Urinary 1- hydroxypyrene concentrations were higher among road pavers than among office workers serving as referents.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.156-165. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 03-815
Health and Safety Executive
Fume emissions from resistance welding through adhesives and sealants
Modern manufacturing practices, especially in the automotive industry, often involve resistance welding through adhesives and sealants. During welding, fumes that are possibly harmful to health may be inhaled by workers. Little is known about the concentration or composition of the fumes emitted, making it difficult to assess the risks to health arising from welding activities. In this study, fume composition data were generated for resistance welding through a representative range of epoxy-based adhesives and polybutadiene-based sealants for the purpose of enabling a comprehensive risk assessment. Benzene, 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile were the most harmful compounds identified. However, concentrations were low. Concentrations of carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also low, less than 1µg/m3.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. vi, 26p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01388.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-60 Bonnard N., Falcy M., Jargot D., Miraval S., Protois J.C., Schneider O.
1,3-Butadiene
1,3-Butadiène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: bivinyl; vinyl ethylene. Acute toxicity: inhalation exposure to concentrations above 10,000ppm induces coughing. a state similar to that under the influence of alcohol, fatigue, headache and blurred vision; higher concentrations can cause coma. Chronic toxicity: there is lack of data on toxicity to humans; mutagenic activity has been detected (chromosome changes); the substance is carcinogenic (leukaemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, haematopoietic cancer). Exposure limits (ACGIH): TWA = 2ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-013-00-X; T, F+, R12, R45, R46, S33, S45, 203-450-8. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 6p. Illus. 36 ref.

2001

CIS 01-1366
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
1,3-Butadiene: Human health aspects
1,3-Butadiene is a product of incomplete combustion resulting from natural processes and human activity, as well as an industrial chemical used primarily in the production of elastomers. It has low acute toxicity in experimental animals. In studies involving mice and rats, long-term exposure was associated with ovarian and testicular atrophy; inhaled butadiene was found to be a potent carcinogen and to show mutagenic effects. Among exposed workers, mortality due to leukaemia increased with estimated cumulative exposure. The available epidemiological and toxicological data provide evidence that butadiene is a human carcinogen, and possibly also a genotoxic agent. IARC has classified butadiene in group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans). Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 73p. Illus. 256 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad30.pdf [in English]

2000

CIS 05-673 Toxicological evaluations
Toxicologische Bewertungen [in German]
Toxicological evaluations for 20 chemicals. Each evaluation covers the following aspects: summary and overall assessment; name of the substance; synonyms and trade names; chemical structure and formula; manufacture, production volumes and uses; experimental toxicology; studies on humans; threshold limit values; occupational medicine recommendations.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, 2000. Binder containing 20 documents. Approx. 600p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-811 Stayner L.T., Dankovic D.A., Smith R.J., Gilbert S.J., Bailer A.J.
Human cancer risk and exposure to 1,3-butadiene - A tale of mice and men
The purpose of this study was to evaluate empirically the relevance of animal-bioassay-based models for predicting human risks from exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) using epidemiological data. Relative-risk results obtained with a regression model in a recent epidemiological study were used to estimate leukaemia risk for occupational and environmental exposures to BD and to compare these estimates with those previously derived from an analysis of animal bioassay data. The estimates of risk were found to be highly dependent on the model used when low levels of exposure were evaluated that are of environmental concern, but not at the levels of occupational concern.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.322-330. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 00-708 Hansen J.
Elevated risk for male breast cancer after occupational exposure to gasoline and vehicular combustion products
Automotive gasoline contains benzene, 1,3-butadiène, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, and the combustion products include certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which have shown mammary gland carcinogenicity in long-term bioassays. A case control study on male breast cancer morbidity was established among members of a pension fund. Employment histories were reconstructed for each of 230 cases and 12,880 control subjects based on computerized records. When a lag time of at least 10 years was taken into account, the odds ratio for breast cancer among men with over three months of employment in occupations with potential exposure to gasoline and combustion products was 2.5. Among men younger than 40 years at the time of first employment, the odds ratio was 5.4. This study supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure to gasoline vapours and combustion products may play a role in the causation of male breast cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.349-352. 25 ref.

