Biotechnology industry - 58 entries found
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Foresight of new and emerging risks to occupational safety and health associated with new technologies in green jobs by 2020
This report describes the work carried out in the first phase of a project aimed at identifying key contextual drivers of change that could contribute to creating new and emerging risks associated with new technologies in green jobs within ten years. The report serves as an interim report to the whole project, which has several phases.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2011. 55p. Illus. 21 ref.
Foresight_of_new_and_emerging_risks_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Kjellén U., Motet G., Hale A.
Resolving multiple criteria in decision-making involving risk of accidental loss
The case studies and industries reviewed in this collection of articles on safety engineering include: road safety; traffic safety; oil and gas exploration in the Arctic Sea; chemical production; computer software; steel plant maintenance; pathogens in biotechnological research.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.795-901. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Sutton P.M., Quint J., Prudhomme J., Flattery J., Materna B., Harrison R.
Glutaraldehyde exposures among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves
This investigation was undertaken to describe exposure to glutaraldehyde among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves at two large manufacturers in California. The work process was observed, employer representatives and glutaraldehyde-exposed workers were interviewed, and employer records including industrial hygiene data were analyzed. Approximately 600 workers (mostly women) had continuous airborne exposure to glutaraldehyde. Short-term exposures were all well below the current regulatory ceiling level (0.20ppm). However, approximately 40% of the glutaraldehyde-related job tasks involved exposures above the ACGIH threshold limit value ceiling of 0.05ppm. Two cases of physician-diagnosed asthma were recorded in one company in the previous 5-year period. Employers should implement additional engineering controls to limit workers' exposures to at a maximum level of 0.015ppm, require the use of gloves and implement a medical surveillance programme for glutaraldehyde-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.311-320. Illus. 41 ref.
Occupational asthma due to enzymes
Asthme professionnel aux enzymes [in French]
Enzymes are used in many industries and activities. Whenever they are handled as powders or aerosols, there is a risk of respiratory sensitization. Sensitization is due to their protein structure and not to their enzymatic activity. The sectors of activity most frequently involved are the detergents industry, enzyme production, biotech research, the pharmaceutical industry and the food industry, particularly the bakery products industry. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, exposure to enzymes in powered or aerosol form and positive skin or blood tests. Atopy constitutes a risk factor but enzyme asthma is always the result of deficient working conditions; its prevention requires strict workplace hygiene. Rhinitis and asthma caused by enzymes are recognized as occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.553-564. 64 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2040/$File/TR40.pdf [in French]
Enzymes as occupational and environmental respiratory sensitisers
Airborne enzymes occurring in the general environment and in purified form in industrial production have a high allergenic potential to the airways and mucous membranes, causing rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. It can be assumed that this also applies to the increasing number of enzymes manufactured by the cloning of genetically engineered microorganisms. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate exposure-response relations for IgE-mediated sensitization and airway disorders. Atopic individuals are more susceptible to enzyme allergy than non-atopic individuals. Skin prick testing and measurement of specific IgE antibodies have been shown to be useful diagnostic tools. Very high concentrations of proteases may lead to emphysema. There is also evidence of non-allergic airway inflammation by proteases. It is recommended that all enzymes be classified with the risk phrase R42 (may cause sensitization by inhalation) and that their inhalation uptake be totally avoided.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.279-286. Illus. 41 ref.
Goldstein D.A., Shelton P.E., Cullen M.R., Easterday P.A., Eppard P.J., Cabanilla B.R.
Responding to the challenge of novel technology: An industrial hygiene and safety program for antibody production in maize
This article examines the challenges to occupational hygiene and safety posed by biotechnology, in particular the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants. These challenges include: the widely varying potential for hazard depending on the activity of the protein and the nature and location of the target organ; limited data relating to industrial routes of exposure; and the inability to obtain relevant animal data because of high species-specificity. An approach to industrial hygiene and safety in this area is proposed based on the systematic assessment of employee risk using conservative assumptions and on the management of exposure. The method is described with reference to the production of monoclonal antibodies in maize.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.784-790. Illus. 32ref.
Les agents biologiques [in French]
Occupational exposure to biological agents may give rise to hazards in cases where these agents are pathogenic. Some workers are exposed to biological agents under controlled conditions, for example in biotechnology research laboratories or in the pharmaceutical industry, while others may be exposed without fully understanding the hazards, as may be the case in waste water treatment, solid waste disposal or health care settings. In either case, the evaluation and prevention of biological hazards require a proper understanding of these pathological biological agents and their hazards. This document describes the various types of biological agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths), their form of life, their industrial relevance and their potential pathogenic effects.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2004, No.639, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.
