Plastics industry - 408 entries found
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Collective labour agreement on the improvement of working conditions
Convenção coletiva de melhorla des condições de trabalho [in Portuguese]
Collective labour agreement on the improvement of working conditions in sectors using presses and similar equipment, plastic injection molding machines and electroplating equipment in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sindicato dos trabalhadores metalúrgicos de São Paulo e Mogi das Cruzes, Palácio do Trabalhador, rua Galvão Bueno 782, CEP 01506-000, Bairro da Liberdade, São Paulo, Brazil, 2011, 62p. Illus. 7 ref.
Convenção_coletiva_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]
Jocelyn S., Massé S., Sirard C.
Horizontal plastic injection molding machine - Safety checklists
Presse à injection de plastique horizontale - Grilles de vérification de la sécurité [in French]
This checklist consists of a simple tool for checking the safeguards for horizontal plastic injection molding machines. Developed to support companies in the plastics processing industry in their efforts to prevent accidents involving horizontal plastic injection molding machines, it can also serve as a basic document for the workers' training. It is based on the recognized United States Standard ANSI/SPI B151.1 - 2007.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. 13p. Illus. 3 ref.
Presse_à_injection_de_plastique_horizontale_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Horizontal_plastic_injection_molding_machine_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Hecht C., Jargot D.
Workers' exposure evaluation during the processing of epoxy resins
Evaluer l'exposition des salariés lors de la mise en œuvre de résines époxydiques [in French]
Following several requests from automotive component manufacturers, aerospace enterprises and ski manufacturers wishing to evaluate and characterize occupational exposures to epoxy resins, IRNS undertook a sampling campaign between 2005 and 2007. All the substances contained in the products used were identified, after which atmospheric and surface samplings were carried out within the enterprises and analyzed for monomers, amines, acid anhydrides and glycidic esters. It is concluded that inhalation exposures to monomers are very low or non-existent, even under hot processing conditions. The little exposures that do exist concern airborne hardeners or skin contact with monomers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.49-60. Illus. 34 ref.
TF_190.pdf [in French]
Associação Empresarial de Portugal (AEP), Programa Operacional de Assistência Técnica (POAT)
Prevent!ng - Prevention as a solution: Rubber and plastics industry
Preven!r - Prevenção como solução: Indústria da borracha e das matérias plásticas [in Portuguese]
This CD-ROM includes a manual on good working practices in the rubber and plastics industry in Portugal. The analysis of this sector was part of a larger technical assistance programme, whose main objective was to support companies to implement measures to achieve desired operational efficiency, with a focus on occupational safety and health. The programme is primarily aimed at small and medium enterprises.
www.prevenirparainovar.com, Portugal, 2011. CD-ROM.
Chang T.Y., Wang V.S., Lin S.Y., Yen H.Y., Lai J.S., Liu C.S.
Co-exposure to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide, and toluene on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in synthetic leather workers
Independent exposures to noise, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or toluene have been associated with cardiovascular effects, but the combined effects are not clear. This study investigated ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in workers co-exposed to noise, DMF, and toluene. Twenty workers in a synthetic leather manufacturing company were recruited as study subjects. Personal noise exposure and ambulatory blood pressure were measured concomitantly for 24 h; airborne co-exposure to DMF and toluene during the working period was also analyzed to identify solvents exposure. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate effects on ambulatory blood pressure by controlling potential confounders. No significant differences in SBP and DBP were found between six high-solvent-exposure workers and office workers during any periods. After the Bonferroni correction, there were no significant differences in ambulatory blood pressure between high-exposure groups and the low-exposure groups. Our findings suggest no interactive effects of co-exposure to noise, DMF and toluene on workers' ambulatory blood pressure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.14-22. 38 ref.
Co-exposure_to_noise.pdf [in English]
Jargot D., Hecht C.
Assessment of employee exposure when using epoxy resins
Evaluation de l'exposition des salariés lors de la mise en œuvre de résines époxydiques [in French]
This article presents the results of a study conducted by INRS at the request of several companies wishing to assess and characterize occupational exposure to epoxy resins. Atmospheric and surface samples of resin monomers (DGEBA and/or DGEBF), amines, acid anhydrides and glycidylic ethers were collected at the workplaces. The airborne resin monomer concentrations were generally very low or undetectable, even when hot resins were used. The detected exposures were due to hardening agents in air or skin contact with resin monomers. The schedule of occupational diseases in France now allows consideration of hardeners and recognition of allergic respiratory diseases contracted when preparing and using epoxy resins.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.13-20. Illus. 27 ref.