1998

CIS 01-138 Heran-Leroy O., Sandret N.
Results of the "SUMER 94" survey - Occupational exposure to carcinogens
Résultats de l'enquête "SUMER 94" - L'exposition aux produits cancérogènes dans le travail [in French]
Topics: carcinogens; butadiene; asbestos; benzene; beryllium; cadmium; silica; acrylamide; exposure evaluation; France; industrial physicians; job-exposure relation; legislation; length of exposure; mineral oils; survey; wood dust.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3th Quarter 1998, No.75, p.265-272.

CIS 00-741 Sathiakumar N., Delzell E., Hovinga M., Macaluso M., Julian J.A., Larson R., Cole P., Muir D.C.F.
Mortality from cancer and other causes of death among synthetic rubber workers
A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among 15,649 men employed for at least one year at any of eight North American styrene-butadiene rubber plants. Analyses used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare styrene-butadiene rubber workers' cause-specific mortalities (1943-91) with those of the United States and Ontario general populations. On average, there were 25 years of follow-up per subject. The SMR was 87 for all causes of death combined and 93 for all cancers. There was an excess of leukaemia among hourly workers. For causes of death other than leukaemia, SMRs were close to or below the null value of 100. Results by work area (process group) were unremarkable for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and stomach cancer. Maintenance workers had a slight increase in deaths from lung cancer, and certain subgroups of workers had more than the expected number of deaths from cancer of the large intestine and the larynx. This study found an excess of leukaemia that is likely to be due to exposure to butadiene or to butadiene plus other chemicals. Deaths from non-Hodgkin's-lymphoma, multiple myeloma and stomach cancer did not seem to be related to occupational exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.230-235. 22 ref.

CIS 99-599
Health and Safety Executive
Summary criteria for occupational exposure limits - EH64 1998 supplement
Supplement to CIS 96-1434. Topics: butadiene; hexone; butoxyethanol; cadmium sulfide; lead tetroxide; lead oxide; methyl t-butyl ether; pentabromodiphenyl ether; carbon monoxide; lead; acetaldehyde; dichloromethane; propylene oxide; tetramethyllead; hydrochloric acid; barium sulfate; hydrogen selenide; tetraethyllead; methylpyrrolidinone; N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone; naphthalene; compendium; criteria document; glossary; hardwoods; harmful substances; limitation of exposure; list of chemical substances; permissible levels; sampling and analysis; softwoods; threshold limit values; toxic effects; toxicology; United Kingdom; wood dust.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 129p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

1997

CIS 97-877 Yao C., Krueger D.C., Loos K.R., Koehn J.W.
Collection and determination of 1,3-butadiene using passive dosimeters and automatic thermal desorption
A passive dosimeter for sampling ambient levels of 1,3-butadiene was constructed using automatic thermal desorption tubes packed with charcoal sorbent wafers. The exposed tubes were thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography, and the effects of concentration, back diffusion and sample storage time were studied. Results of laboratory and field validation tests indicated that the method is valid for occupational exposure monitoring of 1,3-butadiene. Results obtained with the new device were not statistically different from those obtained using the current National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.44-50. Illus. 19 ref.

1996

CIS 97-1589 Osterman-Golkar S., Bond J.A.
Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds
Studies on the biomonitoring of butadiene and related compounds are reviewed. Sources of exposure to butadiene (carcinogenic in mice and rats) include cigarette smoke and emissions from butadiene production, storage, transport and use; the most likely route of uptake in inhalation. Biomonitoring is based on chemical analysis of butadiene in exhaled breath, levels of butadiene metabolites (epoxides) in blood and urine, or adducts of metabolites with DNA or blood proteins. Biomonitoring methods need to be developed for diepoxybutane and other reactive butadiene metabolites.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Oct. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.5, p.907-915. Illus. 85 ref.