Wirtanen G., Salo S.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
34th R3-Nordic contamination control symposium
Proceedings of a conference on contamination control held in Turku, Finland, 2-4 June 2003. Papers are grouped according to the sessions in which they were presented: plenary session on contamination control; contamination control in food processing and biotechnology; contamination control in pharmaceutical processes; contamination control in microelectronics and clean room technology.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2003. 418p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 85.00 (+ 8% VAT).
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/symposiums/2003/S229.pdf [in English]
Brasseur G., Balty I., David C., Le Bâcle C., Leprince A.
Biological hazards in the workplace: Does it concern all of us?
Risques biologiques au travail - Sommes-nous tous concernés? [in French]
Many biological agents are encountered in occupational settings. They may give rise to allergies or cancers, and the toxins they liberate may cause poisonings. According to a survey carried out in 1994, 10% of French employees are exposed to biological agents in the course of their work. Health care personnel, persons working in the presence of animals, laboratory workers, workers in the food industry and waste disposal workers are particularly exposed to this hazard. This collection of articles discusses some of the general aspects of these hazards, applicable regulations and appropriate preventive measures, and describes the specific aspects of a number of industries ands sectors: antenna maintenance workers exposed to bird droppings; manufacturing processes involving fermentation; chicken processing plants; medical laboratories; processing of meat carcasses.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2003, No.625, p.20-35. Illus. 3 ref.
Danneberg G., Tichy H.V., Simon R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Selection of work processes and equipment for biotechnological laboratories
Auswahl von Arbeitsverfahren und Ausrüstungsgegenständen für biotechnische Laboratorien [in German]
This study examines operating procedures and equipment used in biotechnology laboratories in terms of their ability to offer a maximum degree of protection to workers against hazards from exposure to biological substances. Standard scenarios applicable to laboratory work were developed and their frequency of use was determined by means of a questionnaire. For the most frequent work procedures, a description and an evaluation of each step is presented, along with the specific corresponding hazards. Modifications of the procedures aimed at minimizing the risks and taking into account currently-available equipment and instruments are proposed. The study highlights gaps in the area of the evaluation of aerosols formed during many procedures and in data concerning the survival capacity of biological products in ambient conditions in laboratories. Further work in these areas is warranted.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. viii, 149p. 54 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Barth U., Hesener U., Kaufmann M., Blum C., Wörsdörfer K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Study of the applicability of normal chemical plant safety checks to biotechnology plants
Untersuchung der Übertragbarkeit der in chemischen Anlagen üblichen Sicherheitsbetrachtung auf biotechnische Anlagen [in German]
This report proposes an approach for testing the safety of biotechnology plants, based on the German Regulation for Hazardous Substances "Safety Technology" (Technische Regeln für Gefarhstoffe "Sicherheitstechnik", TRGS 300). It takes into account the specific aspects of biological substances as well as the working procedures of the biotechnology industry. Reference is made to current legal requirements in Germany. The validity of the approach is illustrated by reference to several of examples of plants and working procedures. The specific case of genetic engineering is discussed. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 215p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: EUR 18.00.
Notification No.642 of 2001 concerning genetic technology and the work environment [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om genteknolgi og arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
Contents of this notification implementing in Denmark the provisions of Directive 90/219/EEC (see CIS 93-1075), as modified by Directive 98/81/EC: scope (work with genetically modifed organisms (GMOs)); definitions; safety and health evaluations; classification of laboratories, laboratory environments and research and production facilities where GMOs are present; notification and approval of research and laboratory projects and of research and production facilities where GMOs are used; substitution; general safety requirements; exemptions; penalties. In annex: techniques for producing GMOs; notification and classification tables for laboratories, laboratory environments and installations where large-scale research and production involving GMOs takes place; evaluation of biological systems; guidelines for risk evaluation. Notification No.384 of 2000 (CIS 01-1295) on the same subject is repealed.
Lovtidende A, 28 June 2001, Vol.108, No.642, p.3826-3856.
http://www.arbejdstilsynet.dk/Overblik/atviden/bekendtg/B064201/B064201.htm [in Danish]
Notification No.384 of 2000 concerning genetic technology and the work environment [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om genteknologi og arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
Contents of this notification implementing in Denmark the provisions of Directive 90/219/EEC (see CIS 93-1075): scope (work with genetically modifed organisms (GMOs)); definitions; safety and health evaluations; classification of laboratories using GMOs; notification and approval of research and laboratory projects using GMOs; general safety requirements; exemptions; penalties. In annex: techniques for producing GMOs; classification of laboratories; evaluation methods; notification and approval of projects. Notification No.684 of 11 Oct. 1991 (CIS 94-418) on the same subject, as modified by Notification No.705 of 22 July 1996, is repealed.
