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Lumber and the woodworking industry - 664 entries found

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2011

CIS 11-0886 Jones T., Kumar S.
Biomechanical loads and subjective stress exposure to lumber graders in sawmill industry
The aim of this study was to determine biomechanical loads and subjective stresses on lumber graders and associated morbidity in a high risk and repetitive sawmill occupation. The exposures of all 29 male sawmill worker volunteers were recorded. Motion and posture were studied with electro-goniometers, muscle loads were recorded with surface electromyography, and psychophysical stresses were assessed with subjective responses. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported greater than moderate discomfort in their task-dominant upper extremity. Job performance required an average range of motion of 44°, 21° and 52° in flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviations, and pronation/supination respectively. It also required an average of 9% maximum voluntary contraction force and was repeated an average of 34 times/min. This repetitive exertion over an 8-h shift was deemed to be a significant risk factor associated with prevalent upper extremity morbidity.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.87-97. Illus. 20 ref.

2009

CIS 09-1249 Sripaiboonkij P., Phanprasit W., Jaakkola M.S.
Respiratory and skin effects of exposure to wood dust from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis
Potential health effects related to wood dust from the rubber tree have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of rubber tree dust exposure to respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. It involved 103 workers in a rubber tree furniture factory and 76 office workers in four factories in Thailand. All participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Inhalable dust levels were measured in different work areas. Furniture factory workers showed increased risk of wheezing, nasal symptoms and asthma compared to office workers. There was a dose-dependent increase in wheeze and skin symptoms in relation to dust level. There was a dose-dependent reduction in spirometric lung function with wood dust level. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.442-447. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 09-1134 Welling I., Lehtimäki M., Rautio S., Lähde T., Enbom S., Hynynen P., Hämeri K.
Wood dust particle and mass concentrations and filtration efficiency in sanding of wood materials
This study evaluated exposure to wood dust during sanding operations. The numbers of fine particles were low, less than 104 particles/cm3. This level is much lower than typical number concentrations measured in plasma arc cutting, grinding, and welding. Ultrafine particles less than 100nm were found during sanding of medium density plywood sheets. The importance of monitoring the efficiency of dust extraction systems is emphasized.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2009, Vol.6, No.2, p.90-98. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1145 Davies H.W., Teschke K., Kennedy S.M., Hodgson M.R., Demers P.A.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills
In this study, a comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills in British Columbia, Canada, using a randomized sampling strategy was carried out, resulting in 350 full-shift personal dosimetry measurements. Sound frequency spectrum data and information on hearing protector usage were also collected. A determinants-of-exposure regression model for noise was developed. The mean exposure level was found to be 91.7 dBA, well above the exposure British Columbia limit of 85 dBA. Of 52 jobs for which more than a single observation was made, only four were below the exposure limit. Twenty-eight jobs had means over 90 dBA, and four jobs had means over 100 dBA. Although the use of hearing protectors is high, it is unlikely that this provides complete protection against noise-induced hearing loss at the observed exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2009, Vol.6, No.1, p.32-41. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-1095 Osman E., Pala K.
Occupational exposure to wood dust and health effects on the respiratory system in a minor industrial estate in Bursa/Turkey
The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to wood dust in the furniture industry in an industrial estate in Bursa, Turkey. The study involved 328 woodworkers and 328 unexposed controls. Data on respiratory health were collected by means of questionnaires and medical examinations, including spirometry. Exposure to wood dust was evaluated from workplace sampling. The average dust concentration at the workplace was 2.04mg/m3. 53.7% of the workers reported a blocked nose while working, 43.0% had eye irritation, 41.2% had itching eyes and 23.8% had a runny nose. No symptoms were observed in the control group while they were working at the workplace. The mean FEV1 and FVC values of woodworkers, among both smokers and non smokers, were significantly lower than those of controls. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.43-50. 36 ref.