CIS 97-7
Department of Labor
Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene: Final Rule [USA]
This final standard (effective date: 3.2.1997) amends the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) occupational standard that regulates worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD). The basis for this action is the finding that OSHA's current 8h time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 1000ppm does not adequately protect workers' health. The new limits are 1ppm (8h-TWA) and 5ppm as a 15min short-term exposure limit (STEL). An "action level" of 0.5ppm as an 8h-TWA is included in the standard as a mechanism in some circumstances for exempting the employer from some administrative requirements. In order to protect workers exposed to BD, the new standard requires the implementation of engineering controls, correct work practices and the wearing of personal protective equipment, exposure monitoring, the training of potentially exposed workers, medical surveillance, hazard communication, regulated areas, emergency procedures and recordkeeping. Detailed information is provided on: carcinogenicity; reproductive effects; other studies; quantitative risk assessment; significance of risk; economic impact analysis; environmental impact. In appendix: substance data sheet; technical guidelines; medical screening and surveillance; sampling and analytical methods; respirator fit testing procedures; medical questionnaires aimed at exposed workers.
Federal Register, 4 Nov. 1996, Vol.61, No.214, Part II, p.56746-56856.
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=FEDERAL_REGISTER&p_id=13585 [in English]

CIS 96-916 Bock W., Breuer D., Hahn J.U., Kleine H., Pfeiffer W., Pflaumbaum W., Stückrath M., Blome H.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Review of exposure to carcinogenic substances at the workplace
Zur Expositionssituation krebserzeugender Gefahrstoffe am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Exposure concentrations were determined for 16 carcinogenic substances in 3,576 industrial enterprises in Germany between 1989-1992. On this basis three groups of substances could be established with respect to exposure levels: 1 - no measurement exceeded the exposure limit (1,3-butadiene, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, acrylonitrile and chloroethylene); 2 - 90% of the measurements were below the exposure limit (arsenic compounds, benzo(a)pyrene, benzene, chromium VI compounds, diantimony trioxide, nickel and its compounds); 3 - 50% of the measurements were below the limit (all other substances analyzed). There has been a significant reduction in exposure levels since the period 1981-84. Detailed summary in German, English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1996. 68p. Illus. 14 ref.

1994

CIS 97-959 Beije B., Lundberg P.
Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1994
Kriteriedokument från Nordiska Expertgruppen 1994 [in Swedish]
The Nordic Expert Group is a standing committee with the task of producing criteria documents on health effects of occupationally used chemicals. The documents are meant to be used by the regulatory authorities in the five Nordic countries as a scientific basis for the setting of national occupational exposure limits. This volume consists of translations into a Scandinavian language (Danish, Norwegian or Swedish) of the criteria documents which were published in English during 1994. The documents concern: 1,3-butadiene (CIS 97-954), cobalt and cobalt compounds (CIS 97-955), diethylamine, diethylenetriamine, dimethylamine, ethylenediamine, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, industrial enzymes (CIS 97-953), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)(CIS 97-956).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 263p. 753 ref.

CIS 97-954 Sorsa M., Peltonen K.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals. 113. 1,3-Butadiene
Criteria document to serve as a basis for a discussion on occupational exposure limits for 1,3-butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical with an estimated annual world production exceeding 5 million tons. BD is used principally as a monomer for producing a wide range of polymers and copolymers, the largest single use being styrene-BD rubber for tyre products. BD also occurs as an environmental contaminant from traffic exhausts and tobacco smoke. Low exposure to BD is thus quite common. BD requires metabolic activation to reactive epoxides in order to bind to DNA and initiate events leading to mutations and cancer. Species differences in metabolism are therefore very relevant for risk assessment. The epoxide metabolites of BD are highly mutagenic in various assay systems. BD is a high-priority compound for risk assessments not only because of its widespread use but also due to its known toxicological properties. BD is practically nontoxic acutely, but it is a multiple-organ carcinogen in rats and (particularly) mice. Still, it is not clear whether BD, at the low human exposure levels occurring, can be shown to be carcinogenic, although epidemiological studies have revealed associations between occupational exposure to BD and excess mortality due to lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1994. 44p. 123 ref.