Lovtidende A, 6 June 2000, Vol.83, No.382-387, p.2404-2435.
http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOC_/ACCN/B20000038405-REGL [in Danish]
Ordinance of 25 Aug. 1999 concerning the protection of workers against the risks connected to microorganisms [Switzerland]
Ordonnance du 25 août 1999 sur la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés aux microorganismes (OPTM) [Suisse] [in French]
Verordnung vom 25. August 1999 über den Schutz der Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer vor Gefährdung durch Mikroorganismen (SAMV) [in German]
Ordinanza del 25 agosto 1999 sulla protezione dei lavoratori dal pericolo derivante da microorganismi (OPLM) [in Italian]
Contents of this Ordinance (effective 1 Nov. 1999): definitions; classification of microorganisms; obligations of employers (hazard identification, risk evaluation, safety measures, information and training, medical surveillance, notification of use); obligations of workers. In annex: definition of the techniques of genetic modification; hazard evaluation techniques; safety measure techniques in case of microorganism utilization (with particular techniques listed for: research and development laboratories, locales and isolation chambers used for microorganism culture, units reserved for animals, microorganism production installations).
Amtliche Sammlung des Bundesrechts - Recueil officiel des lois fédérales, 23 Nov. 1999, No.46, p.2826-2835. + Annexe (16p.).
http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c832_321.html [in German]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/i/rs/8/832.321.it.pdf [in Italian]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/c832_321.html [in French]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Conditions requiring special attention with respect to medical supervision
Auswahlkriterien für die spezielle arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorge [in German]
These guidelines by the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association are aimed at occupational physicians. They concern exposures requiring special attention with respect to medical supervision and are divided into four sections: general guidelines concerning medical supervision; carcinogenic substances; non-carcinogenic harmful substances; other harmful exposures or situations (noise, cold and hot workplaces, strenuous work, respirators, hyperbaric pressure, work in foreign countries involving exposure to unusual climatic conditions and health hazards, welding fumes, risk of falls, infection hazards, biotechnology).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 1998. Binder containing 49 guidance sheets. Approx. 250p. Illus.
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
The large-scale contained use of biological agents
This booklet is intended as a supplement to guidance (see CIS 96-1100) on the requirements of the U.K. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-19).
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. vi, 58p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Héran-Le Roy O., Sandret N., Leprince A., Abadia G.
Results of the "SUMER 94" survey: Exposure to biological agents at work
Résultats de l'enquête "SUMER 94" - Exposition aux agents biologiques en milieu de travail [in French]
Topics: agricultural operations; biological hazards; biotechnology industry; exposure evaluation; fermentation; food industry; France; funeral services; health services; job-exposure relation; laboratory work; legislation; microorganisms; sewage treatment; statistics; survey.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.73, p.39-45.
Vanhanen M., Tuomi T., Nordman H., Tupasela O., Holmberg P.C., Miettinen M., Mutanen P., Leisola M.
Sensitization to industrial enzymes in enzyme research and production
A cross-sectional study among 173 employees in two plants producing industrial enzymes and in their product development and research laboratories confirmed that industrial enzymes are potent sensitizers. The handling of dry enzymes in laboratory work may cause sensitization. Sensitization may even follow minute degrees of exposure, such as among office personnel. Atopics are more susceptible than nonatopics, but nonatopics are also clearly at risk. The demonstrated exposure-response relationship observed for enzyme sensitization and for respiratory symptoms during work emphasizes the need for and advantages of proper exposure control. Topics: allergens; allergy tests; amylase; biotechnology industry; dose-response relationship; dyspnoea; enzymes; individual susceptibility; rhinitis; sensitization.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.5, p.385-391, 18 ref.
These nine chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various process industries: power generation; chemical industry; polymers and rubbers; paint industry; pharmaceutical industry; biotechnology industry; food processing industry; paper, pulp and chloralkali industry; tobacco industry.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.297-433. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Risk management in the use of biological agents: Biotechnology, genetic engeneering. Brochure 1: Principles - Methods, applications, safety problems
Maîtrise du risque dans l'emploi des agents biologiques: biotechnologies, génie génétique. Brochure 1: Principes - Méthodes, applications, problèmes de sécurité [in French]
Topics: bacteria; biological hazards; biotechnology industry; European Communities; genetic engineering; glossary; hazard evaluation; infection control; ISSA; legislation; microorganisms; viruses.