CIS 09-935 Reinert D., Schwaneberg O., Jung N., Ullmann S., Olbert W., Kamin D., Kohler R.
Finger and hand protection on circular table and panel saws
Several hundred injuries to hands or fingers when working with circular saws occur each year in Germany. This article describes various detection systems aimed at preventing such accidents. Some systems consist of a passive infrared sensor in combination with a capacitive field sensor. An alternative system uses a light curtain based on spectral analysis in the near infrared region.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1175-1184. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 09-888 Serinken M., Karcioglu O., Evyapan F., Sungurtekin H.
Bilateral pneumothorax following acute inhalation injury
A male worker in an upholstery factory in Turkey was confined in the tanning machine for 15 min. On admission into hospital, he was confused with Glasgow coma scale score of 9. His vital signs were as follows: blood pressure 80/58 mmHg; pulse rate 114; respiratory rate 30 bpm; temperature 37.1°C; oxygen saturation 48%. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy showed lung injury that warranted bilateral tube thoracotomy. The patient was discharged without any sequelae after eight days. Exposure to irritant gases such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide can cause severe pulmonary injury.
Clinical Toxicology, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.595-597. Illus. 6 ref.

2008

CIS 09-1250 Jayaprakash V., Natarajan K.K., Moysich K.B., Rigual N.R., Ramnath N., Natarajan N., Reid M.E.
Wood dust exposure and the risk of upper aero-digestive and respiratory cancers in males
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between wood dust exposure and the risk of specific histological subtypes of upper aero-digestive tract and respiratory (UADR) cancers. A hospital-based examination was carried out to determine the effect of self-reported wood dust exposure on 1522 male UADR cancer cases and 1522 male controls, matched by age and smoking history. Regular wood dust exposure was found to be associated with a statistically significant increased risk of all UADR cancers (odds ratio OR 1.32), in particular of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx, and of lung cancer alone (OR 1.69).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.647-654. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 09-893 Lee S.G., Pisaniello D., Tkaczuk M., Jankewicz G.
The development of an Australian database of wood dust exposures: Issues and future directions
This article discusses the feasibility of using existing data from various sources in order to assess exposure to wood dust in Australian industry. Information on the exposed workforce and wood usage was gathered from a combination of Australian Bureau of Statistics data and a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of woodworking enterprises in South Australia. However, it was found that many small businesses have not conducted exposure evaluations. In view of this limitation, it was concluded that targeted survey work, as has been conducted in the United Kingdom, which includes using national data, surveys and field measurements, is a more reliable strategy for exposure profile development and trend assessment.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2008, Vol.24, No.5, p.417-424. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-412 Navia R., Bezama A.
Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview
The new Chilean Hazardous Waste Management Regulation came into force on 12 June 2004. During the next 180 days (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was required to present a Hazardous Waste Management Plan if the facility generated more than 12 tons/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. This article describes three case studies on the hazardous waste management plans carried out in facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood products facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified, minimization measures were implemented, and reuses and recycling options were evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct. 2008, Vol.158, No.1. p.177-184. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-324 Pierl C.B., Gebel M., Gross I., Becker D., Johnen G., Rihs H.P., Donhuijsen K., Lepentsiotis V., Meier M., Schulze J., Brüning T.
Occupational risks for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the German wood industry
To examine the risk of wood dust and chemical exposures for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (ADCN) among German woodworkers, a case-control study with 86 male ADCN cases and 204 controls was conducted in the German woodworking industries. Cumulative and average wood-dust exposure was quantified with a job-exposure matrix based on wood-dust measurements at recent and historical workplaces. Probabilities of exposure to wood preservatives, stains, varnishes, and formaldehyde were semi-quantitatively rated. ADCN occurred relatively more frequently among wood workers that had worked as cabinet makers or joiners than as saw millers. Average exposure to inhalable wood dust ≥5mg/m3 was associated with a high risk (OR 48.47) compared to levels below 3.5mg/m3. Exposure between 3.5 and 5mg/m3 was also found to pose a risk (OR 10.54). Exposure to pigment stains before 1970 was associated with an increased risk. No significant associations were estimated for wood preservatives, varnishes, and formaldehyde.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.191-196. 26 ref.