CIS 96-935
Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
1,3-Butadiene
1,3-Butadiene is a substance that is a gas at normal ambient temperatures. Trace amounts, mostly derived from the combustion of petroleum and other fuels, can be found in the atmosphere. In industry, it is used in the production of synthetic rubber and is also present in some liquid petroleum gases. There is some epidemiological evidence that workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene have a slightly higher than expected risk of developing certain cancers (lymphoid system, bone marrow, lymphomas, leukaemias). Its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have also been shown in animal experiments. After reviewing measurement methods and the evidence for health risks, this document recommends an Air Quality Standard of 1ppb as a running annual average for 1,3-butadiene, a level not normally exceeded in urban air in the United Kingdom.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 24p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 95-1317 Cowles S.R., Tsai S.P, Snyder P.J., Ross C.E.
Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1994, Vol.51, No.5, p.323-329. Illus. 22 ref. ###

CIS 95-252
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some industrial chemicals
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 February 1994. IARC final classifications: ethylene oxide is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); styrene-7,8-oxide and acrylamide are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); propylene oxide, isoprene, styrene, 4-vinylcyclohexene and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B); ethylene, propylene, vinyl toluene, N-methylolacrylamide, methyl methacrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 560p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 90.00.

CIS 94-2052 Basmer P., Seeger P.G., Bentz J.W.G., Fichtner M., Goschnick J., Ache H.J.
Analysis of smoke from burning packing material
Analyse des Brandaerosols von Verpackungsmaterial [in German]
Polystyrene chips treated with a flame retardant are used in packing goods. The composition of the gas and particle phases of smoke from burning chips was determined by experiments. The soot particles were classified according to size. The components at various depths in soot particles were identified. A large amount of respirable soot was found. The outer layers of the soot particles contained a large amount of organic and inorganic bromine compounds. In the gas phase, methyl bromide, which is highly toxic, and the carcinogens benzene and 1,3-butadiene were present in addition to a number of other harmful compounds.
VFDB-Zeitschrift, Feb. 1994, Vol.43, No.1, p.31-34. Illus. 13 ref.

1993

CIS 99-1995 Sorsa M., Peltonen K., Vainio H., Hemminki K.
Butadiene and styrene - Assessment of health hazards
Topics: antifertility effects; butadiene; cancer; carcinogens; styrene; conference; cytotoxic effects; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; hazard evaluation; health hazards; metabolic process; neurotoxic effects.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1993. xi, 412p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 96-1585 Isoprene
International Chemical Safety Card. Extremely flammable. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; lowering of consciousness.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1293 Yao C., Krueger D.C.
A multipurpose industrial hygiene controlled atmosphere testing chamber
A multipurpose stainless-steel controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber was designed and constructed. The chamber can be used for simultaneous exposure tests involving different types of active and passive industrial hygiene monitors. The test contaminant concentration levels can be varied from low parts per billion (ppb) to high parts per million (ppm). Two application examples that used the newly designed exposure chamber are presented. The first example compares two methods for determining 1,3-butadiene concentrations. These methods were National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 1501 and a thermal desorption method using passive dosimeters. The second example illustrated an evaluation of the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation for benzene monitoring with charcoal tubes and dosimeter badges.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.313-319. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 94-1288 Melnick R.L., Shackelford C.C., Huff J.
Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene
1,3-Butadiene, a high-production-volume chemical used widely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. Human exposures by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1,000ppm to 2ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumour induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1993, Vol.100, p.227-236. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 94-953 Heseltine E., Peltonen K., Sorsa M., Vainio H.
Assessment of the health hazards of 1,3-butadiene and styrene
Report on a meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 18-21 April 1993, on the health hazards of 1,3-butadiene and styrene. The main topics were occurrence and exposure, dose measurement, protein and DNA adducts as markers of exposure, reproductive effects and neurotoxicity, genetic toxicity, cancer. The two substances have carcinogenic effects in laboratory studies but wide differences between species make extrapolation to humans difficult. Epidemiological evidence associating butadiene exposure with cancer is strong, but the data on styrene are still equivocal. Research in several areas is needed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.11, p.1089-1095. 6 ref.