ND_2332-220-10.pdf [in French]
Graf J.J., Sathiakumar N., Macaluso M., Maldonado G., Matthews R., Delzell E.
Chemical exposures in the synthetic rubber industry and lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality
This study evaluated the association between exposure to several chemicals and mortality from lymphohaematopoietic cancer (LHC) among 16,579 synthetic rubber industry workers who were followed up from 1943 to 1998. Poisson regression analyses examined LHC rates in relation to butadiene, styrene and dimethyl dithiocarbamate (DMDTC) exposure, after adjusting for other agents and potential confounders. Cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was associated positively with all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia and to a lesser extent with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Adjusting for styrene and DMDTC attenuated these associations. After controlling for butadiene, neither styrene nor DMDTC displayed a consistent exposure-response trend, whether for all leukaemia, chronic myelogenous leukaemia, or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.47, No.9, p.916-932. 50 ref.
Occupational respiratory allergies to acid anhydrides
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux anhydrides d'acide [in French]
Anhydrides of di- and tri-carboxylic acids are extremely reactive chemicals. They are widely used in the plastics industry. They are responsible for many allergic respiratory problems that result from their inhalation in the form of powder or smoke in occupational settings. Contents of this information sheet on occupational respiratory allergies to acid anhydrides: pathophysiology; prevalence among exposed occupations; diagnosis at the place of work; confirmation of diagnosis in a specialised medical institution; evolution; prevention; compensation of occupational diseases.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.79-87. 63 ref.
Kaur S., Mursyid A., Ariffin A.E.
Colour vision of workers in the plastic industry
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of polyethylene and polystyrene used in the manufacture of plastic items on colour perception. Colour vision was assessed using the Ishihara plates, panel 015 test and the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue test. Factory A used polyethylene in pellet form in the manufacturing of plastic containers while factory B used polystyrene to make plastic bags. A total of 39 healthy employees from factory A and 40 healthy employees from factory B were recruited, together with a control group of 27 healthy subjects with no occupational involvement with petroleum derivatives. All control subjects passed all of the colour vision tests whilst some employees of factories A and B failed the 015 and FM 100 Hue tests. It is concluded that employees of plastics processing factories may be at a higher risk of acquiring colour vision defects.
Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.1, No.1, p.3-8. Illus. 26 ref.
Hsiao T.J., Wang J.D., Yang P.M., Yang P.C., Cheng T.J.
Liver fibrosis in asymptomatic polyvinyl chloride workers
This study was designed to determine whether vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is associated with liver fibrosis. 347 workers with occupational exposure to VCM were systemically examined using liver ultrasonography and routine liver function tests. Vinyl chloride monomer cumulative dose (ppm-month) was estimated by summing the products of air VCM concentration levels and months of employment. Liver fibrosis was defined in subjects with precirrhosis and cirrhosis of the liver diagnosed using ultrasonography. Significantly increased risks of developing liver fibrosis were found in workers who had a history of high exposure jobs (odds ratio 5.5) when compared with workers without such a history. It is concluded that there is an increased risk of developing liver fibrosis in PVC workers with high exposures to VCM.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.9, p.962-966. 20 ref.
Mutagenic testing of workers exposed to toluene-diisocyanates during plastics production process
This study on the potential mutagenicity of toluene diisocyanates (TDI) involved 26 workers exposed to TDI during the production of plastics, together with 21 non-exposed controls. The concentration of TDI ranged between 0.007mg/3 and 0.016mg/3. Structural chromosome aberrations (SCA) were evaluated in 200 lymphocytes of peripheral blood, with an average occurrence of 2.6. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were examined in 50 cells, the average occurrence being 8.127. Micronuclei (MN) were examined in 500 blocked cytokinesis cells, with an average occurrence of 12.07. The corresponding averages of the control group were 1.89 (SCA), 5.52 (SCE) and 4.38 (MN), respectively. The difference between the groups is of statistical significance, thus confirming the mutagenic activity of toluene diisocyanates or their metabolites.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2004, Vol.45, No.5, p.468-474. 25 ref.
Lewis R., Rempala G.