CIS 08-1339 Glindmeyer H.W., Rando R.J., Lefante J.J., Freyder L., Brisolara J.A., Jones R.N.
Longitudinal respiratory health study of the wood processing industry
This 5-year longitudinal study examined non-malignant respiratory effects of wood processing dust exposure. Personal dust samples were collected from ten wood processing plants. Spirometric tests were conducted on 1164 workers from these plants, who also responded to questionnaires on their state of health, smoking and occupational exposures. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of exposure on annual change in FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75, and FEV1/FVC. It was found that exposure to wood solids was not associated with significant adverse effects. However the respirable fraction of other particulate matter was associated with obstructive or restrictive effects in some cases. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.595-609. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 08-891 Cabinet maker
L'ébéniste [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on the job of cabinet maker: related occupations; description; place of work; work organization; tools and equipment; products, materials and persons concerned; work clothing; work and health. It is concluded that this occupation results in exposures of workers to physical hazards (noise, vibration, manual handling), chemical hazards (wood dust, formaldehyde-based glues, wood treatment products) and accidents (explosions, fire, dangerous equipment). These hazards require that individual and collective protective measures be reinforced and that workers be properly trained and informed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1st Quarter 2008, Vol.48, 2p. Insert.

2007

CIS 09-1023 Dimich-Ward H., Taliadouros V., Teschke K., Chow Y., Abboud R., Chan-Yeung M.
Quality of life and employment status of workers with western red cedar asthma
The impact of current employment status and other factors on quality of life was evaluated for workers diagnosed with western red cedar asthma in British Columbia, Canada. Data were collected by means of structured telephone interviews. Among the 213 participants, employment status was the most consistent predictor of quality-of-life domains, with highest scores for employed subjects, particularly those who were no longer exposed to red cedar. Subjects who had quit work because of their asthma had worse scores, particularly for vitality and general health perceptions. Other factors independently associated with specific aspects of poor quality of life were having asthma-like symptoms, taking medication, and not being married.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1040-1045. 29 ref.

CIS 09-1133 Raymond L.W., Ford M.D.
Severe illness in furniture makers using a new glue: 1-Bromopropane toxicity confounded by arsenic
All four workers working with a new glue in a furniture factory were hospitalized following severe flu-like symptoms, which persisted three months later. Milder symptoms persisted in two workers eight years after their initial illnesses. Both have returned to work, while follow-up was unavailable for the other two workers. All available clinical records were reviewed. All four workers had high concentrations of serum bromide after exposure to glue containing 1-bromopropane (1-BP). All also had elevated urinary arsenic concentrations, the source of which remains unknown, but which confound interpretation of the abnormal bromide levels and clinical findings present during the acute illnesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1009-1019. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 09-113 Grevenkamp A.
OSHA compliance issues - Overexposure and control of methylene chloride in a furniture stripping operation
This OSHA inspection reports on a case of overexposure to methylene chloride in a small business involved in furniture repair and restoration employing 18 workers. The exposure occurred in a section of the establishment where a single employee worked three to four days per week removing paint and varnish from furniture by spraying methylene chloride. Personal sampling found short-term exposures and 8h TWA levels of 285-662ppm and 108ppm respectively, compared to permissible levels of 125ppm and 25ppm respectively. Recommendations included modifications in equipment design and local exhaust. Subsequent samplings showed drastic reductions in exposure levels which were well within permissible levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.D39-D41. 4 ref.

