Fishing - 224 entries found
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Occupational injuries and health problems in the Egyptian Mediterranean fisheries
The objective of this study was to explore and identify the types and causes of occupational accidents and diseases in the Egyptian marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional sample of 686 fishermen in an Egyptian port were interviewed for collecting relevant data. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the significance of the association of some factors, such as age, experience, education and fishing gear with the occurrence of injuries and illnesses. Findings show that the Egyptian fishing sector involves many hazardous work conditions and practices that result in high injury, morbidity and mortality rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.50, p.113-122. Illus. 25 ref.
Occupational_injuries.pdf [in English]
Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture
Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. In this review, causes of death in aquaculture included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, exposure to low temperatures and bacterial and parasitic infections.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.412-426. Illus. 90 ref.
Nonnenmann M.W., Hussain A., Shirley M., Shepherd S., Gilmore K., Levin J.L.
Risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among crawfish farmers in Louisiana - A pilot study
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among crawfish farmers and to examine associations between MSS and crawfish farm work activities. Questionnaires were mailed to randomly-selected crawfish farmers in the State of Louisiana, USA. Site-specific MSS, demographics, and crawfish farm work information was obtained from the previous six months. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 184 participants, shoulder MSS were reported most frequently (62%). Wrist/hand and low back MSS were significantly associated with tractor use (OR 2.89 and OR 2.41, respectively). Also, upper back MSS were associated with the number of years working on a crawfish farm (OR 3.07). Shoulder and low back MSS were common. Tractor use may increase the risk of wrist/hand and low back MSS. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.386-393. 18 ref.
Carruth A.K., Levin J.L., Gilmore K., Bui T., Gallardo G., Evert W., Sealey L.
Cultural influences on safety and health education among Vietnamese fishermen
Each ethnic group has its own cultural background and history that influences how it views health behaviours. By virtue of their work history, many Vietnamese have pursued the fishing industry when migrating to the United States. Even though the fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world, there has been little attention in the literature to the significant role that culture plays in the expression and experience of occupational health practices among Vietnamese shrimp fishermen. Three focus group sessions were conducted to identify factors that hinder or facilitate receptivity to available training and to guide culturally appropriate content. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling among various Vietnamese shrimp fishermen communities in Texas. Findings highlight the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of workplace interventions that focus on changes in safety and occupational health behaviours.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.375-385. 29 ref.
Day E.R., Lefkowitz D.K., Marshall E.G., Hovinga M.
Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey
Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 were calculated using data from several sources. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.357-362. 10 ref.
Lincoln J.M., Lucas D.L.
Occupational fatalities in the United States commercial fishing industry, 2000-2009
The occupational fatality rate among commercial fishermen decreased in the United States during 1992-2008; however, commercial fishing continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, with an average annual fatality rate of 129 deaths per 100,000 fishermen in 2008. By contrast, the average annual occupational fatality rate among all United States workers during the same period was four deaths per 100,000 workers. During the 1990s, numerous safety interventions were developed for Alaska fisheries that resulted in a significant decline in the state's commercial fishing fatality rate. In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) expanded surveillance of commercial fishing fatalities to the rest of the United States. The purpose of this report is to identify the hazards and risk factors for all causes of occupational mortality in United States' commercial fishing, and to explore how those hazards and risk factors differ among fisheries and locations. To reduce fatalities among fishermen at greatest risk, additional prevention measures tailored to specific high-risk fisheries should be considered.
Journal of Agromedicine, Oct.-Dec. 2010, Vol.15, No.4, p.343-350. 19 ref.
Evaluation and control of risks in purse on board purse seine fishing boats
Avaliação e controlo de riscos numa embarcação de pesca de cerco-traineira [in Portuguese]
The objectives of this study were to promote and contribute to improving the occupational safety and health within the fishing sector in Portugal. The study identified two distinct phases of purse seine fishing, namely activities carried out at sea, and activities conducted on land. Each day, a number of tasks are carried out, including activities on board preparing for the vessel to go to sea and the various fishing and fish preparation processes. The study evaluates the risks inherent to each activity, and proposes a number of recommendations aimed at improving safety and working conditions of fishermen.