A case-cohort study of angiosarcoma of the liver and brain cancer at a polymer production plant
Past studies have reported excesses of angiosarcoma of the liver and brain cancer at a polymer production plant in Louisville, Kentucky. Although angiosarcoma has clearly been linked to vinyl chloride exposure, the cause of the brain cancer excess has been uncertain. Case-cohort and case-control studies of both conditions were conducted in relation to chemicals used in the production of polyvinyl chloride and nitrile rubber. Angiosarcoma was strongly associated with vinyl chloride exposure but not with other chemicals used in production. Brain cancer was highest in workers hired prior to 1950 but was not associated with vinyl chloride or other specific exposures or production processes. This brain cancer cluster is similar to those reported in other industries in this generation of workers, the specific cause remaining unknown.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.538-545. Illus. 19 ref.
Lewis R., Rempala G., Dell L.D., Mundt K.A.
Vinyl chloride and liver and brain cancer at a polymer production plant in Louisville, Kentucky
Various cohort studies in the United States have shown an excess mortality from brain cancer among workers exposed to vinyl chloride (VC). One plant located in Louisville, Kentucky, is included in many of these earlier reports. In this study, this plant was separated from the large US cohort and the mortality data were re-analyzed. It was found that Louisville experienced significantly elevated liver cancer mortality (standardized mortality analyses (SMR) = 400) and brain cancer mortality (SMR = 229). When Louisville was removed from the larger cohort, liver cancer mortality remained significantly elevated in the remaining cohort (SMR = 344) while brain cancer mortality was markedly reduced (SMR = 112). In contrast to liver cancer, a preliminary review of work assignments did not suggest that the brain cancer excess was related to VC exposure. The Louisville brain cancer cluster has had a significant impact on the reported literature. Although unrelated to VC, the cause of this cluster remains uncertain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.533-537. 24 ref.
Optical barrier curtains for preventing accidents during short preparation times
Lichtgitter verhindern Unfälle bei kurzen Rüstzeiten [in German]
This article describes the safety modifications made to equipment in a plastics processing enterprise. A new tilting support for moulds as well as a tilting mould enclosure unit were developed for reducing the required preparation times during product changes. To minimize the risk of being crushed during these operations, hazardous areas were protected by optical barrier curtains inclined at 30°. This inclination allows one to dispense with the horizontal barrier curtain that would normally be required to protect the operators when moving back.
Maschinenmarkt, Jan. 2002, No.1/2, p.32-33. Illus.
Kolstad H.A., Bisanti L., Roeleveld N., Baldi R., Bonde J.P., Joffe M.
Time to pregnancy among male workers of the reinforced plastics industry in Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands
The relationship between occupational styrene exposure and male fecundity was examined among 1560 Danish, Italian and Dutch reinforced plastics workers. 220 styrene-exposed workers and 382 unexposed referents who had fathered a child were identified. A total of 768 historical styrene measurements conducted in 1970-1996 formed the basis for semi-quantitative exposure assessment in combination with measurements of urinary styrene metabolite levels. All the subjects were interviewed about work conditions. Fecundity was measured as the reported time to pregnancy. A statistically non-significant reduced fecundity was observed for the styrene-exposed workers (fecundity ratio 0.79), but no consistent pattern of a detrimental effect on fecundity was found when time to pregnancy was related to work-tasks indicating higher styrene exposure levels. The workers with high exposure showed a fecundity ratio of 1.09. It is concluded that it is unlikely that styrene exposure has a strong effect on male fecundity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.353-358. 22 ref.
Tomenson J.A., Bonner S.M., Edwards J.C., Pemberton M.A., Cummings T.F., Paddle G.M.
Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production
A study among workers at two British plants to investigate patterns of mortality (in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer) after exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA). The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at a mean exposure of 13.2ppm, although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100ppm. The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to MMA had adversely affected the mortality of workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.810-817. 16 ref.
Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in the plastics industry - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach przetwórstwa tworzyw sztucznych - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in the plastics industry is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998-1999. 25+32p. 49 ref.