International Section of the International Social Security Association (ISSA) for the Prevention of Occupational Risks in the Chemical Industry, Kurfürsten Anlage 62, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany, 1996. 121p. Illus. 26 ref.
Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 [New Zealand]
This Act (dated 10.6.1996, commencement: at a later date) aims at the protection of the environment, people and communities by controlling the adverse effects of hazardous substances and new organisms. Contents: definitions; administrative aspects, including the establishment of the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA); assessment of hazardous substances and new organisms (these include both species not present in New Zealand and genetically modified organisms); controls (Hazard Classification System, test certification, transferable permits); inspection and enforcement; emergencies; transitional provisions (expiry: 1.1.2000; they concern general matters, pesticides, toxic substances, dangerous goods, explosives, new organisms). In annex: provisions relating to ERMA; list of prohibited new organisms (plants and animals; among the latter, e.g. all snakes); containment control measures for development and field testing of genetically modified organisms; lists of substances relevant to transitional provisions (controlled pesticides, toxic substances, dangerous goods, explosives). A number of Acts and other legal instruments are repealed, among which: the Explosives Act 1957 (CIS 88-30), the Dangerous Goods Act 1974 (CIS 94-765), various Regulations under this Act (CIS 94-773), the Toxic Substances Act 1979 (CIS 90-708) and the Pesticides Act 1979 (CIS 89-1080).
Government Printer, P.O.Box 12,411, Wellington, New Zealand, 1996. 252p.
http://www.legislation.govt.nz/browse_vw.asp?content-set=pal_statutes [in English]
Lee S.B., Ryan L.J.
Occupational health and safety in the biotechnology industry - A survey of practicing professionals
A survey of 12 biotechnology companies in the USA revealed that a large proportion of the workers had no exposure to biohazards. All of the companies reported that formal biological, chemical and radiation safety programmes were in operation, and that employee medical surveillance examinations were being conducted. The person most responsible for health and safety programmes averaged 65% of work time on such issues. Health and safety staffing levels were approximately 1.0 to 1.5 full-time staff equivalents per 100 workers. Lost time and injury rates were significantly lower than in other industries selected for comparison.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.381-386. Illus. 15 ref.
Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification (ACGM)
Genetic modification - Risks and safeguards
This report, aimed at a general audience, discusses the current hazards posed by genetic modification (genetic engineering) as practised in the biotechnology industry. Main points considered: benefits; risks (production of new infectious or drug-resistant micro-organisms, harmful genetic material might be transferred to humans, genetically modified plants might displace existing vegetation, modified micro-organisms might interfere with the natural recycling of nutrients in the environment); risk assessment and the development of controls; functions of the ACGM; main activities in genetic modification (research, large-scale work, release into the environment); international aspects (role of the European Communities, OECD and the United Nations); current structure of controls in the UK (contained use, release and marketing, enforcement by HSE); future trends (gene therapy, novel foods, genetic screening, transgenic animals). Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 24p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.
Technischer Überwachungs-Verein Bayern Sachsen e.v. Umwelt und Entwicklung
Safety and health framework for emergency plans in genetic engineering plants
Sicherheitstechnische Rahmenbedingungen für Notfallpläne bei gentechnischen Anlagen [in German]
The facts that need to be taken into account in making emergency plans for genetic engineering plants include: the location of the plant, the number of employees, the type of organisms used, the equipment and buildings, the internal and external hazards such as equipment failure, fire, explosion, human failure, natural disasters that could cause the release of harmful genetically-engineered organisms into the environment, the dispersion of the released organisms in soil, water and the atmosphere and the consequences. Two fictive cases, an explosion in the immediate vicinity of a genetic engineering plant and the explosion of a fermentor inside a genetic engineering plant are used to illustrate measures needed for protection from, or containment of, inadvertent releases.
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen, Rosenkavalierplatz 2, 81925 München, Germany, June 1993. iii, 235p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine - First European meeting - Topic 1: Environment and occupational medicine
XXIIes Journées nationales de médecine du travail - Première rencontre européenne - Thème 1: Environnement et médecine du travail [in French]
Papers and posters presented at the XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine on the environment and occupational medicine (Nantes, France, 2-5 June 1992). Main topics relating to health at work: biotechnology and occupational medicine; major chemical and technological risks; occupational medicine and the circadian rhythm; toxicological database for use in case of a major accident (Isère, France); waste dump workers as sentinels for the general public; utility to occupational medicine of requests for permits to market chemical products; collection of household waste in a large city: environmental and occupational risks; biocidal substances in water and occupational pathology; the environment and the quarrying industry; chemical risk and the environment in the building industry. Posters.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.2, vi, 172p. Bibl.ref.
