Diseases of the nervous system - 1,004 entries found
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- Diseases of the nervous system
Kenborg L., Lassen C.F., Lander F., Olsen J.H.
Parkinson's disease among gardeners exposed to pesticides - A Danish cohort study
Several studies have found positive associations between exposure to pesticides and Parkinson's disease. Considering that Danish gardeners have had frequent, intensive exposure to pesticides, the aim of this study was to investigate their risk for Parkinson's disease. The cohort was comprised of 3124 male gardeners. Hospital register data were used for a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and to calculate standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHR) for this disease among gardeners compared to the general Danish population. Furthermore, data from the Danish Cancer Registry were used to calculate standardized incidence rate ratios (SIR) for smoking-related cancers among gardeners and the general population. The SHR for Parkinson's disease among gardeners was close to that of the general population (1.14). The SIR for smoking-related cancers did not differ from that of the general population. The results indicate a weak dose-related association between exposure to pesticides and risk for Parkinson's disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.65-69. 35 ref.
Parkinson's_disease_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Guest M., D'Este C., Attia J., Boggess M., Brown A., Tavener M., Gibson R., Gardner I., Harrex W., Ross J.
Impairment of color vision in aircraft maintenance workers
The purpose of this study was to examine possible persisting effects to colour vision in a group from the Royal Australian Air Force who had exposure to formulations containing neurotoxins during fighter aircraft fuel tank maintenance, relative to two contemporaneous comparison groups. Colour vision was tested in 512 exposed personnel, 458 technical-trade comparisons, and 330 non-technical comparisons. Regression models were used to examine whether there was an association between colour vision deficiencies and fuel tank maintenance, adjusting for possible confounders. Logistic regression demonstrated statistically significant differences in the colour confusion index in the exposed group versus the technical group (odds ratio 1.7) and a blue-yellow confusion in the exposed group versus the technical group (odds ratio 1.4). No differences were observed between the exposed group and the non-technical group. Possible implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2011, Vol.84, No.7, p.723-733. Illus. 50 ref.
Impairment_of_color_vision_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Nuckols T., Harber P., Sandin K., Benner D., Weng H., Shaw R., Griffin A., Asch S.
Quality measures for the diagnosis and non-operative management of carpal tunnel syndrome in occupational settings
The objective of this study was to develop quality measures for the diagnostic evaluation and non-operative management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), including managing occupational activities and functional limitations. Draft quality measures were developed using guidelines and literature reviews. Next, in a two-round modified-Delphi process, a multidisciplinary panel of 11 experts in CTS rated the measures on validity and feasibility. Of 40 draft measures, experts rated 31 (78%) valid and feasible. Nine measures pertained to diagnostic evaluation, such as assessing symptoms, signs and risk factors. Eleven pertain to non-operative treatments, such as the use of splints, steroid injections, and medications. Eleven others address assessing the association between symptoms and work, managing occupational activities, and accommodating functional limitations. These measures will complement existing treatment guidelines by enabling providers, payers, policymakers and researchers to assess quality of care for CTS in an objective, structured manner. Given the characteristics of previous measures developed with these methods, greater adherence to these measures will probably lead to improved patient outcomes at a population level.
Occupational Rehabilitation, 2011, Vol.21, p.100-119. 107 ref.
Quality_measures.pdf [in English]
Goffeng L.O., Alvestrand M., Ulvestad B., Sųrensen K.A., Skaug V., Kjuus H.
Self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological function among tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide
The aim of this study was to examine possible exposure-related symptoms and neuropsychological changes among 44 tunnel workers exposed 2-10 years earlier to grout containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide. The control group consisted of 49 male tunnel workers with no history of acrylamide exposure. Questionnaires were used to assess retrospectively recalled symptoms during work and current symptoms at the time of the examination. The prevalence of paresthesia in hands and legs, and leg cramps during work periods were higher in the exposed than control group. Self-reported prevalence of skin irritation, peeling of skin on the hands, white-finger attacks, headache, and breathlessness was also higher among the exposed workers. The questionnaire on current symptoms indicated higher symptom prevalence among the exposed of impaired memory and concentration, emotional change, sleep disturbances, tiredness, headache and sensory or motor changes. In contrast, no association was found between neuropsychological test results and acrylamide exposure, adjusting for relevant confounders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.136-146. 33 ref.
Self-reported_symptoms.pdf [in English]
Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gagnon F., Gendron M., Boudjerida A., El-Majidi N., Viau C.