Chemical hazards in selected technological processes
Zagrożenia chemiczne w wybranych procesach technologicznych [in Polish]
This publication is aimed at persons responsible for assessing occupational exposure to harmful substances involved in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and its compounds, polyurethanes, as well as in the rubber industry and during impregnation. For each substance or process, it discusses sources of chemical hazards, health effects, sampling and analysis methods in the work environment, methods of hazard control and methods of neutralizing the harmful substances. See also CIS 03-804, which covers several other industrial processes.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 171p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Robert A., Ducos P., Francin J.M.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to 4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-orthochloroaniline) (MOCA)
The objectives of the study were to investigate and to validate a new and simple method to determine MOCA in the urine of exposed workers, to identify the best urinary marker of exposure to MOCA and to study its applicability in exposure evaluation in polyurethane resin production plants. Urinary MOCA markers were measured in urine samples collected at the end of the workshifts. Forty workers from four factories were observed for three consecutive days in the same week. "Free" MOCA in non-acid- stabilized urines, "total" MOCA in urines after alkaline hydrolyses, "acid-labile" MOCA in sulfamic or citric acid-protected urines were measured in all urine samples. MOCA liberated by heating the non-acid-stabilized urines ("heat-labile" MOCA) was also measured in 17 urine samples of exposed workers. MOCA measured in sulfamic acid-protected urine samples without hydrolyses provides a more practical and reliable biomarker than "total" MOCA (after hydrolysis) or "free" MOCA. A biological guiding value of 20µg/L expressed as "sulfamic acid-labile" MOCA is proposed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1999, Vol.72, No.4, p.223-237. Illus. 70 ref.
Kolstad H.A., Bonde J.P., Spano M., Giwercman A., Zschiesche W., Kaae D., Larsen S.B., Roeleveld N.
Change in semen quality and sperm chromatin structure following occupational styrene exposure
Semen samples were collected from 23 reinforced plastics workers at the time of employment and after six months of styrene exposure and from 21 nonexposed farmers. Intraindividual changes in conventional semen parameters and sperm-DNA denaturation patterns were related to the internal dose of styrene exposure measured by postshift urinary mandelic acid. A significant decline in sperm density was seen during styrene exposure from 63.5 to 46.0 million sperm/ml, whereas no decline was seen in nonexposed subjects. Total sperm count was almost halved from an initial value of 175 million sperm/ejaculate. No relationship was apparent when the sperm parameters were related to internal levels of exposure. A small exposure-response relationship was shown for DNA-denaturation patterns. A declining sperm count following styrene exposure is suggested, although the findings of the internal and external comparisons are inconsistent. This may be due to the high intraindividual variability of semen parameters, the limited study size and a weak internal exposure gradient. Topics: styrene; mandelic acid; case-control study; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; individual susceptibility; plastics industry; reinforced plastics; spermatogenic disturbances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 1999, Vol.72, No.3, p.135-141. 29 ref.
Sathiakumar N., Delzell E., Hovinga M., Macaluso M., Julian J.A., Larson R., Cole P., Muir D.C.F.
Mortality from cancer and other causes of death among synthetic rubber workers
A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among 15,649 men employed for at least one year at any of eight North American styrene-butadiene rubber plants. Analyses used standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to compare styrene-butadiene rubber workers' cause-specific mortalities (1943-91) with those of the United States and Ontario general populations. On average, there were 25 years of follow-up per subject. The SMR was 87 for all causes of death combined and 93 for all cancers. There was an excess of leukaemia among hourly workers. For causes of death other than leukaemia, SMRs were close to or below the null value of 100. Results by work area (process group) were unremarkable for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and stomach cancer. Maintenance workers had a slight increase in deaths from lung cancer, and certain subgroups of workers had more than the expected number of deaths from cancer of the large intestine and the larynx. This study found an excess of leukaemia that is likely to be due to exposure to butadiene or to butadiene plus other chemicals. Deaths from non-Hodgkin's-lymphoma, multiple myeloma and stomach cancer did not seem to be related to occupational exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.230-235. 22 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Fire and explosion risks from pentane in expandable polystyrene (EPS)
Topics: pentane; polystyrene; data sheet; expanded plastics; explosion hazards; explosive atmospheres; fire hazards; fire protection; hazard evaluation; plastics industry; sources of ignition; storage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1998. 3p. 3 ref.
Apostoli P., Alessandro G., Placidi D., Alessio L.
Metabolic interferences in subjects occupationally exposed to binary styrene-acetone mixtures
The excretion of styrene metabolites (mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA)) was investigated in plastic manufacturing workers to verify the possible influence of coexposure to acetone on styrene metabolism. Amounts of MA and PGA did not differ in groups with different levels of acetone exposure, but when the acetone air concentration increased, the degree of correlation between styrene and MA and PGA decreased. Coexposure to acetone levels similar to those described here may hamper the use of urinary metabolites for the assessment of exposure to styrene, especially on an individual basis. Topics: acetone; styrene; phenylglyoxylic acid; mandelic acid; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure tests; metabolic process; plastics industry; synergism; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1998, Vol.71, No.7, p.445-452. Illus. 31 ref.
Mignot G., Brault A., Caubet A., Gendre J.C., Anger J.P., Curtès J.P.