Risk assessment - International conference 1992
Proceedings of an international conference on risk assessment held in London, United Kingdom, 5-9 October 1992. Papers are presented under the following headings: what is risk assessment and what do we want from it? (views and needs of employers, employees, consumers and environmentalists); the role of risk assessment in international policy; risk assessment in practice (chemicals, pesticides, radiation, biotechnology, offshore installations, nuclear industry, transport); risk assessment in decision-making (environmental policy, cost analysis); communicating risk assessments; how well does risk assessment serve our needs?
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2 vols. 563p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Collins C.H., Beale A.J.
Safety in industrial microbiology and biotechnology
This collection of papers presents the views of a number of scientists on the hazards involved in work with both naturally occurring and genetically-modified microorganisms along with outline precautions. Contents: overview of safety in microbiology; current legislation (UK, other European countries, EEC directives, USA, Japan) and regulatory frameworks; hazard groups and containment categories; assessment of risk; pathogenicity testing; recombinant plasmids; safe handling of mammalian cells on an industrial scale; recombinant DNA techniques in production; engineering for safe processing; containment in the development and manufacture of recombinant DNA-derived products; monitoring and validation in biotechnological processes; occupational health implications of industrial biotechnology.
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 1992. ix, 257p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 60.00.
Occupational Safety and Health Symposium on Biotechnology
Symposium sur la santé et la sécurité au travail en biotechnologie [in French]
Proceedings of an occupational safety and health symposium on biotechnology held in Montreal, Canada, 21-22 March 1991. Topics covered: biotechnology developments in Canada and activities in the industrial and manufacturing sectors, waste management during mineral leaching and agriculture; regulatory approaches in Canada, the USA and Europe; workplace issues (hazard identification, assessment of risk and development of criteria; exposure assessment and control options; biosafety committees); ethics.
Technical Services Division, Occupational Safety and Health Branch, Labour Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0J2, Canada, 1992. viii, 174p. Bibl.ref.
Notification on genetic technology and the working environment [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om genteknologi og arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
This notification is the ratification of directive 90/219/EEC (see CIS 93-1075), which came into force on 23 Oct. 1991. It applies to all work with genetically modified organisms (plants, animals, microorganisms, cultures of cells and viruses). Laboratories where such organisms are handled are obliged to obtain a classification and clearance from the Occupational Safety and Health Services. Research projects involving such organisms are to be registered before they start. Large-scale research plans must also be registered, this applying as well to each project using organisms believed to be harmful. Production plants must be registered with and approved by the Occupational Safety and Health Services. Employers are obliged to provide written safety instructions to staff and to apply safety measures. Classifications and clearances can be withdrawn if the conditions are not complied with.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1991. 33p.
Goldburg R., Rissler J., Shand H., Hassebrook C.
Biotechnology's bitter harvest. Herbicide-tolerant crops and the threat to sustainable agriculture
This report examines the extent of current herbicide use and research into herbicide-tolerant crops and trees and discusses the human health, environmental, social and economic aspects of herbicides and herbicide-tolerant plants. Alternative methods of weed control developed in the context of sustainable agriculture are outlined. Recommendations are made to discourage the development and adoption of herbicide-tolerant crops and trees.
The Biotechnology Working Group, USA, 1990. 73p. ca. 160 ref.
Environment and health - The European Charter [WHO] and commentary: First European Conference on Environment and Health, Frankfurt, 7-8 Dec. 1989
Environnement et santé - La Charte européenne [OMS] et son commentaire: première conférence européenne sur l'environnement et la santé, Francfort, 7-8 déc. 1989 [in French]
A Charter was adopted in 1989 concerning the environment and health in Europe. This publication contains the text of the Charter and some commentary associated with it. The Charter consists of: preamble (basic principles); rights and responsibilities of individuals, public and private organisations and the media; principles of public policy; strategic elements; priorities (including, among others: hygienic waste disposal; environmental health impact of energy production, road transport and agriculture practices; air quality; persistent chemicals; hazardous wastes; biotechnology; contingency planning for accidents and disasters; cleaner technologies); future actions. The commentary includes a point-by-point survey of the background of the Charter.
WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1990. x, 154p. Price: CHF 26.00.
Collins C.H., Grange J.M.
The microbiological hazards of occupations
Topics covered in this book: descriptions of various types of microorganisms and methods of identification; host defence mechanisms, allergies, vaccination and immunisation; sources and routes of occupational infections and descriptions of job-associated diseases; respiratory allergies associated with microorganisms; safe working practices; sterilisation and disinfection of microbiological waste; microbiological monitoring; microbiological hazards of air conditioning, plumbing and humidifying systems; food-borne illnesses; working in controlled or sterile environments; use of microorganisms in industry; hazards and benefits of genetic engineering; personal protection; legal aspects.
Science Reviews Ltd. and H & H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1990. 134p. Illus. 38 ref.
Categories of large-scale containment for manufacturing processes with recombinant organisms
Chapter 1 of a major collection of articles on advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Contents: relevant discussions in the Robens' Report (1972) on safety at work, at the Gordon Research Conference on Nucleic Acids held in the US in 1973 and at the Asimolar Conference on recombinant DNA molecules (1975); the 1986 OECD Guidelines for recombinant DNA safety practices (see also CIS 87-550); definitions of containment systems (open and closed (primary and secondary containment) systems; containment of micro-organisms; temporal and biological containment); closed systems in practice; standards of primary and secondary containment; containment in open systems which "minimize release"; comparison of OECD, US and UK guidelines; validation of containment; classification of organisms and processes by categories.
In: Biotechnology and genetic engineering reviews (Volume 7) (editors: Russell G.E. & Tombs M.P.), Intercept Ltd., P.O. Box 716, Andover, Hants SP101YG, United Kingdom, 1989 (ISBN 0-946707-22-7, price: GBP 95.00), p.1-43. Illus. 61 ref.
Government of Ontario green paper - Biotechnology in Ontario - Growing safely
Government of Ontario Green Paper concerning the development of a regulatory policy relating to new advances in biotechnology. Contents: policy objectives; an explanation of the uses of biotechnology and its importance; the benefits and risks of commercial exploitation; the current scale and scope of biotechnology in Canada and Ontario; proposed Canadian regulatory controls; issues of concern to Ontario and possible legal frameworks. Appendices list relevant Canadian statutes covering agriculture, the environment, health and welfare, and control strategies in some other countries.
Ontario Ministry of Labour, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, Sep. 1989. 52p. Bibl.
Liberman D.F., Gordon J.G.
Biohazards management handbook
This handbook is divided into 3 main sections: 1. Facility considerations: design and ventilation of biomedical and other facilities and certification of biosafety cabinets; management programmes for pests and hazardous chemicals; hazard control on the animal research facility. 2. Biosafety principles and practices: laboratory and industrial perspectives on biosafety; hospital epidemiology and infection control; personal protection and hygiene and medical surveillance; infections waste management; safe use and disposal of chemotherapy agents; chemical health risks. 3. Regulatory agency consideration: controlling the release of microorganisms; consideration of OSHA standards as applied to laboratories; training program to meet the OSHA requirement on HBV/HIV.
Marcel Dekker Journals, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1989. 466p. Illus. Bibl. Price: USD 125.00 (for USA and Canada); USD 150.00 (for all other countries).
The first two information sheets on safety in biotechnology M 056 (Part 2) "Laboratories" and M 057 (Part 3) "Industrial plants" have appeared
Die ersten beiden Merkblätter "Sichere Biotechnologie" M 056 (Teil 2) "Laboratorien" und M 057 (Teil 3) "Betrieb" liegen nun vor [in German]
Safety measures are outlined, which are contained in two new information sheets on safety in bioengineering issued in compliance with German (Fed.Rep.) legal requirements. The measures address handling of organisms posing (1) no hazard, (2) low hazard, (3) moderate hazard and (4) high hazard in microbiological, biochemical and genetic engineering labs and in industrial plants where organisms are used in the production of substances.
Sichere Chemiearbeit, Apr. 1989, Vol.41, No.4, p.41-42. Illus.
Cygal'skij V.M., Andreev A.V., Kollo R.M., Kal'čenko K.I., Fridman Ja.S., Bodienkova G.M.