Effect of chemical substances on hearing - Interactions with noise
Effet des substances chimiques sur l'audition - Interactions avec le bruit [in French]
While noise is the main cause of occupational deafness, certain chemical substances can produce ototoxic effects that may make the ear more prone to acoustic assault, as opposed to noise alone. They are mainly solvents, asphyxiants, metals and pesticides, widespread in workplaces. In Quebec, over 400,000 workers are exposed to high noise levels, which raise concerns regarding the prevention of hearing impairments. This literature survey evaluated the effects of various chemical substances on hearing, and characterized the interactions between these chemical substances and noise at exposure levels respecting the current standards of the Occupational health and safety regulations. Strong interactions were found for toluene and carbon monoxide. Less solid evidence was found for other substances, with either lack of evidence or inconclusive results.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 18p. Illus. 59 ref.
R-685.pdf [in French]
A prospective cohort study of exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger
The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the relation between vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and measures of cumulative (lifetime) exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). Two hundred and forty-nine HTV workers and 138 control men of the same companies participated in a three-year follow-up study. The diagnosis of VWF (Raynaud's phenomenon in the controls) was based on the medical history, the administration of colour charts and the results of a cold test. Tool vibration magnitudes were expressed as root-mean-square acceleration, frequency-weighted according to international standard ISO 5349-1 and also unweighted over the frequency range 6.3-1250 Hz. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of cumulative vibration dose were calculated for each HTV worker. The incidence of VWF varied from 5 to 6% in the HTV workers versus 0 to 1.5% in the controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, measures of cumulative vibration dose derived from total operating hours and high powers of unweighted acceleration gave better predictions of the occurrence of VWF than dose measures calculated from frequency-weighted acceleration. These findings were observed in the entire sample of HTV workers, in those with no VWF at the initial investigation, and in those with normal cold test results at baseline. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.38-46. Illus. 27 ref.
Firestone J.A., Lundin J.I., Powers K.M., Smith-Weller T., Franklin G.M., Swanson P.D., Longstreth W.T., Checkoway H.
Occupational factors and risk of Parkinson's disease: A population-based case-control study
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been associated with various workplace factors, but the evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of PD associated with various jobs and workplace exposures. It was conducted in the form of a population-based, case-control study of 404 incident PD cases and 526 age and sex-matched controls, collecting self-reported work histories including job titles and exposures to various industrial toxicants. Relative risks of PD from these exposures were estimated using logistic regression. Risk was not significantly affected by farming work, by metal work, or by exposure to pesticides, metals or solvents. These findings do not provide support for the hypothesis that workplace factors affect the risk of PD.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.217-223. 35 ref.
Shibata E., Zhou Z., Ichihara S., Wang H., Wang Q., Li J., Zhang L, Wakai K., Takeuchi Y., Ding X., Ichihara G.
Dose-dependent neurologic abnormalities in workers exposed to 1-bromopropane
The objective of this study was to investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) and its dose-dependency in 1-BP production factories in China. Data of 60 female and 26 male workers in three 1-BP factories and the same number of age-, sex- and region-matched controls were collected by means of interviews and medical examinations. The time-weighted average exposure levels of individual workers were estimated. Regression analysis on exposure level showed dose-dependent increase in the distal latency of tibial nerve, threshold for vibration sense in toes, lactate dehydrogenase, thyroid stimulating hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone in female workers. The analysis also showed dose-dependent decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity of the sural nerve, red blood cell, and hematocrit in female workers. It is concluded that exposure to 1-BP induces dose-dependent neurotoxicity in female workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.52, No.8, p.769-777. 30 ref.
Poole K., Mason H.
Health and Safety Executive
The value of the WEST monofilaments in detecting neurosensory deficit caused by hand-arm vibration exposure
Hand-arm vibration syndrome is categorized according to the Stockholm Workshop scales. This comprises a rating system for vascular (circulatory system) and sensorineural (touch and sensation) symptoms, which sufferers of this disease can experience. To establish the extent of the sensory component of this disease these scales require the Occupational Health Physician to decide whether they feel an individual has reduced sensory perception. Quantitative tests such as vibrotactile and thermal perception threshold measurements have been used widely for this, but are generally only available in specialist referral centres. Simple techniques such as monofilaments are cheaper to use and could potentially be used more widely than the specialist quantitative tests. However, it is unclear at present what method of application should be used and how diagnostically useful these are. This study investigates the value of monofilaments in defining neurosensory abnormality caused by excessive exposure to hand-arm vibration by establishing their ability to detect abnormality determined by the standard quantitative tests. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, vi, 17p. 36 ref.