Segurança, Nov.-Dec. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.199, p.12-15. Illus.
An brief overview of the fishing sector
Um breve olhar sobre a pesca [in Portuguese]
Contents of this literature survey on occupational safety and health in the fishing sector: modes of fishing and historical trends; accidents; ergonomics and musculoskeletal diseases; cold; sensitization; other diseases; social aspects and risk-taking behaviour.
Segurança, July-Aug. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.197, p.10-16. Illus. 15 ref.
Fatal occupational injuries in the U.S. commercial fishing industry: Risk factors and recommendations
NIOSH recently completed an in-depth study of commercial fishing fatalities in the United States during 2000-2009. The purpose of the study was to identify the most hazardous fisheries around the country and to describe the unique safety issues in each. For this study, the United States were divided into four fishing regions: Alaska, West Coast, East Coast, and the Gulf of Mexico. A separate report is published for each region.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2010. Internet documents, PDF format, four reports; each report 6p. Illus.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-103.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-104.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-105.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-106.pdf [in English]
Bouza Prego M.A., Saleta Canosa J.L., Castro Rodríguez M.P., Bellido Guerrero D., Pita Fernández S.
Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in a population of overweight and obese seafarers
Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de síndrome metabólico en una población de trabajadores del mar con sobrepeso y obesidad [in Spanish]
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population of 439 overweight or obese seafarers. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumference), calculation of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure measurements and analytical tests (glucose, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol) were carried out. The presence or absence of MS was also determined. Findings are discussed. The results show that the percentage of workers with cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors rises with the degree of overweight or obesity.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 26 ref.
Alvarez-Casado E., Tello Sandoval S., Hernández-Soto A.
Characteristics of biomechanical overload in purse seine fishing vessel workers
Caracterización de la sobrecarga biomecánica en trabajadores de barcos pesqueros de cerco en bajura [in Spanish]
In Spain, in 2007, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDS) were the most frequent injury among fishermen, and the upper limb was the area of the body affected in 40% of cases. The aim of this study was to quantify the intrinsic risk of WMDS due to upper limb biomechanical overload for each task carried out during fishing work, in order to identify tasks with high biomechanical loads, the most important risk factors and the exposure pattern for upper limb biomechanical overload. Video recordings and direct observations were made during three expeditions in purse seine fishing vessels, and the risk assessment procedure and criteria established in EN 1005-5 and ISO 11228-3 standards were applied. Results show that fishermen are exposed to a high level of risk to the upper limb for more than a third of operational fishing time.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.23-30. Illus. 14 ref.
Lucas D., Lucas R., Boniface K., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Dewitte J.A.
Occupational asthma in the commercial fishing industry: A case series and review of the literature
This article presents a case series of snow crab-induced occupational asthma (OA) from a fishing and processing vessel, followed by a review of OA in the commercial fishing industry. OA is typically caused from an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction after respiratory exposure to aerosolized fish and shellfish proteins. It more commonly occurs due to crustaceans, but molluscs and fin fish are implicated as well. Standard medical therapy for asthma may be used acutely; however, steps to reduce atmospheric allergen concentrations in the workplace have proven to be preventive for this disease.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.1, p.13-17. 45 ref.
Occupational_asthma.pdf [in English]
Safety culture aboard fishing vessels
Safety at sea is a serious issue for the commercial fishing industry. Injury and fatality rates are between 25 and 40 times the national average in many European countries, Australia and the United States. A 50-item safety culture questionnaire was developed, using items from published research combined with some original items. The questionnaire was distributed to Norwegian fishermen; 209 questionnaires were returned (response rate 40%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed nine factors, all with a Cronbach's Alpha higher than 0.68. The factors were tested using ANOVA, t-tests, correlations and regression analysis. The findings indicate significant differences between age groups, vessel types, occupations and whether or not a close family member is a fisherman. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1054-1061. Illus. 58 ref.
Kucera K.L., McDonald M. A.