Safety in the microbiological industry
Tehnika bezopasnosti v mikrobiologičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This book is intended for engineers working in microbiolgoical plants, research and design institutes; it may be used as a textbook for university level students. Contents: principles of occupational safety and health (legislation, regulations, safety services, information and training); production processes; substances and products used in microbiological processes (physical and chemical properties, nature of exposure, classification according to toxicity, preventive measures); categories and classification of microbiological plants according to fire and explosion hazards; requirements for heating systems, ventilation, water supply, plumbing, lighting; safety requirements for assembly, use and repair of equipment systems and plants; electrical safety requirements for operating equipment (organisation and carrying out of work, personal protective equipment, gas protection services); safety of production processes; automation of production processes; occupational disease prevention; environmental protection; fire safety. Supplement: a list of premises and workplaces that should be equipped with automatic fire fighting plant.
Izdatel'stvo "Lesnaja promyšlennost'", ul. Kirova 40a, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 253p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: SUR 0.90.
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
12th International symposium on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in the chemical industry
12ème Colloque international pour la prévention des risques et des maladies professionnels dans l'industrie chimique [in French]
Report of a conference held at Frankfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany, 6-8 June 1988. The papers and discussions are grouped under the headings: biotechnology and genetic engineering; protection from substances hazardous to health. The papers are printed in their original languages, followed by summaries in English, French and German.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Gaisbergstrasse 11, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 588p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Biotechnology [Federal Republic of Germany]
Biotechnologie [in German]
These safety regulations deal with the handling of biological agents and the dangers arising therefrom. In particular, they cover: evaluation of biological hazards, biological agents, choice of technology, safety measures, personal qualifications and number of employees, instruction, cleaning and disinfection, maintenance, hygiene, disposal, appointment of a biological safety official, registration of genetic laboratories, notification and safety evaluation. Supplement: rules of implementation.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 12 + 9p.
Mikroorganismer [in Swedish]
This ordinance (effective 1 Oct. 1989) applies to all deliberate use of microorganisms i.e. in laboratories and biotechnology plants. It applies to microorganisms both in their original form and when genetically modified. Contens: general; information and instructions; workroom and technical equipment; personal protective equipment and hygiene; decontamination and waste disposal; classification; warning symbols. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 9 Dec. 1988. 34p.
Council decision of 29 June 1988 revising the multiannual research programme for the European Economic Community in the field of biotechnology [CEC]
Décision du Conseil, du 29 juin 1988, portant révision du programme pluriannuel d'action de recherche pour la Communauté économique européenne dans le domaine de la biotechnologie [CCE] [in French]
The revision of the programme specifies the activities which are to be intensified.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 July 1988, Vol.31, No. L206, p.38-40.
Lacey J., Crook B.
Fungal and actinomycete spores as pollutants of the workplace and occupational allergens
Heaviest exposure to airborne spores is often found in the workplace. Important sources are agricultural crops, mushrooms, wood for timber or pulping, composts, food processing and, increasingly, biotechnological processes. Many of the spores concerned are 1-5µm in diameter and they may number up to 1010 spores/m3 air. Many of the organisms found are well-known allergens and have been implicated in occupational asthma or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Some may also cause infection, e.g. Aspergillus fumigatus, or carry mycotoxins, e.g. Aspergillus flavus, while very intense exposure may cause "organic dust toxic syndrome". Important factors in the development of occupational asthma and allergic alveolitis are predisposition and the nature, intensity and duration of exposure. Examples of exposure to fungal and actinomycete spores in different occupational environments are described.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.4, p.515-533. Bibl.
Martinez K.F., Sheehy J.W., Jones J.H.
Control technology assessment of enzyme fermentation processes
This assessment was carried out by NIOSH to help establish a baseline of information, where there is currently none, on the equipment and related occupational safety and health programmes and practices used in enzyme fermentation processes. Walk-through surveys were conducted at 8 biotechnology plants and in-depth surveys were conducted at 3 of the plant sites selected during the walk-through surveys. Area aerosol samples were collected for viable process microorganisms, enzymes, and total dust around potential emission sites. These sites included the laboratories, seed and fermentor tanks, and filtering operations. The results indicate that the controls are most needed around high energy operations where aerosolisation is likely to occur such as filtering operations, agitator shafts, and sampling ports. Exhaust gas devices on the seed and fermentor tanks constitute another type of major emission site and should be controlled with an effective filtering system. Also, worker practices can be a determining factor influencing the degree of exposure.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Feb. 1988. 73p. Illus. 34 ref.
Martinez K.F., Sheehy J.W., Jones J.H., Cusick L.B.