The_value_of_the_WEST monofilaments_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
A review of the literature published since 2004 with potential relevance in the diagnosis of HAVS
Health surveillance for those exposed to hand-arm vibration, and the diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is heavily dependent upon self-reporting of symptoms. However, this self-reporting may not be accurate for a number of reasons including the ability of individuals to recall symptoms, misunderstanding or misidentification of symptoms and fears regarding an individual's job, or ongoing litigation. Therefore techniques that could be used to obtain better information or tests that could be applied to obtain a more accurate diagnosis may be useful in this area. In 2004, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine published an evidence-based review of clinical testing and management of individuals exposed to hand transmitted vibration. More recent work, which is the subject of this report, is a short update review of the literature published in this area since 2004. It is the intention that this review is used to inform future research work in the area of assessment for HAVS.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, v, 62p. 141 ref.
A_review_of_the_literature_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Salgueiro Barboni M.T., Feitosa-Santana C., Zachi E.C., Lago M., Antunes Teixeira R.A., Taub A., da Costa M.F., de Lima Silveira L.C., Fix Ventura D.
Preliminary findings on the effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapor below safety levels on visual and neuropsychological functions
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there are visual and neuropsychological decrements in workers with low exposure to mercury (Hg) vapour. Visual fields, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and neuropsychological functions were measured in 10 workers chronically-exposed to Hg vapour (duration 4.3±2.8y; urinary Hg concentration 22.3±9.3μg/g creatinine). For the worst eyes, altered visual field thresholds, lower contrast sensitivity and color discrimination were found compared with controls. There were no significant differences between Hg-exposed subjects and controls on neuropsychological tests. Nevertheless, duration of exposure was statistically correlated to verbal memory and depression scores. Chronic exposure to Hg vapour at currently-accepted safety levels was found to be associated with visual losses but not with neuropsychological dysfunctions in the sample of workers studied.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1403-1412. Illus. 48 ref.
Friedebold A., Scutaru C., Mache S., Quarcoo D., Groneberg D.A., Spallek M.
Carpal tunnel syndrome - A clinical overview
Das Karpaltunnelsyndrom - eine klinische Übersicht [in German]
The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) interventions are the second-most frequent ambulatory surgeries in Germany. This review article on CTS explains how it results from a compression of the median nerve in the wrist. It develops following post-traumatic, metabolic or idiopathic occurrences. In addition, occupational associations can be found. While many European countries recognized CTS as an occupational disease, it is currently not the case in Germany. This article explores the impact of CTS on health system and argues in favour of its recognition as an occupational disease.
Aug 2009, Vol.59, No.8. p.242-247. 33 ref.
Julvez J., Grandjean P.
Neurodevelopmental toxicity risks due to occupational exposure to industrial chemicals during pregnancy
Exposure to neurotoxic chemicals is of particular concern when it occurs during early development. This literature survey was carried out on epidemiological studies on female workers and the neurodevelopment of their children. The majority of recent studies focused on organic solvents and pesticides, which were associated with neurobehavioral impairments in the progeny. Additional data on environmental exposures highlights the vulnerability of the developing brain to substances such as lead and methylmercury.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.459-468. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_459.pdf [in English]
Sauni R., Pääkkönen R., Virtema P., Jäntti V., Kähönen M., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Vibration-induced white finger syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among Finnish metal workers
The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population of Finnish metal workers. A questionnaire on vibration exposure at the workplace and symptoms of the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 metalworkers' union members. Those reporting VWF or CTS symptoms were also invited to take part in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated. The incidences VWF and CTS were 8.4% and 4.2% respectively, suggesting that VWF is under-diagnosed in Finland. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.445-453. Illus. 31 ref.
Mattioli S., Baldasseroni A., Curti S., Cooke R.M.T., Mandes A., Zanardi F., Farioli A., Buiatti E., Campo G., Violante F.S.
Incidence rates of surgically treated idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome in blue- and white-collar workers and housewives in Tuscany, Italy
Surgically treated cases of carpal tunnel syndrome were investigated among 25-59-year-old residents of Tuscany, Italy, during 1997-2000, using hospital records. Population data were extracted from the 2001 census. Male and female blue-collar workers showed approximately three to sevenfold higher rates compared to their white-collar counterparts. Housewives' rates were similar to those of blue-collar women up to the 40-44 year age group, after which they were significantly lower. At all ages, housewives' rates were much higher than those of white-collar women, suggesting that domestic chores should be investigated as a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.299-304. Illus. 34 ref.
Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure and neurobehavioural functions: A cohort study with repeated measurements
Possible associations between occupational styrene exposure and cognitive as well as psychomotor functions were investigated with a view to determining whether they are related to current or to chronic exposure and to what extent they are reversible. Workers of a plant producing glass-reinforced polyester boats in Germany were divided into three groups based on their estimated exposure to styrene being low, medium or high. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and various tests of cognitive function. The overall findings were that symptoms were not related to exposure and that cognitive function tests generally revealed no exposure-related associations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.969-984. Illus. 52 ref.