1992

CIS 94-56 1,3-Butadiene
1,3-Butadiène [in French]
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: highly flammable. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: bone marrow and liver disorders; probably carcinogenic to humans; may cause heritable genetic damage; suspected teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 601-013-00-X; F; R13; S9-16-33. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1010 (2.1; 3).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-757 Butadiene (1,3-butadiene)
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Effects of short-term exposure: irritation of eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract and skin; skin burns or frostbite. Effects of long-term exposure: dermatitis; potential human carcinogen.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1992. 7p. 17 ref.

CIS 93-374 Butadiene
Fire safety data sheet prepared by the Loss Prevention Association of India, Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India. Health hazards: skin burns; severe damage to eyes; irritation of skin, eyes, nose and respiratory tract; carcinogen.
Loss Prevention News, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.14, No.2, p.21-22.

CIS 93-621 Occupational health in the chemical industry
This book contains selected papers from the 23rd International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Congress, Sep. 1990, Montreal, Canada, and the XIX Medichem Congress, Sep. 1991, Basle, Switzerland. It includes papers on adverse health effects of industrial chemicals on workers (such as N-vinylpyrrolidone, cypermethrin, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, nitrobenzene, benzene, and carbon disulfide) and their surveillance methods; risk assessment and risk management in the chemical industry, with case studies on firefighters and exposure to L-tryptophan, monochlorobenzene and 1,3-butadiene; occupational health responsibilities to customers and the public, with examples of petrochemical industry and odour control; and current topics in the chemical industry such as toluene exposure, work with simians, recombinant protein production, presbyopia, neurobehavioural tests, generic risk assessment and lead titanate zirconate exposure.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, 8 Scherfigsvej, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. xii, 305p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 93-552 Ward J.B., Ammenheuser M.M., Legator M.S.
Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene
A letter in response to an earlier one from Melnick et al (see CIS 92-1966) concerning evidence for the carcinogenicity of butadiene in humans. Studies reported here indicate that the present proposed exposure limit of 2ppm may not be sufficiently low to protect workers from health risks associated with butadiene exposure. Epidemiologic studies reported elsewhere link butadiene exposure with haemopoietic cancer.
Lancet, 31 Oct. 1992, Vol.340, No.8827, p.1104. 6 ref.

CIS 93-269
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals
These monographs consist of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 15-22 Oct. 1991). IARC final classification: occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); diethyl sulfate and 1,3-butadiene are probably carcinogenic in humans (2A); diisopropyl sulfate is possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B); sulfur dioxide, sulfites, metabisulfites and hydrochloric acid are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 336p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.

CIS 93-246 Geerissen H.
Protective gloves against chemicals
Chemikalienschutzhandschuhe [in German]
Types and properties of materials used: natural rubber; chloroprene rubber; acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber; isobutylene-isoprene-rubber; fluorinated rubber; polyvinyl chloride; polyvinyl alcohol; methods used to assess protection against chemicals (permeability, resistance to degradation and stretching). Critical discussion of various criteria and concepts used to evaluate the resistance of protective gloves.
Die BG, Aug. 1992, Vol.8, p.460-466. Illus.

