Tobacco industry - 31 entries found
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Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Tobacco, labour market and growing in the province of Jujuy
Tabaco, mercado de trabajo y cultura en Jujuy [in Spanish]
The objective of this project was to identify the socioeconomic and practical aspects of tobacco growing facilitating or obstructing health and environmental protection in tobacco plantations in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. Contents: tobacco growing in Argentina and its importance in the province of Jujuy; tobacco producers; tobacco workers; use of agrochemicals; health system and occupational diseases due to pesticides; findings of a survey on the tobacco sector and the prevention of hazards; conclusions and proposed actions.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009. 135p. Illus. 85 ref. pdf document.
Tabaco.pdf [in Spanish]
Satora L., Goszcz H., Gomółka E., Biedroń W.
Diplopia in green tobacco sickness
This paper examines the first reported case of green tobacco sickness (GTS) in Poland. A 25-year-old man who worked in a tobacco field for 14 hours with no protective measures experienced symptoms of GTS, and additionally, diplopia, after leaving the field. Upon hospital admission, diplopia was no longer observed. Diplopia was most probably caused by disturbances to the cholinergic neuromuscular transmission, secondary to nicotine. These neurological disturbances, the first of their kind observed in the course of GTS, deserve special attention. The case shows a potential adverse health effect related to tobacco harvest, as most Polish tobacco plantations are not mechanized. Polish farmers should be obligated to protect their workers with protective clothing, shoes, gloves and masks. Recommendations for tobacco harvester health are proposed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.66-69. 5 ref.
Olayinka O.S., Abdullahi S.A.
An overview of industrial employees' exposure to noise in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria
This study evaluates and compares industrial employees' noise exposure level in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin, Nigeria. The highest and lowest average noise exposure levels are recorded in mineral crushing mills (93.16 dB(A)) and the mattress making industry (84.69 dB(A)) respectively. The study shows that there is significant difference in noise levels in the industries surveyed. High percentages of machines emitting noise above FEPA and OSHA recommendation (90 dB(A)) were found: soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), tobacco industry (71.4%), mattress making industry (11.1%) and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the noise levels in the soft drink bottling industry was reduced by 0.58 dB(A) and that of the brewing and bottling industry by 9.66 dB(A), but that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On the average, the noise control measures put in place have had significant impact on the noise exposure.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.123-133. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/123/_pdf/-char/ja/ [in English]
Ghosh T., Barman S.
Respiratory problems of workers in the zarda industry in Kolkata, India
Zarda is a type of chewing tobacco popular in India. In zarda factories, workers mix tobacco leaves with various chemicals, then dry the mix in ovens and pack the product for distribution. Workers are highly exposed to tobacco dust. This study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary and respiratory problems of workers in a zarda factory in Kolkata, India. A total of 70 zarda workers were studied. The study involved the completion of a questionnaire on pulmonary and respiratory problems, medical inspections including spirometry and worksite inspections using the OSHA-recommended ergonomics checklist. It was found that many workers complained of respiratory symptoms and that their lung capacity and peak expiratory flow rates were considerably reduced.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.91-96. 20 ref.
Zhang Y., Chen J., Chen Y., Dong J., Wei Q.
Environmental mycological study and allergic respiratory disease among tobacco processing workers
This study presents the results of an investigation of respiratory symptoms, lung function, chest x-ray examinations, analysis of specific IgE antibodies and skin prick tests to fungi on 130 tobacco-processing workers and 112 controls. Industrial hygiene and environmental mycological studies were also performed. The average dust concentrations ranged from 13.76 to 29.55 mg/m3 in the tobacco processing workshops; the numbers of fungi colonies in the processing environments were much higher than those in the control environments. The prevalence of chronic respiratory or nasal symptoms and lung function abnormalities was significantly higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. The positive prevalence of specific IgE reactions to fungi was also higher in exposed workers. Results suggest that tobacco processing workers may develop respiratory diseases related to tobacco dust and that fungi might be one of the allergens causing allergic respiratory or nasal diseases.