CIS 08-1435 Hewitt S., Heaton R., Shanks E., Mole M.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Polishers and sanders
This report describes the programme of experimental work carried out on exposure to vibration among polishers and sanders in the woodworking, plastics and metalworking industries. The objectives were to assess the BS EN ISO 8662 (non-electric tools) and the BS EN 60745 (electric tools) emission tests for usability and repeatability, to compare test results with manufacturers' declared vibration emission values, to compare declared vibration emission values with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions and to assess vibration emission data as an indicator of vibration hazard. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. v, 40p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr590.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-516 Roberge B., Audet E., Gautrin D.
Occupational asthma - Carpentry and woodworking
Asthme au travail - Charpenterie et menuiserie [in French]
In order to adopt suitable measures for the prevention of occupational asthma and rhinitis, it is important to understand the health hazards in various vocational training and occupational settings. The IRSST published a leaflet presenting these two respiratory diseases in general terms (see CIS 08-514), together with six other leaflets covering specific occupational activities in more detail, explaining the risk factors and proposing suitable preventive measures. This leaflet specifically addresses occupational asthma and rhinitis in the carpentry and woodworking sector, together with the means of protection against specific allergens encountered in this work environment (wood dust, adhesives, solvents, isocyanates, silica).
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2007. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF-508.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-657 Chaala A.
Reducing formaldehyde emissions - Changes in the formulation of binders in particleboard manufacturing plants
Réduction de l'émission de formaldéhyde - Modification de la formulation du liant dans les usines de panneaux de particules [in French]
In partnership with the IRSST and with the collaboration of particle board manufacturers, the Forest Product Processing Research and Expertise Services (SEREX) of Quebec was given the assignment to optimize formaldehyde resins currently used by modifying their formulation so that their processing would give rise to lower levels of emissions. This project involved modifying commercial urea formaldehyde resins, producing panels in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, characterizing these panels and determining the concentration of formaldehyde in the gases emitted during resin modification and panel manufacture and degassing. Not only were the formaldehyde emissions reduced, but the quality of the panels was also slightly improved. The immersion tests also showed that the panels thus produced were more water resistant than the panels manufactured using conventional resins.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. vii, 47p. Illus. 24 ref. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-528.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-458
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of four-sided moulding machines
About 30-40 accidents occur each year in the United Kingdom at four-sided moulding machines. Nearly all involve amputation. Most could have been prevented if the cutters had come to rest before the operators approached them, and with better guarding. Contents of this information note on safe working with four-sided moulding machines: accident history; legislation, including Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98, see CIS 99-1429); training and supervision; braking, guarding and ejection; safe working systems; noise; safe workplaces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis40.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-451
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at woodworking machines
This information sheet provides advice to manufacturers, suppliers, employers and users on the application of the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1259) to the woodworking industry, which require employers to eliminate risks from noise, or to reduce them to the lowest possible level. Contents: action values required under COSHH; exposure limits; responsibilities of employers; controlling noise; engineering controls; machine maintenance; buying new machinery; personal hearing protection; noise awareness; health surveillance. A table presents factors which may affect machinery noise emissions. Replaces 03- 1887.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis13.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-420
Health and Safety Executive
COSHH and the woodworking industries
This information sheet provides advice to employers on the application of the United Kingdom Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH 2002, see CIS 03-1023) to the woodworking industry. Contents: health risks; how to protect employees; types of potentially harmful substances found in the woodworking industry and their routes of entry into the body; how to carry out a COSHH hazard evaluation; air sampling; dust extraction for woodworking and portable machines; selection of respirators; need for health surveillance. Replaces CIS 03-835.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis6.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-450
Health and Safety Executive
Noise reduction at band re-saws
The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1259) require employers to eliminate risks from noise, or to reduce them to the lowest possible level. This information note addresses the issue of noise reduction at band saws. The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade. The use of noise enclosures is also discussed. Replaces CIS 02-409.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2007. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis4.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-406 Claude P.
Wood: How to avoid dust inhalation
Bois: comment éviter l'inhalation de poussières [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the risks related to the inhalation of wood dust in woodworking shops (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma, respiratory syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis, eczema, ethmoid and facial sinus cancer); medical supervision of exposure to wood dust; collection of dust at the source by means of local exhaust ventilation; experience of a woodworking shop having recently installed a local exhaust ventilation system.
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2007, No.94, p.38-47. Illus.