Occupational stressors identified by small-scale, independent commercial crab pot fishermen
This study aimed at identifying jobs and/or tasks of concern for fishermen in order to guide and inform current ergonomic interventions. Surveys were administrated to two groups of commercial crab fishermen in the south-eastern United States: a cohort contacted by telephone and fishermen recruited at 11 local fish houses. Fishermen were asked to rate physical stress of selected work tasks and conditions. They were also asked open-ended questions about other work-issues of concern. Fishermen who completed the survey were predominantly male, white and over 40 years of age. The five most physically strenuous tasks and conditions as rated by fishermen were pulling pots by hand, rough weather or rough water, unloading without mechanical assistance and long work days. These and other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.672-679. Illus. 25 ref.
Hsu Y.W., Li K.W.
A field assessment of floor slipperiness in a fish market in Taiwan
A field assessment of floor slipperiness in 10 fish stands in a fish market in Taiwan was conducted, using both friction measurements and subjective ratings. The friction measurements were conducted using the Portable Skid Resistance Tester (PSRT). The subjective ratings of floor slipperiness of both the workers and the customers were collected. The friction measurement results showed that the sink areas had both the lowest friction values and subjective ratings. The overall friction measurements and subjective ratings were in fair agreement. The customers perceived the walkways as somewhere between "very slippery" to "somewhat slippery" and the picking-up areas as "very slippery". These were different from the perceptions of the workers where they perceived both areas as "somewhat slippery". Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.556-561. Illus. 30 ref.
Code of practice - Man overboard: prevention and response 2010
This code provides general guidance for all commercial fishing vessels in Western Australia on the management of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the prevention of man overboard incidents and the response to such incidents. Topics addressed: hazard identification; risk control; monitoring and review of control measures.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 44p. Illus.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/PDF/Codes_of_Practice/man_overboard1.pdf [in English]
Urrutia de Diego M.
Hazard evaluation - Fishing: A hazardous occupation
Evaluación de riesgos - La pesca: una actividad laboral de riesgo [in Spanish]
Fishing is one of the most dangerous activities. In this sector, the accident risk is 2.4 times higher than in other industrial sectors in Europe. This article describes the main causes of accidents on small trawlers, the health hazards among fishermen and the necessary prevention measures.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.32-35. Illus. 2 ref.
The ILO conventions on occupational safety and health: An opportunity to improve working conditions and work environments
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo [in Spanish]
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [in Spanish]
Morel G., Amalberti R., Chauvin C.
How good micro/macro ergonomics may improve resilience, but not necessarily safety
This article examines several ways of improving safety in commercial fishing. Two intervention strategies were tested: a micro-ergonomics strategy offering guidelines based on analyses of the most serious and frequent accident causes (collisions while fishing), and a macro-ergonomics strategy comparing the safety level of large fleets having committed to a TQM approach to that of smaller fleets. Neither of the two strategies resulted in the expected outcomes. The micro-ergonomics anti-collision strategy is misused towards an increase of the fishing objective, while macro-ergonomics strategy results in the largest fleets suffering from a smaller number of shipwrecks, but a much greater number of work-related injuries. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.285-294. Illus. 47 ref.
Perez-Labajos C.A., Blanco B., Azofra M., Achutegui J.J., Eguía E.
Injury and loss concentration by sinkings in fishing fleets
The objectives of this study were to formulate a methodology for analyzing sinking accidents in the fishing sector of a country, and to apply this methodology to the Spanish fishing fleet. Thus, two indices are constructed by region and type of fishing, for two variables, fishermen and vessels. Results are obtained both for the concentration of accidents and the associated Lorenz curves. An increase in the inequality in the spatial and functional distribution of these accidents is verified.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.277-284. Illus. 48 ref.
Piniella F., Fernández-Engo M.A.
Towards system for the management of safety on board artisanal fishing vessels: Proposal for check-lists and their application
The safety management systems applied at the international level in merchant vessels do not have their equivalent in the vessels dedicated to fishing, and much less to the most numerous sub-sector, artisanal fishing. This article outlines the findings of a research project conducted to assess the degree of safety existing in the artisanal fishing fleet of Andalusia, Spain. It offers a set of proposals aimed at improving safety, including the use of check-lists.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.265-276. Illus. 38 ref.