Journal of Occupational Health, 2005, Vol.47, p.181-187. 9 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/joh/47/2/181/_pdf [in English]
Beedi industry in Rajnandgaon district: Some emerging issues of concern
The objective of this project was to study the conditions of work among women working in the beedi industry in three towns of the Indian district of Rajnandgaon (Chhattisgarh State). In particular, the study examined the various steps involved in beedi manufacture, the status of the women in the beedi industry, the socioeconomic backgrounds of the households, the literacy status and the state of health of the women workers, in order to suggest remedial measures, policies and social action plans. The work is carried out partly at home and occupies two to three persons within the household. The education level of the women is very low, with around half being illiterate. The low socioeconomic status, malnutrition and insufficient hygiene conditions reflect on the state of health, giving rise to susceptibility to infections. Other risks include eye irritation, conjunctivitis or rhinitis caused by tobacco dust and disorders due to prolonged exposure to nicotine (disorders of the respiratory, circulatory and reproductive systems). Recommendations for improving the working conditions and the state of health of the women are proposed.
Collective Initiatives, Oct. 2002, Vol.3, No.2, p.1-15. 5 ref.
Saini R.S., Jaitli H.
Beedi industry - Working for solutions
This article describes a survey carried out in the beedi industry in the city of Gwalior, India. The 75 respondents were all women, of average age 36 (13 to 75), having worked in the sector for an average of 14 years. Four suffered from asthma, 17 from chest pain and three from tuberculosis. All complained of breathlessness. Earlier studies report frequent miscarriages among women beedi workers due to the continuous squatting posture. Workers were found to have minimal awareness of their rights. Several recommendations are made for improving occupational health in this sector.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, June 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-14. 12 ref.
Uitti J., Nordman H., Huuskonen M.S., Roto P., Husman K., Reiman M.
Respiratory health of cigar factory workers
In a cross sectional study of Finnish cigar workers exposed to raw tobacco and a group of unexposed matched referents, there were no significant differences between the groups in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chest radiography findings. No excess of prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the tobacco workers was found. According to the questionnaire episodes of allergic alveolitis may have occurred in the cigar factory workers. However, in the absence of impairments in lung function and radiological changes it was not possible to distinguish humidifier fever and allergic alveolitis. In exposure conditions that include humidification of the air humidifier, fever and allergic alveolitis constitute a risk for tobacco workers. No effects were shown of exposure to tobacco dust on lung function. Topics: air humidification; allergic alveolitis; chest radiography; cross-sectional study; individual susceptibility; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; skin tests; tobacco industry; tobacco; ventilatory capacity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.55, No.12, p.834-839. 32 ref.
These nine chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various process industries: power generation; chemical industry; polymers and rubbers; paint industry; pharmaceutical industry; biotechnology industry; food processing industry; paper, pulp and chloralkali industry; tobacco industry.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.297-433. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Speziale M., Fornaciai G., Monechi M.V.
Environmental and medical survey in a tobacco manufacturing plant
Una manifattura di tabacco - Indagine ambientale e sanitaria [in Italian]
Widespread environmental pollution in a tobacco manufacturing plant in Tuscany was identified as one of the possible risk factors for respiratory disorders among the workers. High concentrations of airborne dust were recorded during the tobacco supply operations and at other work stations respirable dust concentrations were well above the TLV. A medical survey carried out to assess the health status of the workers showed a fairly high frequency of respiratory diseases. As a result of these findings, a dust control programme was enforced.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1994, Vol.85, No.2, p.149-156. 11 ref.
Food and related industries
Nærings- og nydelsesmiddelindustri [in Danish]
Volume No.17 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. The major work environmental problems in the food and related industries are primarily accidents, but musculoskeletal problems, skin diseases and noise are also common. The baking industry has special problems with respiratory diseases.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 70p. 39 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.
Addis Ababa University
Lung function status of some Ethiopians exposed to occupational dusts
This thesis investigates acute and chronic changes of ventilatory capacities and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in 233 non-smoking Ethiopian factory workers exposed to cotton, tobacco and cement dusts. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms (chronic cough, chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma) was higher in all dust-exposed groups than in non-exposed subjects. Significant reductions in lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, MMFR, PEFR) over the workshift were recorded among cotton and tobacco workers. For cement workers, acute reductions were recorded only in FVC and PEFR. A substantial number of workers were found to have lower values of ventilatory capacities than their predicted values.
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, P.O. Box 2056, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June 1992. xi, 83p. 91 ref.