Study of the toxicity of tetrahydrofuran used as solvent for glues in the PVC door and window frame industry
Etude dans l'industrie de la menuiserie PVC de la toxicité du tétrahydrofurane utilisé comme solvant dans les colles [in French]
Topics: adhesives; tetrahydrofuran; determination in blood; determination in urine; epidemiologic study; functional digestive disorders; irritation; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects; neurovegetative disorders; organic solvents; plastics industry; respiratory diseases; toxic effects; transaminases; transpeptidases; visual function disorders.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 1998, Vol.XXV, No.2, p.84-91. Illus. 7 ref.
Socie E.M., Gromen K.D., Migliozzi A.A., Geidenberger C.A.
Work-related skin disease in the plastics industry
Topics: age-linked differences; barrier creams; formaldehyde; polyvinyl chloride; dermatitis; eczema; plastics industry; questionnaire survey; risk factors; sex-linked differences; skin allergies; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1997, Vol.31, No.5, p.545-550. Illus. 13 ref.
Nouaigui H., Ammar H., Ben Jemaa A., Benammar R.
Contact dermatitis among workers in the plastics processing industry
Dermatites de contact chez les travailleurs de l'industrie de transformation du plastique [in French]
Topics: cross-sectional study; dermatological examinations; dyes; eczema; epoxy resins; nickel; plastics converting industry; plastics industry; questionnaire survey; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; thermosetting plastics; tolylene diisocyanate; Tunisia.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Mar. 1997, No.2, p.27-30. Illus. 13 ref.
These nine chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various process industries: power generation; chemical industry; polymers and rubbers; paint industry; pharmaceutical industry; biotechnology industry; food processing industry; paper, pulp and chloralkali industry; tobacco industry.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.297-433. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Tinnerberg H., Dalene M., Skarping G.
Air and biological monitoring of toluene diisocyanate in a flexible foam plant
Comparative air measurements of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were performed at a TDI flexible foam plant. Urine and plasma samples were also analyzed. Sampling of isocyanates on glass-fibre filters impregnated with 9-(N-methyl-amino-methyl)-anthracene and glycerol followed by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet determination proved to be a robust and reproducible method for the determination of concentrations well below the threshold limit value. Sampling during several hours was possible. Filter-tape measurements enabled the estimation of isocyanate exposure during a whole workday. Levels of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diamine in urine reflected exposure during the past few hours, and plasma levels reflected exposure during the past several days.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.58, No.3, p.229-235. 20 ref.
Muttray A., Schmitt B., Klimek L.
Effects of methyl methacrylate on the sense of smell
The prevalence of chronic smell disorders was studied in 175 acrylic sheet production workers exposed to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and in 88 non-exposed controls. Mean duration of exposure was 9.6 years; concentrations of MMA were up to 50ppm during the previous 6 years and up to 100ppm before then. Smell tests indicated no clinically relevant olfactory disorders in the exposed group. Data suggest that maintaining the current threshold limit value of 50ppm provides sufficient protection against irreversible olfactory disorders.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.1, p.58-66. Illus. 27 ref.
Code of practice for styrene
Topics: Australia; styrene; determination in air; directive; glass fibre reinforced plastics; health engineering; health hazards; legislation; mechanical ventilation; personal protective equipment; plastics industry; respirators; substitution; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Dec. 1996. 36p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.
Welp E., et al.
Exposure to styrene and mortality from nervous system diseases and mental disorders
In an international historical cohort study, mortality from nervous system diseases, mental disorders and suicide was examined in relation to styrene exposure. The cohort comprised 35,443 workers employed during 1945-1991 in the reinforced plastics industry in six European countries (Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Exposure indicators were estimated from job histories and environmental and biological monitoring. Mortality from diseases of the central nervous system, especially epilepsy, increased with exposure to styrene. Findings indicate that, in addition to the known acute effects, exposure to styrene may contribute to chronic diseases of the central nervous system.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Oct. 1996, Vol.144, No.7, p.623-633. Illus. 41 ref.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Rivas R.D.
Exposure to isocyanates and organic solvents, and pulmonary-function changes in workers in a polyurethane molding process
Short-term changes in pulmonary function were determined in a group of urethane mould operators exposed to isocyanates and solvents, and in a control group of nonexposed workers. Measured concentrations of airborne chemicals, including hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI polyisocyanate, were below recommended exposure criteria; no daily or weekly reduction in pulmonary function was observed. In a long-term study (2.5 years), isocyanate/solvent exposed subjects showed significant reduction in forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 second. No such changes were observed in the non-exposed subjects or in those exposed only to organic solvents. Long-term exposure to isocyanates, even in very low concentrations, may contribute to impaired pulmonary function.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1205-1212. 36 ref.