Windle M.J.S., Neis B., Bornstein S., Binkley M., Navarro P.
Fishing occupational health and safety: A comparison of regulatory regimes and safety outcomes in six countries
This article presents the results of a comprehensive, multi-national project that compares the fishing sector occupational safety and health (OSH) regulatory regimes of six countries (Canada, US, UK, Iceland, New Zealand, and South Africa) and examines the impact of legislation and regulations on OSH outcomes. A conceptual model is proposed that identifies potential sources of direct and indirect risks to fishing sector OSH in order to shed light on potential pathways from regulation to fishing sector OSH. Findings highlight differences and gaps in the regulatory frameworks of the countries studied and point to the urgent need for improved assessment and for access to accurate and standardized statistics regarding fishing-related injuries and illnesses. Several recommendations for moving forward are proposed.
Marine Policy, 2008, Vol.32, p.701-710. Illus. 68 ref.
Clin B., Stosse-Guevel C., Marquignon M.F., Verneuil L., Letourneux M.
Professional photosensitive eczema of fishermen by contact with bryozoans: Disabling occupational dermatitis
Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational contact dermatitis caused by a living organism, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and essentially concerning fishermen. It can be extremely disabling and often giving rise to major social consequences since the eviction of the responsible allergen generally requires occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum among fishermen from the English Channel coastline, this article describes the characteristics of this occupational dermatitis and its prevention.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.45-52. Illus. 8 ref.
Kucera K.L., Loomis D., Marshall S.W.
A case crossover study of triggers for hand injuries in commercial fishing
Previous studies have shown that hand and wrist injuries are common in commercial fishing. Risk factors including working with catch, handling gear and slips or falls, have been identified from activity and injury contact reports, but no studies have examined the influence of transient risk factors, or triggers. A case crossover study was nested within a prospective cohort of 217 south-eastern United States fishermen followed from April 1999 through October 2001. Hand injury cases and controls were matched using three control selection strategies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine if transient risk factors such as glove use, engaging in more than one type of fishing, maintenance activities and other covariates of interest increased the risk of occupational traumatic hand/wrist/digit injuries. 21% of fishermen reported one or more hand/wrist/digit injuries. Performing maintenance work and using multiple types of fishing equipment in comparison to using only one type were associated with increased risk of hand/wrist/digit injury. There was no evidence that glove use was protective for hand/wrist/digit injury.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.65, No.5, p.336-341. Illus. 32 ref.
Piniella F., Soriguer M.C., Walliser J.
Analysis of the specific risks in the different artisanal fishing methods in Andalusia, Spain
Andalusia, Spain, has an important tradition in the fishing sector. In order to analyse the sector, a total number of boats to be surveyed was set at 10% of the total fleet. The sample of 202 boats was distributed among the four fishing techniques and gear. The questionnaire used for the survey consisted of two parts, one on health and working conditions, the other on technical and safety characteristics of work in traditional fishing, the aim of the study being to present a new approach in the policies for reducing the risk in this sector. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2008, Vol.46, No.8, p.1184-1195. Illus. 19 ref.
Kucera K.L., Mirka G.A., Loomis D., Marshall S.W., Lipscomb H.J., Daniels J.
Evaluating ergonomic stresses in North Carolina commercial crab pot and gill net fishermen
There are challenges in evaluating physical demands of commercial fishing, including identifying sources of exposure variability. Low back biomechanical stresses associated with crab pot and gill net fishing were estimated; the variability was partitioned between and within fishing type, crew size and job title to improve understanding of risk factors for low back injury. In this study, 162 person-hours of work among 25 North Carolina commercial fishermen on 16 crews were observed. Postures and forces during fishing tasks were measured through direct and indirect observation to determine the percentage of time fishermen were exposed to high levels of low back stress. A multilevel linear model estimated exposure variability by fishing type, crew size and job title. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.182-196. Illus. 46 ref.
Nouaigui H., Hamzaoui H., Bassalah K., Aschi S., Dupupet J.L., Le Bâcle C., Moreau B., Martinez F., Benzarti M.