French Society of Occupational Medicine of Dauphiné-Savoie - Meeting of 25 Oct. 1991
Société de médecine du travail Dauphiné-Savoie - Réunion du 25 octobre 1991 [in French]
Topics of communications presented at the meeting of 25 Oct. 1991 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine for Dauphiné-Savoie: tobacco growing and alveolitis (3 cases); polymer-fume fever associated with the use of mould-release agents containing fluorocarbons (1 case); asthma and bronchio-alveolitis due to Penicillium nalgiovense in sausage mould (2 cases); screening campaign for breast, colorectal and cervical cancer among women aged 50-69 in the French department of Isère; critical assessment of 1,724 spirographic tests; review of the videocassette "Attention Phosgène"; use of audiovisuals and other available materials for training sessions; development of a multidisciplinary health and safety training programme for electroplaters; industrial medicine and video on the job site and in inter-enterprise services.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.665-678.
Kjaergaard S.K., Pedersen O.F., Frydenberg M., Schønheyder H., Andersen P., Bonde G.J.
Respiratory disease and lung function in a tobacco industry
In a field study, 75 workers from a cheroot factory were compared with 50 reference workers from a large telephone company. Questionnaire responses revealed higher prevalences of cough and shortness of breath on exercise among the tobacco workers than among the controls. Cigarette smoking was the same in the two groups, but tobacco workers also smoked cheeroots. Significantly decreased values (p<.01) of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found among tobacco workers compared to referents. After adjusting for number of cigarettes and cheroots smoked, there remained no significant differences. There was a suggestion (p < .10) of decreased FEV1.0 among light or nonsmoking tobacco workers. When cigarette consumption only was considered, this difference was significant (p<.01). Lung function values were not associated with the very low measured dust exposures. Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine, diurnal and weekly changes in FEV1.0 skin-prick tests were similar to that expected in a nonexposed population. Differences in lung function between the two groups may result from excess cheroot consumption and higher previous exposure to tobacco dust among the tobacco workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1989, Vol.44, No.3, p.164-170. Illus. 22 ref.
Kostrodymov N.N., Lifljand L.M.
Hygienic significance of air pollution with tobacco dust
Gigieničeskoe značenie zagrjaznenija vozdušnoj sredy tabačnoj pyl'ju [in Russian]
This literature survey presents in concise form data on tobacco production at home and abroad, chemical composition of tobacco and health effects of tobacco dust on experimental animals and tobacco industry workers. Nicotine, pesticide residues and flavourants seem to be the main health hazards in the industry. Experimental data on animals are consistent with field observations on humans. Female tobacco workers often suffer late toxaemia of pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy interruptions and weakness in labour. Infants born to exposed mothers more frequently show signs of asphyxia and congenital anomalies at birth than those of control women. Tobacco workers suffer allergic disorders in the form of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, hepatitis and asthma. Occupational exposure to tobacco dust also affects the cardiovascular system (strong palpitation, heartache, dyspnoea). Arterial hypertension, hypotension, S-A bradycardia, tachycardia and arrhythmia have also been observed. The data call for further probing of the biological effects of tobacco dust, hygienic evaluations of tobacco manufacturing undertakings' environmental conditions and working out of measures for controlling atmospheric pollution by these undertakings.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1988, No.7, p.60-62. 39 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat Vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a standard list of strenuous, hazardous, very strenuous and very hazardous jobs for which supplemental payments to workers may be established in ... the food industry, and of a list of posts ... in the meat, dairy and food industries [USSR]
Ob utverždenii tipovogo perečnja rabot s tjaželymi ... osobo vrednymi uslovijami truda, na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda ... piščevkusovoj promyšlennosti, i tipovogo perečnja professij ... mjasnoj, moločnoj i piščevoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This decision of 11 Oct. 1986 ratifies the given lists and replaces those established by decisions No.323/34 and 329/34 of 14 Dec. 1972. The first covers 114 tasks or operations in the production of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, confectionery, starch and sugar production, canning, production of dried or concentrated foodstuffs, essential oils, tea, perfumes, cosmetics, citric, lactic and other acids used in foods, yeast, pectin, rubber sealing rings and salt. The 2nd list gives 163 posts or occupations in the meat industry, poultry processing, the dairy and tobacco industries, production and processing of fats and oils, production of mustard powder, drying oils, drying agents and candles.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.4, p.50-60.
Tosti A., Melino M., Veronesi S.
Contact urticaria to tobacco
Report of a patient whose urticaria appeared after 11 years of exposure to tobacco in a cigar and cigarette factory. None of the 750 other workers in the factory suffered from urticaria. Tobacco is well known as an irritant; it should be added to the list of agents that produce contact urticaria by an immunological mechanism.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1987, Vol.16, No.4, p.225-226. 5 ref.
Nag A., Chintharia B., Desai H., Chatterjee B.B.