Occupational medicine physician's guide to neuropathy in the workplace, Part I
This article summarizes the medical and occupational histories of neuropathies, together with their differential diagnosis, laboratory test diagnosis and risk factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.390-393.
Hobson A.J., Sterling D.A., Emo B., Evanoff B.A., Sterling C.S., Good L., Seixas N., Checkoway H., Racette B.A.
Validity and reliability of an occupational exposure questionnaire for parkinsonism in welders
This study assessed the validity and test-retest reliability of a medical and occupational history questionnaire for workers performing welding in the shipyard industry. This self-report questionnaire was developed for an epidemiologic study of the risk of Parkinsonism in welders. Participants were recruited from three similar shipyards and asked to complete the questionnaire at two different times approximately four weeks apart. Responses on the questionnaire were compared with information extracted from personnel records. Findings suggest that participants' self-reports were valid compared with employer records, generating reproducible answers and therefore allowing the use of the questionnaire for occupational exposure assessment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2009, Vol.6, No.6, p.324-331. 23 ref.
Welding occupations and mortality from Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases among United States men, 1985-1999
It has been hypothesized that occupational exposure to manganese fumes among welders could increase risk of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The present study examines the mortality from neurodegenerative diseases among male welders in the United States from 1985 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate mortality odds ratios of death from Parkinson's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases among welders compared with men of other occupations. During the study period, 49,174 deaths were attributed to Parkinson's disease, 54,892 to Alzheimer's disease, and 19,018 to presenile dementia. However there was no evidence of increased odds of mortality from either of these diseases among welders as compared with men with other occupations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2009, Vol.6, No.5, p.267-272. 17 ref.
Li X., Sundquist J., Sundquist K.
Socioeconomic and occupational groups and Parkinson's disease: A nationwide study based on hospitalizations in Sweden
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status, occupation and hospitalization for Parkinson's disease (PD). A nationwide database was constructed by linking the Swedish Census data to the Hospital Discharge Register to obtain data on hospitalizations for PD diagnosed in Sweden from 1987 to 2004. Data were obtained for 8,870 men and 3,724 women. Among men, significantly increased risks for hospitalization for PD were found for teachers, administrators and managers, farmers, sales agents, wood workers, and painters and wall paperhangers. For female occupations, an increased risk was observed only among assistant nurses.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.235-241. 26 ref.
Monaghan B., Norrish J., Potter J., Yeo W., Naidoo V.
Self-reported health symptoms, cardiovascular risk and fume exposure in welders
Welding is one of the most common sources of occupational exposure to manganese, suspected to be linked to Parkinson's disease. There are however many clinical conditions which can be mistaken for Parkinson's disease. Traditionally, positive diagnosis has only been accepted on autopsy. The risk factors for other conditions that mimic Parkinson's disease are high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. It is likely that, 30 years ago, many workers would have been smokers and would not have had hypertension diagnosed or aggressively managed. This study investigated risk exposure and self-reported health symptoms in a cohort of welders by means of a questionnaire, to advance research in this area.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.223-230. Illus. 23 ref.
Stewart W.F., Wood G.C., Razzaghi H., Reed M.L., Lipton R.B.
Work impact of migraine headaches
The objective of this study was to estimate work impact of headache among migraineurs. Data were collected during a nationwide mailed questionnaire survey of the 193,477 participants in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study. Self-declared Lost Productive Time (LPT) was the sum of missed hours plus reduced productivity hour equivalents. The mean LPT per week was 1.8 hours for headache and 2.8 for all health related causes; 76.5% of the headache-related LPT was explained by reduced performance. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.736-745. 40 ref.
Armstrong T., Dale A.M., Franzblau A., Evanoff B.A.
Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome and median neuropathy in a working population
The objective of this study was to assess whether work-related physical activities are associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A cross-sectional sample of 1108 workers from eight employers and three unions completed nerve conduction testing, underwent physical examinations, and responded to questionnaires. Work-related exposures were estimated by self-reports and job title. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Eighteen workers had CTS and 131 had evidence of median neuropathy. CTS was highest among construction workers (3.0%) compared to other subjects (<1%). Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1355-1364. 39 ref.
Müller M., Bode M., Behrendt B., Dillmann U., Fassbender K., Buchter A.