Yuasa J., Kishi R., Eguchi T., Harabuchi I., Arata Y., Katakura Y., Imai T., Matsumoto H., Yokoyama H., Miyake H.
Study of urinary mandelic acid concentration and peripheral nerve conduction among styrene workers
The relationship between exposure to styrene and nerve conduction velocities was investigated in 32 workers occupationally exposed to styrene. There was a dose-dependent relationship between urinary mandelic acid and ulnar and peroneal motor distal latencies (MDLs). After adjusting confounding factors, urinary mandelic acid had a significant positive relationship with ulnar and peroneal MDL. The study suggests that a low level of styrene, below the 50ppm exposure limit of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), involves the risk of inducing adverse effects on the peripheral nervous system. The study also indicated that motor distal latency is a sensitive parameter of toxic peripheral neuropathy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.41-47. Bibl.ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Exposure to polybrominated dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins in copper smelting plants and in the production of flameproofed plastics
Belastung durch polybromierte Dibenzofurane und -dioxine in Sekundärkupferhütten und bei der Herstellung flammgeschützter Kunststoffe [in German]
Exposure to polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD) and dibenzofurans (PBDF) was determined at selected workplaces in two scrap metal smelting plants and three plants producing flameproofed plastics in Germany. The smelting plants were chosen because they also process copper-containing scrap with small amounts of plastics. In the plants producing flameproofed plastics, samples of flame retardants applied in flameproofing as well as samples of flameproofed plastics were analyzed for the presence of PBDD and PBDF in addition to air samples. In the air samples the concentrations of mono- to hexabromodibenzofurans ranged from 258 to 77,414pg/m3. Most of the air samples contained PBDD and PBDF with bromine at positions 2, 3, 7 and 8. None or very low concentrations of these compounds were detected in the flame retardants and in the flameproofed plastics samples as well as in all samples that were analyzed in the scrap metal smelting plants.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996, 115p. Illus. 23 ref. Index. Price: DEM 25.50.
Granath F., Rohlén O., Göransson C., Hansson L., Magnusson A.L., Törnqvist M.
Relationship between dose in vivo of ethylene oxide and exposure to ethene studied in exposed workers
In vivo doses of ethylene oxide (EO) arising from ethylene exposure in plastics industry workers were estimated through haemoglobin adducts, determined in samples collected on one occasion in exposed groups. Exposure doses were estimated by using data from the hygienic surveillance programme. The results of this and of a second study with repeated blood sampling in a few persons show a metabolic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide of only 0.5%, which is unexpectedly low. The cancer risk associated with ethylene exposure was also estimated. The estimated risk of cancer due to this level of life-long exposure to ethene is 1 x 10-5 per year.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1996, Vol.15, p.826-833. Illus. 29 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use and storage of cellular plastics
This guide concentrates mainly on process fire risks from the storage and use of cellular plastics. Contents: general safety principles (design and positioning of stores); types of storage accommodation and positioning of stock; housekeeping; sources of ignition and related fire hazards; special hazards and precautions for flexible polyurethane foam, expanded and extruded polystyrene, and rigid urethane and polyisocyanurate foam; fire precautions (means of escape, fire-resisting buildings, automatic fire detection and sprinkler systems, smoke ventilation, maintenance involving hot work).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 36p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
Isocianatos [in Spanish]
Isocyanates are chemical substances used in many industrial processes. They form the basis for different products: foams, varnishes, paints, resins, flexible and rigid artificial fibres, etc. The products obtained are generically known as polyurethanes. This video shows some of the better-known processes and comments on the risks arising from exposure to isocyanates and the preventive measures for their control.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, ediciones y Publicaciones, C/ Torrelaguna, 73-28027 Madrid, Spain. PAL videotape (9min). Price: ESP 3000 + VAT. ###
Campagna D., Mergler D., Huel G., Bélanger S., Truchon G., Ostiguy C., Drolet D.
Visual dysfunction among styrene-exposed workers
Topics: Canada; colour vision deficiency; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; personal sampling; plastics industry; styrene; vision tests; visual function disorders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.382-390. Illus. 48 ref.
Kolstand H.A., Juel K., Olsen J., Lynge E.
Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: Mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry
The occurrence of non-malignant diseases and solid cancers in workers exposed to styrene in the Danish reinforced plastics industry was studied. 36620 workers of 386 reinforced plastics companies and 14293 workers not exposed to styrene from similar industries were followed up from 1970 to 1990. The mortality from non-malignant causes and the incidence of solid cancers were compared with the national rates. Poisson models were used for internal comparisons. A total of 3031 deaths and 1134 newly diagnosed cases of solid cancer were reported in the workers in the reinforced plastics industry. In companies where 50% or more of the workers produced reinforced plastics, an increased mortality rate ratio for degenerative disorders of the nervous system and an increased incidence rate ratio for pancreatic cancer was found. For both disease categories increased occurrence was also found among long-term workers, workers of the period with the highest exposure to styrene, and workers with a latent period of more than 10 years after the start of employment. No other non-malignant diseases or solid cancers showed these patterns. The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer deserves attention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.320-327. 33 ref.
Chemical safety problems identified and prioritised: A manufacturer of plastic and rubber components
A survey of chemical safety and its management was carried out in a plastics and rubber manufacturing plant using hazardous rubber blending and spray-painting operations. Several problems were identified: no effective line of health and safety management; inadequate material safety data sheet procedures; inadequate employee awareness of risk from chemical contact; inadequate and inconsistent monitoring of hazardous substances; inadequate and ill-advised spraying procedures. Recommendations for improvements in these areas are put forward.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.29-35. 4 ref.
Selenskas S., Teta M.J., Vitale J.N.
Pancreatic cancer among workers processing synthetic resins
An excess of pancreatic cancer identified at a plastics facility in New Jersey, USA was investigated. Workplace exposures were compared for 28 male pancreatic cancer cases and 140 controls. Workers assigned to a work area that processed vinyl resins and polyethylene were at increased risk. Men assigned more than 16 years to this department had a significantly increased risk; no excess was seen with shorter duration assignments. Average latency was 32 years. It is likely that the pancreatic cancer is associated with prolonged exposure to the products of vinyl processing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.385-398. Illus. 41 ref.
Dell L., Teta M.J.
Mortality among workers at a plastics manufacturing and research development facility: 1946-1988
A mortality study was carried out among a cohort of 5,932 male employees at a plastics facility in New Jersey, USA. Potential exposures included asbestos, formaldehyde and polyvinyl chloride. Based on U.S. rates, mortality among hourly workers from all cancers was similar to expected. Excess mortality was seen for pancreatic cancer and for some malignancies of the respiratory system (5 deaths from pleural mesothelioma). Mortality from leukaemia among research and development workers was significantly elevated and related to assignment to process development. The study verifies the excess of pancreatic cancer among workers at the facility seen in earlier studies and highlights excesses of mesothelioma due to asbestos exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.373-384. 20 ref.
Fučić A., Hitrec V., Garaj-Vrhovac V., Barkovic D., Kubelka D.
Relationship between locations of chromosome breaks induced by vinyl chloride monomer and lymphocytosis
The distribution of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)-induced chromosome breaks was studied in cultured lymphocytes of 20 workers in a polyvinyl chloride plant. VCM concentration was 1ppm, periodically reaching 300ppm for a short period. The examined workers had considerably higher values of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges than did a non-exposed control group. Exposure to VCM caused lymphocytosis together with disturbances of mitogenic activity in lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. Results of G-banding showed that sites of chromosome breakpoints caused by VCM can be related to lymphatic tissue disorders. Lymphomas and leukaemias can be expected even with a VCM concentration of 1ppm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.565-571. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Commission - Rubber Industry Advisory Committee
Safe to breathe - Dust and fume control in the rubber industry
Guidance and training booklet covering: relevant legislation in the United Kingdom; maximum exposure limits (8h-TWA: 6mg/m3 for rubber process dust, 0.6mg/m3 for rubber fume); strategy for dust and fume control; assessing the health hazard from dust and fume; control methods and strategy.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 13p. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
It takes your breath away - Health advice to the plastics industry
This safety guide briefly describes the hazards associated with the use of harmful substances in the plastics industry and how to avoid them; it is aimed particularly at small businesses. Some materials that may cause problems are listed and control measures and legal duties are outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 12p. 10 ref.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Fibre-reinforced plastics and advanced polymer composites: Occupational hazards and toxicity of selected compounds
Topics: antifertility effects; carbon fibres; carcinogenic effects; dermatitis; glass fibre; hardeners; health hazards; irritation; list of chemical substances; literature survey; manufacturing processes; neurotoxic effects; organic solvents; plastics industry; plastics; polymers; reinforced plastics; respirable dust; sensitization; thermoplastics; thermosetting plastics; toxic substances.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1994. 76p. Illus. 391 ref.