Occupational stresses on women engaged in making beedi
This is a report on an occupational health survey of 178 Indian women (age range: 15-59 years) engaged in the manufacture of beedi (indigenous cigarettes). Stresses imposed by the work include exposure to nicotine in pulverised tobacco, long work days (9-10 hours), postural strain and undernourishment. Health complaints include: back and head-ache; pain in the neck, hands and legs; burning of the eyes; giddiness and nausea. Reproductive problems are reported on (miscarriages, sterility, still-births).
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1986, Vol.36, No.4, p.130-133. Illus. 10 ref.
Viegl G., Paggiaro P.L., Begliomini E., Vaghetti E., Pagletti P., Giuntini C.
Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to tobacco dust
A cross-sectional survey on 223 male and female workers at a cigar and cigarette factory showed a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing, attacks of shortness of breath with wheezing, dyspnoea, and rhinitis than in a reference population. There was a decrease in forced and expiratory flows according to smoking habit and work duration. Positive skin prick tests were observed in 26% of men and 23% of women and were positively associated with duration of work and negatively with cigarette smoking. Thin interstitial space involvement was observed on chest x-ray examination in almost half the female workers with more than 35 years exposure. Prolonged exposure to tobacco dust may have negative health effects and it is advisable to establish a threshold limit value for tobacco dust different from that of inert dust.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1986, Vol.43, No.12, p.802-808. Illus. 17 ref.
Ghosh S.K., Parikh J.R., Gokani V.N., Rao N.M., Doctor P.B.
Occupational health problems among tobacco processing workers: A preliminary study
Occupational health problems among 100 tobacco processing workers in India were investigated. 69 workers had symptoms including vomiting, giddiness, headache, etc. and showed an increased urinary excretion rate of nicotine and cotinine. Biochemical parameters were normal and electrocardiographic findings were non-specific; there was no clinical evidence of hypertension or ischaemic heart disease. Therefore, the symptoms of tobacco processing workers might possibly result from mild nicotine toxicity.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1985, Vol.40, No.6, p.318-321. 15 ref.
Huuskonen M.S., Husman K., Järvisalo J., Korhonen O., Kotimaa M., Kuusela T., Nordman H., Zitting A., Mäntyjärvi R.
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry
57 workers with past exposure to mould dust in a Finnish tobacco factory were examined for signs of respiratory problems and for the presence of antibodies to moulds. 15 workers (26%) had respiratory symptoms related to their work, including 3 workers with typical allergic alveolitis. 29 workers (51%) showed antibodies to one or more moulds (Aspergillus fumigatus most commonly). The relation of symptoms to exposure levels and smoking is discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.41, No.1, p.77-83. 14 ref.
Exposure to airborne dust during tobacco sorting
Zur Schwebestaubexposition bei der Rohtabaksortierung [in German]
Description of working conditions, and methods and results of dust measurement, during the sorting of leaf tobacco. The observed continuous exposure to 6.6mg/m3 dust was below the exposure limit set by the German Democratic Republic, but the concentration of quartz in the total and fine fractions of the dust (19.4 and 13%, respectively) exceeded permissible levels. Possible fibrogenic, allergenic, irritant and toxic effects of the dust are discussed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1983, Vol.29, No.12, p.758-760. 19 ref.
Blair A., Berney B.W., Heid M.F., White D.W.
Causes of death among workers in the tobacco industry
The number of deaths by cause, race and sex in 2709 workers (black and white males and females) from obituary listings were compared with the general US population. Mortality from cancer of the colon was slightly elevated in all groups. Excess deaths from lung cancer occurred only in white females. Proportionate mortality ratios were high for arteriosclerosis, heart disease, motor vehicle accidents and suicides in most groups, and those for respiratory disease and cirrhosis of the liver were low.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.38, No.4, p.223-228. 36 ref.
Occupational health problems among beedi tobacco processing workers
Blood analyses and electrocardiograms of beedi (cigarette) tobacco processing workers showed no abnormalities in comparison with controls. This supports the conclusion of a preliminary study that the symptoms reported by the subjects (see preceding abstract) are due to nicotine exposure.
Annual Report 1981, National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad-380016, India, p.27-30.
Rycroft R.J.G., Smith N.P., Stok E.T., Middleton K.