Chronic diseases due to perchloroethene - Clinical picture and course
Chronische Erkrankungen durch Perchlorethen - Klinisches Bild und Verlauf [in German]
The medical files of ten patients who developed a chronic-toxic encephalopathy (stage III for eight patients and stage II b for two patients) and other diseases as a result of exposure to perchloroethene were examined. The follow-up conducted after 15 years did not show any significant improvements of the deficits. On the contrary, despite the fact that exposure had ceased, progressive worsening was observed, three patients having died soon after the beginning of the follow-up. Hence, the progress of chronic-toxic encephalopathy is most likely even after the cessation of exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.4-19. 48 ref.
Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Riise T.
Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to evaluate neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to have been exposed to mercury from work with filling material. All female dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 in a region of Norway were invited to answer a questionnaire on demographic variables, life-style factors, and musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms; 41 responded (response rate 68%) together with 64 randomly-selected assistant nurses in the same age group serving as controls. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses, after controlling for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. Dental assistants reported significantly-higher frequencies of neurological and psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance. It is argued that these symptoms may be related to previous exposure to mercury amalgam fillings.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2008, Vol.3, No.10, 7p. 37 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-10.pdf [in English]
Dhillon A.S., Tarbutton G.L., Levin J.L., Plotkin G.M., Lowry L.K., Nalbone J.T., Shepherd S.
Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas
Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0), the use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.37-48. 62 ref.
Measurement, evaluation, and assessment of peripheral neurological disorders caused by hand-transmitted vibration
This article attempts to define significant peripheral neurological symptoms caused by hand-transmitted vibration and how these symptoms and related signs may be measured. Scales for evaluating the extent of the symptoms and their probability of being related to vibration exposure are defined. A method of relating the symptoms to both the signs of disorder and the pattern of vibration exposure is illustrated. It was found that assessments of severity vary according to the reasons for assessing the health effects of vibration and depend on local practice and convenience, but a method allowing the combining of evaluations of symptoms and signs is demonstrated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2008, Vol.81, No.5, p.559-573. Illus. 17 ref.
Govindaraju S.R., Curry B.D., Bain J.L.W., Riley D.A.
Nerve damage occurs at a wide range of vibration frequencies
Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is an occupational disorder caused by years of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from powered tools. Patients with late-stage HAVS have peripheral neuropathy. To protect workers from developing HAVS, ISO 5349 (2001) sets vibration exposure limits based on vibration frequency weighting which progressively reduces injury potential at 16Hz and higher. Rat tails were used to characterize the early changes in tail-nerves exposed to vibration frequencies of 30, 120 and 800Hz continuously for 4h at 49m/s2 rms. All three frequencies caused similar nerve oedema, dilation of arterioles and percentages of disrupted axons. These findings demonstrate that early vibration injury of nerves occurs at both low and high frequencies.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.687-692. Illus. 19 ref.
Carpal tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis and De Quervain's syndrome - Guide to integral treatment based on evidence of musculoskeletal disease
Sķndrome de tśnel carpiano, epicondilitis y enfermedad de De Quervain - Guķa de atención integral basada en la evidencia para desórdenes musculoesqueléticos [in Spanish]
This article describes the characteristics of three occupational diseases affecting upper extremities that are common in Colombia and caused by repetitive efforts, static or forced postures, vibrations, cold work environments and local physical strain: carpal tunnel syndrome, epicondylitis and De Quervain's syndrome. These descriptions are based on a medical guide, the full version of which can be viewed on the website of the Colombian Ministry for Social Protection.
Protección y seguridad, Mar.-Apr. 2008, Vol.54, No.318, p.22-28. Illus.
Nordling Nilson L., Barregård L., Sällsten G., Hagberg S.
Self-reported symptoms and their effects on cognitive functioning in workers with past exposure to solvent-based glues: an 18-year follow-up
The objective of this study was to examine to what extent exposure to organic solvents during the working life affects general well-being in the long term, and to explore the relationship between self-reported symptoms and cognitive functioning in previously solvent-exposed floor layers. The study included 41 solvent-exposed floor layers and 40 unexposed referents participating in a longitudinal follow-up study 18 years after the baseline assessment. Data were collected by means of general health examinations and self-administered questionnaires on symptoms, exposures and non-occupational activities. Findings confirm that prolonged high occupational exposure to solvents may negatively interact with the normal ageing process.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.69-79. Illus. 40 ref.
Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.
Violante F.S., Armstrong T.J., Fiorentini C., Graziosi F., Risi A., Venturi S., Curti S., Zanardi F., Cooke R.M.T., Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S.
Carpal-tunnel syndrome and manual work: A longitudinal study
The objective of this study was to assess the risks associated with work-related biomechanical overloads in the onset and development of carpal tunnel syndrome. Work-groups with job tasks spanning various biomechanical exposures were evaluated at two instances 12 months apart using the criteria recommended by the ACGIH. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1189-1196. Illus. 31 ref.