Microbial containment in conventional fermentation processes
Walkthrough surveys were conducted by NIOSH at 6 US fermentation plants. About 200 bioaerosol samples were collected using a 2-stage cascade impactor. The highest measurement obtained was at a filter press where the geometric mean of total viable microorganisms was 5626 colony forming units/m3 with the predominant strain being the process microorganism. The data collected indicate that controls are most needed around high-energy oprerations where aerosolution is likely to occur, such as filtering operations, agitator shafts, and sampling ports. In addition, work practices are a major factor to be considered.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, June 1988, Vol.3, No.6, p.177-181. Illus. 15 ref.
Safety regulation concerning biotechnology
Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Biotechnologie" [in German]
The safety regulation concerning biotechnology that went into effect in the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 January 1988 concerns all plants in which biological agents are handled. The definition of biological agents includes living hazardous or non-hazardous cells, cell systems or parts of cells as well as viruses or in-vitro newly combined nucleic acids. The technical and organisational safety measures requested by the regulation are summarised.
Sichere Chemiearbeit, Feb. 1988, Vol.40, No.2, p.13-14.
Maroni M., Colombi A., Alcini D., Foà V.
Health risks in the biotechnology industry
Rischi per la salute nell'industria delle biotecnologie [in Italian]
Study of the specific risks of the biotechnology industry. They are: immunological diseases (bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis) - in some sectors (bioenzymes, pharmaceuticals, animal husbandry), such diseases may affect up to 30% of workers; immune deficits due to exposure to antiblastic drugs, immunodepressive substances or radiations; toxic effects due to exposure to antibotics and hormones; pathological effects of microorganisms (mycoses of the skin, exposure to antiviral vaccines, possible effects of exposure to microorganisms with recombinant DNA). Preventive methods are recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1987, Vol.78, No.4, p.272-282. 20 ref.
Resolution 87/C 328/01 of the European Communities and of the representatives of the governments of the Member States, on the continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992) [CEC]
Résolution 87/C 328/01 du Conseil des communautés européennes et des représentants des gouvernements des états membres concernant la poursuite et la réalisation d'une politique et d'un programme d'action des C.E. en matière d'environnement (1987-1992) [CCE] [in French]
This Resolution defines the priority areas within which Community action must concentrate. Within the section devoted to the prevention and control of pollution, there are separate paragraphs on the control of chemical substances and preparations, and on the prevention of industrial accidents. In the appendix there are more detailed descriptions of proposed actions on chemical products, biotechnology, noise and nuclear safety.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 7 Dec. 1987, No.C 328, p.1-44.
Di Martino V., Yoxen E., Wakeford R.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions: A selected bibliography
Bibliography listing ca. 600 articles, books, reports and other documents relating to the impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions. Chapters cover: work employment and industry; medicine; environment; agriculture; society and government. Most citations are accompanied by abstracts. Indexes by author and keyword.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1987. 107p. Price (excluding VAT): ECU 9.40, BEF 400.00, IEP 7.30, GBP 7.10, USD 10.90.
The problems of technological change are covered. Discussed are: definitions of "new technology" with illustrations; perceptions of hazard and risk recognition; problems and opportunities; successes and failures with new technology; management of change; conclusions.
Occupational Safety and Health, June 1987, Vol.17, No.6, p.16-19. Illus. 11 ref.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The impact of biotechnology on living and working conditions
Die Auswirkungen der Biotechnologie auf die Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen [in German]
L'impact de la biotechnologie sur les conditions de vie et de travail [in French]
This consolidated report on 4 research reviews of different aspects of biotechnology covers: general considerations of biotechnology; biotechnology and health care; the impact of biotechnology on agriculture (substitution, changes in the sources of carbohydrates); the impact of biotechnology on work and employment; environmental aspects (accidental or deliberate release of genetically engineered organisms, applications of biotechnology in pollution control, environmental impact of substitution by fermentation processes - the case of ethanol). Conclusions and suggestions for further research.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1987. 114p. 145 ref. Price (excluding VAT): ECU 8.10, BFR 350.00, IEP 6.30, GBP 5.80, USD 9.20.
Threats and biological risks; Biotechnological applications
Amenazas y riesgos biológicos; Aplicaciones de las biotecnologías/Amenazas y riesgos biológicos; Aplicaciones de las biotecnologías [in Spanish]
First part of a review article concerning the risks related to the rapid development of biotechnology, especially in the field of genetic engineering. Contents: the biological revolution and its consequences; risks and threats in biology; impacts of the biotechnological development; prevention of accidents; the problems of genetic engineering; future perspectives; security and regulations concerning biotechnology.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1987, No.101, p.9-22. Illus.
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