CIS 07-1486 Jones T., Kumar S.
Comparison of ergonomic risk assessments in a repetitive high-risk sawmill occupation: Saw-filer
The aims of this study were to compare the results of various ergonomic risk assessment methods, and to examine the association between the measure of risk obtained by applying these methods and incidence rates recorded in practice. Quantified physical exposure information collected from 15 saw-filers in four sawmill facilities was used to calculate the RULA, REBA, ACGIH TLV, Strain Index and OCRA procedures for various postures and efforts. Recorded incidence of upper extremity musculoskeletal injury in the saw-filer position ranged from 0.12 to 0.86 per person year worked. The assessment methodologies examined broadly agreed that a level of risk was associated with performance of the saw-filer job. The sensitivity of each of the risk assessment methods is discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.37, p.744-753. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 07-1384 Rojas-Hijazo B., Lezaun A., Hausen B.M., Segura N., Garcés M., Colás C.
Airborne contact dermatitis in gaitas (flageolets) constructors after exposure to sawdust of caviuna
Exposure to the sawdust of exotic wood can produce dermatitis on exposed body areas among woodworkers. The cases of seven patients who made musical instruments in Spain from caviuna vermelha, part of the rosewood family, are described. They developed dermatitis on exposed areas hours after they had begun to work with caviuna. Patch tests were performed using the European standard series, caviuna sawdust samples and a series of dalbergiones. Fifteen unexposed controls were also tested. Caviuna samples were analysed by thin-layer chromatography. Patch test with caviuna sawdust yielded positive reactions in all subjects. Five of the seven subjects reacted strongly to obtusaquinine and (R)-4-methoxy-dalbergione deriving from Dalbergia retusa but also to sensitizers present in other rosewoods. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2007, Vol.56, No.5, p.274-277. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 07-1083 Wood - Design of a woodworking shop
Bois - Concevoir un atelier de menuiserie [in French]
There are numerous occupational safety and health hazards present in woodworking shops. They include the use of woodworking machine tools, the manual handling of workpieces, noise, the inhalation of solvents and wood dust, and electrocution. This article proposes the design of a woodworking shop with a layout of equipment aimed at minimizing these hazards.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2007, No.93, p.32-33. Illus.

2006

CIS 08-620 Alberto M., Iñiguez M.J.I., Marensi P.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Preliminary diagnosis of the working conditions and work environment in sawmilling - Argentinean Mesopotamia
Prediagnóstico sobre condiciones y medio ambiente del trabajo en la actividad de aserraderos - Mesopotamia [in Spanish]
The Mesopotamia (or Littoral) region of Argentina was selected for this pre-study on the working conditions and work environment in sawmills, considering that 46.3% of the enterprises listed at the national level are located in this region. The objectives of the study were to describe and analyse work processes and organization, and to evaluate the infrastructures, machinery protective systems and main hazards (physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and related to work organization) inherent to the various process steps. The report is also available in electronic form on a CD-ROM (in PDF format).
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2006. 87p. Illus. + CD-ROM.
http://www.srt.gov.ar/publicaciones/aserraderos/aserraderos.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 08-166 Xiao G.B., Morinaga K., Wang R.Y., Xu L.R., Ma Z.H., Zhang X., Kishimoto T., Kohyama N.
Lung disorders of workers exposed to rush smear dust in China
A growing proportion of tatami mats are produced in the Zhejiang province of China for export to Japan. The mats are made from rush. One of the production steps requires smearing the freshly-cut rush with clay to prevent colour fading and increase strength. During subsequent steps, workers are heavily exposed to clay dust which contains 20-30% free silica and is therefore a potential cause of pneumoconiosis. To evaluate lung disorders among workers exposed to this dust, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 1709 workers (788 men, 921 women) in 80 factories. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, medical examinations including a chest X-ray and lung function tests and total and respirable dust measurements. Tatami mat workers were found to be at high risk for pneumoconiosis, with a dose-response relationship between dust levels and the prevalence of pneumoconiosis. A similar relationship between the prevalence of cough and sputum and the length of employment was found for non-smoking workers but not for smoking workers. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.556-563. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_4_556.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-720 Veillette M., Cormier Y., Israël-Assayaq E., Mériaux A., Duchaine C.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a hardwood processing plant related to heavy mold exposure
Two workers employed in a hardwood floor plant presented symptoms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). At that plant, kiln-dried wood often showed mouldy growth and was subsequently brought inside for processing. This study evaluated the environment to identify the causative agent and to verify whether other workers of this and similar plants were at risk of developing HP. Dust from dust-removing systems and moulds on the surface of wood planks were collected and air samples taken from the plant under investigation and from a sister plant. Blood samples, spirometry measurements and symptoms' questionnaires were obtained from 11 co-workers. Dense Paecilomyces growth was observed on the surface of the dried processed wood in the plant under investigation, but not at the sister plant. An additional worker had symptoms suggestive of HP, and his bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis. The three confirmed cases of HP and the other 10 workers had positive specific IgG antibodies to Paecilomyces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2006, Vol.3, No.6, p.301-307. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-684 Chatillon J.
Influence of source directivity on noise exposure in industrial workshops
Influence de la directivité des sources bruyantes sur l'exposition sonore dans les locaux industriels [in French]
In this study, measurements were made of the directivity of noise emitted by three types of woodworking machines using a simplified acoustic intensity method enabling quick determinations to be made inside workshops. These measurements showed that the directivity of the machines studied was relatively low. Next, the influence of the directivity of these noisy machines on the exposure of workers was evaluated in a woodworking shop. Simulations showed that characteristics of the premises had little influence on noise source variability as a function of source directivity. The key factors influencing exposure were the position of the worker and his or her distance from the machine.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.47-59. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202255/$File/ND2255.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-184 Are you a woodworker? Protect yourself against wood dust
Vous travaillez le bois? Protégez-vous des risques liés aux poussières de bois [in French]
This leaflet provides recommendations for the prevention of occupational exposure to dust formed during woodworking. Its aim is to increase awareness among workers, employers and worker's representatives on the benefits of the prevention of occupational hazards and to enable occupational health services to provide practical support to the sector. Contents: regulations; effects of wood dust on health (skin diseases, respiratory impairment, rhinitis, sinonasal cancer); limitation of exposure.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Sep. 2006. 6p. Illus.
http://www.anact.fr/pls/portal/docs/1/19057.PDF [in French]