Hardell L., Carlberg M., Söderqvist F., Mild K.H., Morgan L.L.
Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: Increased risk associated with use for ≥10 years
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones. Two cohort studies and 16 case-control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for possible use of mobile phones ten years or more and for ipsilateral exposure. Findings are discussed. Results from recent studies on use of mobile phones for ten years or more give a consistent pattern of increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.626-632. 23 ref.
Iwata T., Sakamoto M., Feng X., Yoshida M., Liu Y.J., Dakeishi M., Li P., Qiu G., Jiang H., Nakamura M., Murata K.
Effects of mercury vapor exposure en neuromotor function in Chinese miners and smelters
Hand tremor and postural sway were measured in 27 miners and smelters in China occupationally exposed to mercury vapour and in 52 unexposed subjects. Urine samples were collected and total mercury and creatinine concentrations were determined. Data of the tremor and postural sway were analyzed using the fast Fourier transformation. The geometric means of the urinary mercury level (UHg) were 228µg/g creatinine for the exposed workers and 2.6µg/g creatinine for the unexposed subjects. Total tremor intensity and frequency-specific tremor intensities at 1-6 and 10-14Hz were significantly larger in the exposed workers than in the unexposed subjects, but they were not significantly related to the UHg among the exposed workers. In contrast, there were no significant differences in any postural sway parameters between the above two groups, but the transversal sway with eyes open was positively related to the UHg among the exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.381-387. Illus. 41 ref.
Stewart W.F., Schwartz B.S.
Effects of lead on the adult brain: A 15-year exploration
Three independent longitudinal studies were initiated to determine whether cumulative lead exposure was associated with persistent or progressive neurotoxic effects. The studies include former United States organolead manufacturing workers, current and former inorganic lead workers in Korea and Baltimore residents with environmental lead exposure. In each of these studies, blood lead was measured, as well as tibia and patella lead by X-ray fluorescence. Higher tibia lead was consistently associated with poorer measures of cognitive function. Longitudinal analysis of the Korean and organolead cohort indicate that the effect of lead is persistent. Moreover, MRI data on organolead workers indicates a possible progressive effect. Higher tibia lead was associated with lower brain volume. Findings suggest that a significant proportion of what is considered to be normal age-related cognitive decline may, in fact, be due to past exposure to neurotoxicants such as lead.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.729-739. Illus. 46 ref.
Bowler R.M., Roels H.A., Nakagawa S., Drezgic M., Diamond E., Park R., Koller W., Bowler R.P., Mergler D., Bouchard M., Smith D., Gwiazda R., Doty R.L.
Dose-effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge workers
This study involved 43 welders exposed to welding fumes containing manganese during the construction of a bridge span, who were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Various outcomes were analysed in relation to blood manganese (MnB) and an estimated cumulative exposure index (CEI). The time weighted average of manganese in air ranged from 0.11-0.46mg/m3. MnB levels of more than 10µg/L were found in 43% of the workers. Lung function values were found to be below normal in 33.3% of the welders. Computer assisted tremor analysis tests, body sway tests and smell identification tests showed impairment in 38.5 to 88% of the welders. Significant inverse dose-effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ, executive function, sustaining concentration and sequencing, verbal learning, working and immediate memory. Dose-effect associations between CEI and sexual function, fatigue, depression and headache reported by the workers were significant. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.167-177. Illus. 45 ref.
Price L.B., Roess A., Graham J.P., Baqar S., Vailes R., Sheikh K.A., Silbergeld E.
Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni
The objective of this case-control study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with exposure to Campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms and neuropathological antibodies. Subjects included 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies, neurological symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and neuropathological antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. It was found that poultry workers had significantly higher anti-campylobacter compared with that of referents, and they were significantly more likely to report multiple campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.49, No.7, p.748-755. Illus. 35 ref.
Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Fiorentini C., Graziosi F., Curti S., Violante F.S.
Relationship between repetitive work and the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in part-time and full-time female supermarket cashiers: A quasi-experimental study
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among supermarket cashiers. Participants included 71 full-time and 155 part-time cashiers, together with 98 office workers as controls, all women, employed at four large supermarkets in Italy. Evaluations included job observations and clinical examinations, including clinician-administered questionnaires and a bilateral conduction study of the median nerve. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. The prevalence of CTS symptoms was higher among full-time (31.0%) than part-time cashiers (19.3%) or controls (16.3%). Regression analyses confirmed the increased risk for CTS symptoms in full-time cashiers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.80, No.3, p.248-253. 27 ref.