Kaleja R., Horbach L., Amsel J.
Polypropylene production workers and colorectal cancer in Germany: A brief report
A retrospective cohort study (from 1956 to 1990) of 640 male polypropylene production workers in Germany was performed to evaluate the reported association between colorectal cancer and polypropylene. The results do not support earlier reports of a link between polypropylene production and colorectal cancer, but are consistent with a number of recent investigations of polypropylene production workers that have reported no association with risk of colorectal cancer. Due to the small size of this and other similar studies, however, a small to moderate increase in risk cannot be ruled out.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.51, No.11, p.784-785. 10 ref.
Welinder H.E., Jönsson B.A.G., Nielsen J.E., Ottosson H.E., Gustavsson C.A.
Exposure-response relationships in the formation of specific antibodies to hexahydrophthalic anhydride in exposed workers
The relationship between exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) and the levels of specific immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G antibodies was investigated in a cross-sectional study on 95 workers from two plants producing epoxy resin with HHPA as a hardener (mean exposure 7 years). Results indicate that HHPA is a sensitizing compound even at low exposure levels and that short-time peak exposures may have an impact on immunoglobulin E sensitization.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1994, Vol.20, No.6, p.459-465. Illus. 25 ref.
Baur X., Marek W., Ammon J., Czuppon A.B., Marczynski B., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Roemmelt H., Fruhmann G.
Respiratory and other hazards of isocyanates
Isocyanates have various applications including those in the production of plastics, polyurethane foams and insecticides. Recent results of experimental, immunological and clinical studies of the respiratory diseases caused by isocyanates are summarized. Special consideration is given to findings among 1,780 workers exposed to isocyanates. The case histories and clinical data of 625 of these workers who were exposed during the production of polyurethanes revealed that 247 had respiratory symptoms. The majority of these were diagnosed as suffering from bronchial asthma. Chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and allergic alveolitis followed. The risk of developing chronic airway disorders such as bronchial asthma was found to depend on the concentration of isocyanates. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization and irritative effects were identified as the main pathophysiological mechanisms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.3, p.141-152. Illus. 131 ref.
Cowles S.R., Tsai S.P., Gilstrap E.L., Ross C.E.
Mortality among employees at a plastics and resins research and development facility
This retrospective cohort study examined mortality from 1962 to 1992 for 257 men who were employed for at least one year during a 14-year period from 1962 to 1975 at a plastics and resins research and development facility (applications and process development for polypropylene, polystyrene, epoxy resins and, to a lesser extent, high-density polyethylene). The cohort was young and was followed up for an average of 26 years. Although mortality for all causes among employees who worked at least one year at this facility was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 0.74), the death rate from cancer was moderately higher than that of the general population (14 observed and 0.4 expected deaths). The increased cancer mortality was entirely due to excess deaths from pancreatic and lung cancers. No causative agent or process for these cases of pancreatic cancer has been identified. This study shows no increased colorectal cancer mortality.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.51, No.12, p.799-803. 29 ref.
Wong O., Trent L.S., Whorton M.D.
An updated cohort mortality study of workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry
Mortality data were updated for a further 12 years for a cohort of workers in the reinforced plastics and composites industry with exposures to styrene monomer and other chemicals (for previous study see CIS 92-1987). The cohort consisted of 15,826 male and female employees who were exposed to styrene for at least 6 months between 1948 and 1977 at 30 participating manufacturing plants in the US. A total of 1,628 deaths were reported during the extended observation period, 1948-89. Mortality from several causes showed significant increases - namely, all causes, all cancers, hypertensive heart disease, certain non-malignant respiratory diseases, motor vehicle accidents and homicides. When, however, mortality data were examined in terms of duration of employment, durations of styrene exposure, and cumulative styrene exposure no upward trend was detected in any of these causes of death. Most of the increases in mortality were among workers who were employed for only 6 months to a year or who had very low cumulative exposure (<10ppm-years). Therefore, the increased mortality was not likely to be related to exposure to styrene. The lack of an exposure-response relation further supports the conclusion that workers in the reinforced plastics industry in this study did not experience any increased risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers as a result of their exposure to styrene.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1994, Vol.51, No.6, p.386-396. 26 ref.
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