CIS 07-149 Brasseur G.
Sawmills - Dust during primary woodworking
Scieries - Des poussières de première transformation [in French]
Effective 1st July 2005, the occupational exposure limit for wood dust in France has been set at 1mg/m3 of air. Following a series of measurements conducted in sawmills by the Wood and Furniture Technical Centre (CTBA), it was found that this threshold was exceeded in one quarter of the cases. Various recommendations were made following these findings, concerning in particular cleaning, local and general exhaust ventilation, layout of the premises, the installation of booths and the use of personal protective equipment.
Travail et sécurité, June 2006, No.663, p.10-11. Illus.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/ArchivesTS.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS663page10_1/$File/TS663page10.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 06-1422 Dessagne J.M., Courtois B., Juan J., Nicosia S., Poujoulas C., Collet F.
Wood dust - Hazard prevention
Poussières de bois - Prévenir les risques [in French]
The aim of this booklet is to generate awareness of the hazards related to wood dust among workers in the woodworking industry. Following a brief overview of the health hazards and of the current situation in France with respect to exposure, it presents the prevention approach (evaluate the hazards, manage the risks and ensure the follow-up of the exposed workers), together with a combination of measures to be implemented within the scope of the approach (ventilation and local exhaust, maintenance and cleaning, personal protective equipment, information and training of workers, medical supervision).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2006. 10p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/653CB38FC4799CD5C125714F004BCFAC/$FILE/ed974.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1421 Marmoret G., et al.
Wood dust - Guide to good practices in woodworking
Poussières de bois - Guide de bonnes pratiques en deuxième transformation [in French]
For a long time in the wood and furniture industries, the emphasis on mechanical and electrical hazards related to machinery pushed into the background those related to wood dust. These latter hazards are nonetheless important. The objective of this guide is to describe the risks faced by operators occupationally exposed to wood dust, to present French regulations and the prevention approach, to suggest preventive measures for lowering the level of dust in workplaces and workshops, and to provide help in defining the strategy for evaluating the exposure of employees. It is aimed at enterprise management, technical managers, persons responsible for occupational safety and health and machinery operators in the wood industry.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2006. 16p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/0264F0A811D5E35CC125714F004BD1CC/$FILE/ed978.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1036 Supervising for safety in woodworking
This booklet identifies the safety and health responsibilities of supervisors in woodworking establishments and provides guidance on providing a safe workplace. Contents: checklist of responsibilities of operators, supervisors and managers; instruction of machine operators; safe transport and handling of materials; noise control; fire safety; machine guarding. Reprint of CIS 94-1870 with updated references.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 2006. 13p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/top06.pdf [in English]