Hansson Mild K., Hardell L., Carlberg M.
Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003
The findings of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the association of brain tumours with mobile phone use are presented. It was found that analogue cellular phones increased the risk for acoustic neuroma by 2-9% per 100hrs of use. There was also an increased risk of grade III-IV astrocytoma with latency period with highest estimates using a time period of over ten years from first use of these phone types. The risk increased per one year of use of analogue phones by 10%, digital phones by 11%, and cordless phones by 8%. For all three phone types studied, the odds ratios of brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant tumours, increased with the latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.63-71. 11 ref.
Bugajska J., Jędryka-Góral A., Sudoł-Szopińska I.
Carpal tunnel syndrome in occupational medicine practice
The various methods available for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are discussed, with special emphasis on those that can be used by physicians for the early diagnosis in workers doing monotonous work. It also discusses occupational factors, non-occupational factors (such as post-traumatic deformation of bone elements of the carpal tunnel, degenerative and inflammatory changes in tendon sheaths, connective tissue hypertrophy or formation of crystal deposits) leading to CTS, diagnostic methods (subjective symptoms, physical examination, provocative tests, vibration perception threshold, electrophysiological examination and imaging methods), and therapeutic and preventive tools available in occupational medicine practice.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.29-38. 59 ref.
Dorandeu F., Carpentier P., Baille V., Testylier G., Lallement G.
Neurological diseases caused by toxic agents
Pathologies neurologiques d'origine toxique [in French]
The nervous system is very sensitive to toxic agents, particularly during its development phase. After recalling a few basic properties of the nervous system, this article uses examples to present the toxic processes that arise from exposure to substances that can be found in occupational settings, together with their clinical and paraclinical expressions. Finally, it reviews in detail the case of organophosphorus compounds which are responsible for damage to both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.151, 11p. Illus. 61 ref.
Possible broad impacts of long work hours
This literature survey summarizes research linking long working hours to a wide range of risks to workers, families, employers and the community. The risks are theorized to stem from less time to recover from work, longer exposure to workplace hazards, and less time to attend to non-work responsibilities. Risks to workers include sleep deprivation, poor recovery from work, decrements in neuro-cognitive and physiological functioning, illnesses, adverse reproductive outcomes and injuries. Risks to families include delayed marriages and child bearing and obesity in children. Risks to employers include reduced productivity and increases in worker errors. Errors by fatigued workers have broad-reaching impacts to the community, including medical errors, automobile accidents and major industrial accidents that cause damage to the environment.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.531-536. 78 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_4_531.pdf [in English]
Ali K.M., Sathiyasekaran B.W.C.
Computer professionals and carpal tunnel syndrome (CST)
In this cross-sectional study of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 648 subjects were selected among 4276 computer professionals from 21 companies, using a simple random sampling method. CTS was diagnosed based on clinical features. The prevalence of CTS was found to be 13.1%. The highest risks of CTS were found among subjects with over eight years of computer work, those working over 12 hrs per day and system administrators (odds ratios of 3.3, 4.9 and 2.5 respectively). Ergonomic considerations are important for ensuring the proper positioning of the hands while working with a computer. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.319-325. 27 ref.
Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Aniołczyk H., Brzeźnicki S., Raźniewska G., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Matczak W.
The effect of combined exposure to chemical and physical factors on the nervous system during aluminium production: A preliminary finding
Skutki zdrowotne w układzie nerwowym łącznego narażenia na czynniki chemiczne i fizyczne podczas produkcji aluminium: Doniesienie wstępne [in Polish]
Medical examinations were carried out on 39 male workers exposed to aluminium dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and magnetic fields during aluminium production. Clinical symptoms, such as headache (46.2%), increased emotional irritability (66.7%), concentration difficulty (25.6%), insomnia (30.8%), hypersomnia (15.4%), and mood lability (10.3%) predominated among functional disorders of the nervous system in workers chronically exposed to chemical and physical factors. Objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous system. In EEG recordings classified as abnormal, paroxysmal changes were most common (20.5%).
Medycyna pracy, 2006, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-13. 28 ref.
Tüchsen F., Hannerz H., Roepstorff C., Krause N.
Stroke among male professional drivers in Denmark, 1994-2003
The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of stroke among various groups of professional drivers. A cohort of 6285 bus drivers, 4204 car, taxi and van drivers, and 25,879 heavy truck drivers were followed up for hospital admission due to stroke and sub-diagnoses in the period 1994-2003. The standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) were calculated using hospital admission for all economically active men as the standard. Findings are discussed. All groups of professional drivers were found to be at increased risk of stroke, but the risk was higher among drivers carrying passengers than among drivers carrying goods.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.456-460. 39 ref.