Investigation of suspected contact sensitivity to tobacco in cigarette and cigar factory employees
Report of 2 cases of suspected occupational allergic contact dermatitis from tobacco in a cigar leaf worker and a cigarette production worker. The work on which the 2 patients were employed is described in detail. Both patients were patch-test positive to tobacco leaves. However, the diagnosis in the cigar maker was allergic contact dermatitis from tobacco, but in the cigarette worker (in whom the patch test response had been much less pronounced) the diagnosis was unclassified endogenous eczema and, for a subsequent bout of disease, allergic contact dermatitis from nickel and cobalt probably initiated by a wristwatch. The procedure for distinguishing comparatively rare cases of genuine tobacco sensitivity from other commoner dermatoses is described.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.32-38. Illus. 13 ref.
Occupational health problems among beedi tobacco processing workers - A preliminary study
Results of a survey of 2 cigarette factories in the state of Gujarat (India). 69 of the 100 subjects reported vomiting, giddiness, headache, tiredness or loss of appetite. Female workers (74 subjects) showed impairment of respiratory functions. This difference from the male workers is probably due to the fact that the women are engaged in actual processing work, whereas the men are engaged in load carrying. Both male and female workers showed higher rates of nicotine and cotinine excretion than did controls. The symptoms of the workers resemble those of tobacco cultivators, and are attributable to nicotine exposure, but the levels of dust and airborne nicotine measured in the factory suggest that the route of nicotine entry is inhalation, while it is through the skin in the case of agricultural operations.
Annual Report 1980, National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad-380016, India, p.40-48.
Gleich G.J., Welsh P.W., Yunginger J.W., Hyatt R.E., Catlett J.B.
Allergy to tobacco: An occupational hazard.
Case report of a woman who experienced rhinitis and breathing difficulties only when working at a cigarette factory. She had a highly positive reaction to scratch tests with tobacco leaf extract. Skin and nasal and bronchial provocation tests were positive. Serum IgE antibodies were elevated, and there was histamine release from leukocytes. On interrupting work she had no rhinitis or asthma.
New England Journal of Medicine, 13 Mar. 1980, Vol.302, No.11, p.617-619. 13 ref.
The tobacco industry, where hazards meet their match.
The tobacco industry in the United States and its safety and health programmes, records and problems are described. Since the industry has no great hazards, occupational accident and disease rates are low. Minor accidents, back strain and pulled muscles occur because the turnover in employees is high during seasonal employment. The manufacturing processes are described with attendant hazards and personal protection used. While there are no known health hazards, there is concern about certain ingredients in tobacco dust. The relation of the companies in the industry to the government regulating agencies is also discussed.
Job Safety and Health, Jan. 1977, Vol.5, No.1, p.9-17. Illus.
Valić F., Beritić D., Butković D.
Respiratory response to tobacco dust exposure.
318 female workers with a mean length of tobacco dust exposure (range: 0.9-27.5mg/m3) of 14.9yr were studied. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was comparatively low, only chest tightness and wheezing being significantly higher than in controls. Ventilatory capacity was normal, apart from significant acute decreases during the workshift, which were not dose-dependent.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, June 1976, Vol.113, No.6, p.751-755. 7 ref.
Comparative clinical aspects and pathogenesis of respiratory disorders among tobacco farmers and workers in the tobacco industry
Kliniko-patogenetičeskie sopostavlenija pri respiratornoj patologii u tabakovodov i rabočih tabačnogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Results of clinical examination and laboratory allergy tests in 1,700 tobacco industry and plantation workers. The author discovered a high incidence of allergic respiratory disease (rhinopharyngeal disorders, rhinitis, bronchial asthma). A short period of sensitisation to tobacco is followed by a prolonged period of tolerance followed, in turn, by clear symptoms of allergy. Other occupational diseases induced by exposure to tobacco, but not of allergic origin, were also observed: atrophic or (more rarely) hypertrophic processes in the mucosae of the upper airways and chronic bronchitis (dust-induced or of complex aetiology).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.22-24. 5 ref.
Ministry of Co-operatives and Supply (Ministerstwo Przemysłu Spożywczego i Skupu), Warszawa.
Order of 26 March 1973 concerning occupational safety and health in the tobacco industry
Rozporządzenie z dnia 26 marca 1973 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w zakładach przemysłu tytoniowego [in Polish]
This order, which entered into force on 1 June 1973, deals with: general provisions (equipment, air sampling, lighting, ventilation, personal protective equipment, safety signs); tobacco processing plants; manufacture of tobacco products; transportation; warehousing tobacco and tobacco products; hygiene (sanitary facilities, heating arrangements).
Dziennik Ustaw, 14 Apr. 1973, No.11, p.126-128.