CIS 93-292
Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen
Methods for the calculation of physical effects resulting from releases of hazardous substances (liquids and gases)
Description of standard calculation procedures to be used for the evaluation of physical effects resulting from a release of hazardous substances (liquids and gases). Methods are described for the calculation of: evaporation; thermal radiation; dispersion; vapour cloud explosion; consequences of the rupture of vessels. Each chapter is accompanied by a detailed list of symbols and units. In annex: list of commonly used hazardous substances (26 gases and 27 liquids), together with their important physical constants (molecular weight, saturation pressure, heat of evaporation, etc.).
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1992. 386p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-222 Bond G.G., Bodner K.M., Olsen G.W., Cook R.R.
Mortality among workers engaged in the development or manufacture of styrene-based products - An update
Mortality data were updated another 11 years through 1986 for a previously studied cohort of 2,904 male chemical workers who had been potentially exposed to styrene and related materials for a year or more between 1937 and 1971. Substantial deficits in mortality from all causes and from all cancers were observed in the cohort when it was compared with white males in the United States, and with other chemical workers who were unexposed to styrene-based products. Mortality from leukaemia was slightly less than expected, in contrast to an excess of lymphatic leukaemia observed in the original period. Yet small elevations in risk of other types of lymphatic cancer, particularly multiple myeloma, persisted. The risk of these cancers did not increase with estimated intensity or duration of styrene exposure. The findings are discussed in context with those of studies of similarly exposed workers in related industries.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.145-154. 23 ref.

CIS 93-132 Fishbein L.
Exposure from occupational versus other sources
This overview highlights a general comparison of exposure to indoor and outdoor levels of 12 volatile organic compounds and the exposure of workers and the general public to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, phthalate esters, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, radon and electromagnetic fields.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.5-16. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 92-1966 Melnick R.L., Huff J., Matanoski G.M.
Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene
This letter to the editor contends that carcinogenicity studies in laboratory animals provide a valuable means for predicting potential human risk. Data from animal experiments on the metabolism and carcinogenicity of butadiene are presented. Data available from previous epidemiological studies do not provide an appropriate evaluation of butadiene risk; the proposed lowering of the occupational exposure standard for butadiene in the US from 1000ppm to 2ppm is to be applauded.
Lancet, 19 Sep. 1992, vol.340, No.8821, p.724-725. 9 ref.

CIS 92-589
Health and Safety Executive
1,3-Butadiene in air
This guidance note is a revision of the 1986 edition (see CIS 88-961). A laboratory method using pumped molecular sieve absorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography is described. The method is suitable for sampling over periods of 10min to 8hr and may be used for the determination of personal exposure and (by suitable modification) for fixed location monitoring. Suitable for the measurement of airborne butadiene gas in the concentration range 0.2-100mg/m3 for samples of 5L of air. The overall precision of the method is expected to be better than 10% (assuming a pump error of 5%). The bias is expected to be better than 5%. Any compound that co-elutes with the butadiene under the operating conditions chosen is a potential interferent.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 7p. 11 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.

1991

CIS 92-1988 Mehlman M.A., Legator M.S.
Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry - Part II. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene
1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart haemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumours, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukaemias, and other cancers of haematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure. For previous article, see CIS 92-206.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.7, No.3, p.207-220. Illus. 29 ref.

1990

CIS 91-1239
Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter vaststelling van MAC-waarden (Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for 1,3-butadiene
The risks to human health of exposure to 1,3-butadiene are evaluated. Attention is given to: production, uses and occurrences; environmental and biological monitoring; occupational exposure limits in various countries; toxicokinetics; toxic effects (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and epidemiology). Based on long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice, differences between species (rats, mice) and the epidemiological data concerning cancer incidence (especially leukaemia) a risk evaluation was performed. When the risk of 4x10-3 is taken for the occupational population, the dose level will be 47.4mg/m3. With a risk level of 10-4 or 10-6 the dose level will be 1.18 and 0.012mg/m3, respectively.
Department of Social Affairs and Employment, Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 43p. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 90-1111 1,3-Butadiene
International chemical safety card. Danger symbols: highly flammable. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: bone marrow and liver disorders; probably carcinogenic to humans; may cause heritable genetic damage; suspected teratogen. EC identification number and labelling codes: 601-013-00-X; F; R13; S9-16-33. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 1010 (2.1; 3).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

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