Landtblom A.M., Tondel M., Hjalmarsson P., Flodin U., Axelson O.
The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: A register based study
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses and female teachers were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census in Sweden and linked with the disability pension registers and with data on hospital care between 1985 and 2000. The cumulative incidence rate of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant). These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.63, No.6, p.387-389. Illus. 32 ref.
Bonfiglioli R., Mattioli S., Spagnolo M.R., Violante F.S.
Course of symptoms and median nerve conduction values in workers performing repetitive jobs at risk for carpal tunnel syndrome
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a group of workers using their hands intensively. CTS was assessed in assembly and non assembly line workers by means of clinical examinations and nerve conduction studies (NCS). An ergonomic analysis was conducted for each assembly line workstation. Prevalence of CTS was significantly higher in assembly line workers but there was a high prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities in both groups. Overall, there was generally poor correlation between symptoms and electrodiagnostic findings. When assembly line workers were re-examined after two years following a period of lightened work schedule, a significant proportion reported resolution of symptoms or had reverted to having normal NCS.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.56, No.2, p.115-121. 31 ref.
Cherniack M., et al.
Nerve conduction and sensorineural function in dental hygienists using high frequency ultrasound handpieces
Oscillatory vibration from industrial power tools poses a well-recognized risk of peripheral nerve injury. There have been reports of elevated vibrotactile perception thresholds (VPT) among dentists, dental technicians, and dental hygienists, using rotary devices and ultrasonics. Elevated VPTs are an indicator of small fibre nerve or mechanoreceptor injury. This cross-sectional study of 94 experienced dental hygienists was conducted to assess peripheral nerve function and clinical signs and symptoms. Testing included measurement of VPTs for three different categories of mechanoreceptors, sensory nerve conduction tests with fractionated digit and palmar segments, and measurement of calibrated pinch force. A high level of paraesthesia was observed among dental hygienists. This and other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.313-326. 43 ref.
Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H., Ortega F.
Neurocognitive screening of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners
Performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test of visual-spatial reasoning was used to evaluate the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on 73 Andean children aged 5 to 11 years (mean: 8.4) living in the Nambija and Portovelo gold mining areas of Ecuador, where Hg is widely used in amalgamation. Mean levels of Hg found in blood (HgB), urine (HgU), and hair (HgH) samples were 5.1 µg/L (SD: 2.4; range: 1-10 µg/L), 13.3 µg/L (SD: 25.9; range: 1-166 µg/L), and 8.5 µg/g (SD: 22.8; range: 1-135 µg/g), respectively. Of the children in the Nambija area 67-84.9% had abnormal RCPM standard scores (i.e.≤ 25%tile), depending on the test norm used in the data analysis. Higher standard scores for Peruvian (t=4.77; p=<0.0001) and Puerto Rican (t=4.51; p=<0.0001) norms than for U.S. norms suggested a linguistic influence. No difference was found between Peruvian and Puerto Rican norms (t=0.832; p=<0.408), which showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.915, p=<0.0001). Children with abnormal HgB and HgH levels had significantly lower scores on the RCPM subtest B than did children with nontoxic Hg levels (t=-2.16; p=<0.034). These results suggest that a substantial number of Hg-exposed children in the Nambija study area have neurocognitive deficits in visual-spatial reasoning. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.209-214. Illus. 33 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Counter.pdf [in English]
Carpal tunnel syndrome: Overuse of the hands
Syndrome du canal carpien: des mains trop sollicitées [in French]
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most compensated occupational musculoskeletal disease (MSD) in France. It represents 23,000 cases each year, or approximately 37% of all notified MSDs. This article describes the symptoms and cause of the disease and summarizes the main findings of a recent epidemiological study on carpal tunnel syndrome in France.
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2006, No.82, p.52-54. Illus. 2 ref.
Cherry N.M., Durrington P.N., Mackness B., Mackness M.I., Smith A.E., Dipnall M., Povey A.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Genetic variation in susceptibility to chronic effects of organophosphate exposure
A case-control study was carried out to investigate whether the ability to metabolize and detoxify organophosphorus compounds differed between sheep dippers with self-reported chronic ill-health (cases) and healthy dippers (referents) of similar age and with a similar dipping experience. A total of 175 cases and 235 controls were interviewed by a nurse and information on their current health and occupational history obtained. Blood samples were also taken, DNA was extracted and polymorphisms in genes associated with organophosphorus compound metabolism were determined. Cases were more likely to have at least one R allele at position 192 and both alleles of type LL at position 55 of the paraoxonase gene, and to have diazoxonase activity below the median. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 116p. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr408.pdf [in English]
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