2005

CIS 06-536 Benczek K.M., Gliński M., Dąbrowski M., Karski H.
Principles of hazard limitation during hardwood woodworking operations using mechanized hand tools
Zasady ograniczania ryzyka zawodowego podczas obróbki drewna twardego ręcznymi narzędziami zmechanizowanymi [in Polish]
Risk factors associated with hardwood woodworking operations are identified and preventive measures are described. The responsibilities of employers, managerial staff and employees are listed.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 54p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 06-326 Michael J.H., Evans D.D., Jansen K.J., Haight J.M.
Management commitment to safety as organizational support: Relationships with non-safety outcomes in wood manufacturing employees
Employee outcomes critical to the effective functioning of an organization, including job satisfaction and commitment to the organization, were included in surveys of 641 workers at three wood products manufacturing sites. Participants were asked about perceptions of management commitment to safety and job-related variables such as perceived dangerousness of their position, organizational culture and withdrawal behaviours. Supervisors also rated the safety performance of each of their subordinates. Results suggest that employee outcomes differ based on perceptions of management's commitment to safety. Specifically, management commitment to safety was related to job satisfaction, organizational culture and job-related performance, while a negative relationship was found between commitment to safety and employee withdrawal behaviours.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol.36, No.2, p.171-179. 65 ref.

CIS 06-470 Bovenzi M., Della Vedova A., Nataletti P., Alessandrini B., Poian T.
Work-related disorders of the upper limb in female workers using orbital sanders
This case-control study of the prevalence of vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb involved a group of 100 women performing either mechanical or hand sanding in the furniture industry and a control group of 100 female office workers. All participants underwent a medical interview and a complete physical investigation. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon between the furniture workers and the controls, while the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), peripheral sensorineural disturbances and upper-limb musculoskeletal complaints was significantly greater in the furniture workers. A CTS was clinically diagnosed in 19% of the furniture workers and 8% of the controls. Findings suggest a significant association between occupational use of vibratory tools and soft-tissue disorders in the upper limbs of female workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.303-310. 49 ref.

CIS 06-223 Mirka G.A.
Development of an ergonomics guideline for the furniture manufacturing industry
The American Furniture Manufacturers Association has developed ergonomic guidelines for its members in the form of a document that includes basic information as well as a compilation of best practices submitted by members of the furniture manufacturing community. This voluntary guidance was developed through an industry-research-government partnership and made strategic use of the unique attributes that each sector brought to this effort. This article outlines some of the characteristics of the partnership including the roles played by each, the different motivations for pursuing the guidelines, the challenges faced during the development of the document, the successes experienced in this process and a proposed outline for measuring the effectiveness of this effort.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2005, Vol.36, No.2, p.241-247. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-175 Goglia V., Grbac I
Whole-body vibration transmitted to the framesaw operator
This article analyzes the results of measurements of whole-body vibration transmitted to framesaw operators during ordinary working days at one sawmill in Croatia. For all measurements, frequency spectra were obtained and represented according to the recommendations of ISO standard 2631-1-1986. The duration of each single framesaw operation was measured and the accelerations and energy-equivalent vibration levels were calculated. Results showed that framesaw operators are exposed to vibration levels in excess of the daily exposure limits established in the ISO standard.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2005, Vol.36, No.1, p.43-48. Illus. 15 ref.

2004

CIS 08-527 Mahieu J.C.
Dust in the nook of the woods
Les poussières au coin du bois [in French]
Dusts formed during woodworking can affect human health, either by contact or inhalation. This leaflet recalls the preventive measures against exposure to wood dust and includes the table of occupational diseases caused by wood dust that are recognized in France.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2004. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/intranetobject-accesparreference/ed%20729/$file/ed729.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-529 Wood dust
Les poussières au coin du bois [in French]
Illustrated pamphlet for use in training courses and aimed at workers in the woodworking industry. It describes the health hazards of wood dust, explains how to evaluate and control wood dust hazards and highlights the need for medical supervision. Includes a list of recognized occupational diseases caused by wood dust.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed. 2004. 6p. Illus.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ED+729/$File/ed729.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-325 Jones T., Kumar S.
Occupational injuries and illnesses in the sawmill industry of Alberta
A comprehensive Workers Compensation Board of Alberta claims database for the sawmill industry describing 3779 claims was analysed for the years 1997-2002. A total of 48,025 days were lost as a result of injury and total claims costs were over eight million Canadian dollars. The majority of injuries resulting in claims were experienced by males 24-35 years of age with one to six months of work experience. Musculoskeletal injuries were the most common type of injury (46.7%). The upper extremity was the most frequently injured region of the body (45.5%). The majority of claims (54.5%) were defined as lost time claims and 46% as medical aid only. Incidence rates are compared with those reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 2004, Vol.33, No.5, p.415-427. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 06-356 Karoly W.J., Flatley J.J., Stevenson R.D., Bowers J.D.
Airborne concentrations of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in North American wood mills during the manufacturing of oriented strand board (OSB)
Air samples were taken to determine the effectiveness of control measures used in oriented strand board (OSB) mills to prevent fugitive emissions of wood dust, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and MDI-coated wood dust. Personal sampling results (578 samples covering 11 job categories) ranged from 0.0002 to 0.524mg/m3, and area sampling results (1657 samples covering 14 stationary locutions in the mills) ranged from 0.0002 to 2.5mg/m3. Over 97% of the personal and 92% of the area sampling results were below 0.051mg/m3. Wipe testing was performed to determine the presence of unreacted diisocyanates from various surfaces. Positive results were found in about 13% of the wipe tests on surfaces in process areas.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2004, Vol.1, No.12, p.789-798. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 05-354 McBride D., Nelsen K.
Wood dust exposure in small New Zealand woodworking companies
This study investigates wood dust exposure in small woodworking companies in New Zealand. 58 employees of 14 companies underwent personal respirable dust sampling and completed a self-administered exposure assessment questionnaire. 26 participants had exposure levels exceeding the New Zealand recommended workplace exposure standard of 5mg/m3. Although the survey size was small, dust exposure in small workplaces appears to be greater than that in large workplaces. Preventive measures include modern local exhaust ventilation, better cleaning procedures and the use of respiratory protective equipment during high-risk processes.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct.2004, Vol.20, No.5, p.465-472. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 05-134 Occupational safety and health manual - Furniture industry
Manual de segurança e saúde no trabalho - Indústria moveleira [in Portuguese]
This manual covers the occupational safety and health aspects specific to the furniture industry in Brazil. It is based on the results of a literature survey as well as a field study carried out in 30 representative enterprises by a multidisciplinary team. It specifies the hazards that are to be found within this industry and proposes preventive measures aimed at protecting the workers and improving productivity. Contents: segmentation of the furniture industry; risk factors and control methods; enterprise safety and hygiene committees; preparation of hazard cards; fire prevention and fire fighting brigade; environmental hazard prevention programme; medical supervision programme; hearing protection programme; advice on how to train workers to use personal protective equipment; legal aspects.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Regional de São Paulo, CEP 01311-923, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2004. 390p. Illus. 135 ref. Index.

CIS 04-556 Bertrand O., Ulrich G., Rivière G., Gressier V., Berr C., Petiet G.
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma in a patient manufacturing orthopaedic shoe soles made of cork - Considerations based on a case
Carcinome de l'ethmoïde chez un patient fabricant des semelles de chaussures orthopédiques en liège - A propos d'un cas [in French]
Ethmoid adenocarcinoma is recognized as a professional disease in wood workers, especially those in contact with fine hardwood dust. The main carcinogenic agent responsible is represented by the tannins contained in various wood species. This is also the case for cork, which can contain up to 6% of tannins. Considering that 40,000 French workers are currently exposed to cork dust, it is recommended that the same medical supervision procedures as those in place in the woodworking sector should be adopted. This article describes a case of muco-secretant adenocarcinoma infiltrating the right nasal cavity in a 57 year-old patient who manufactured orthopaedic shoes. From 1965 to 2001, the worker handled leather, rubber, adhesives and cork without effective protection against cork dust. The occupational nature of the disease was recognized.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 2004, Vol.65, No.1, p.25-29. 19 ref.

CIS 04-647 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Wooden furniture manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de meubles en bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-646, CIS 04-648 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 50p. 35 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA5-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-646 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Other wood industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Autres industries du bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wood product industries other than furniture and particle-board manufacture in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-645, CIS 04-647 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 49p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA4-386.pdf. [in French]

CIS 04-645 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Duguay P., Gely O., Gérin M., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Particle-board manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de panneaux agglomérés [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the particle-board manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-644, CIS 04-646 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA3-386.pdf [in French]

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