National conference on: The promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing: Common challenges
Colloque national sur: la promotion de la santé et de la sécurité au travail dans le secteur de l'agriculture et de la pêche - Défi commun [in French]
Collection of papers presented at a national conference on the promotion of occupational safety and health in agriculture and fishing (13-14 May 2008, Tunis, Tunisia). Topics include: situation in Tunisia; regulations; occupational accident and disease statistics; vocational training; monitoring of exposure in the agricultural sector; management of biological hazards; safety of farm equipment; presentation of the European handbook for the prevention of accidents at sea and the safety of fishermen; risks of zoonoses and their prevention.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, July 2008, No.46, p.1-40 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ruiz Ruiz L., Ledesma de Miguel J.
Evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders during the unloading of fishing vessels
Evaluación de los trastornos musculoesqueléticos en la tarea de descarga de capturas en los buques de pesca [in Spanish]
Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most frequent health hazards faced by fishermen carrying out routine tasks on board fishing vessels. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that fishing is a traditional sector in which it is difficult to impose ergonomic improvements or changes in working methods. Such changes are generally not implemented if they require more time for the same task. This study analyses the movements made by fishermen of two Spanish fishing vessels during unloading tasks using the evaluation method of the INSHT and that of the NIOSH. Findings are discussed and recommendations for improvement are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2008, No.48, p.8-17. Illus. 6 ref.
Pérez Aznar B., Bernier Herrera F., Abril Muñoz I.
Exposure to noise on fishing vessels
Exposición al ruido en buques de pesca [in Spanish]
Noise levels encountered on fishing vessels may cause not only hearing loss, but also accidents, because they interfere with the proper understanding of orders. The aim of this study was to determine the noise distribution and levels on different types of fishing vessels. The most important noise levels were observed when the engine was running at full power. Noise levels were also found to depend on the workplace and on the age of the vessel, older vessels being better insulated and equipped with improved noise damping. Results of the measurements are presented in tabular form, and measures aimed at limiting the noise exposure of deep-sea fishermen are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.12-20. Illus. 4 ref.
Seafarers - Occupational safety and health goes to sea
Les travailleurs de la mer - La prévention s'amarine [in French]
Topics addressed in the collection of articles on the hazards of working at sea: hazards caused by understaffing which leads to risk-taking; day-to-day account of a 15-day fishing campaign on board a trawler; key statistics of occupational accidents and diseases among French seafarers; remote medical consultation; stability of vessels at sea; hazards related to older vessels; occupational safety and health (noise attenuation on ships, first aid, personal protective equipment).
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2008, No.681, p.16-28. Illus.
Work in fishing - Convention No. 188, Recommendation No. 199
Work in Fishing Convention 2007 (No. 188), was adopted at the 96th International Labour Conference in 2007. The objectives of the Convention were to ensure that fishermen have decent conditions of work on board fishing vessels with regard to minimum requirements for work on board, conditions of service, accommodation and food, occupational safety and health protection, medical care and social security. It applies to all fishermen and fishing vessels engaged in commercial fishing operations. Work in Fishing Recommendation 2007 (No. 199) provides additional guidance on the matters covered by the Convention. This booklet explains the main provisions of these two documents, whole full texts are included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 20p. Illus. 4 ref. 29p. (Convention No 188). 9p. (Recommendation No. 199).
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/maritime/c188-brochure.pdf [in English]
Landrin D., Eusen Y., Boitel L., Bonnet A.S., Dupuis E., Gaillard A., Letheux C., Ozkan-Rabret E., Rat de Coquard M., Sawicki B.
Le marin-pêcheur [in French]
The job of seep-sea fishermen is characterized by the variety of tasks to be accomplished, including fishing itself, the maintenance of fishing gear, on-deck watch duty, ship maintenance and cooking. From the standpoint of occupational medicine, work aptitude needs to take into account two essential characteristics found onboard trawlers: the close dependency of the men on each other during their work and the remoteness of medical help. Contents of this occupational medical information sheet on the job of deep-sea fishermen: related occupations; description of the work; characteristics of the work environment (possible health hazards and effects); work organization (work hours and constraints); tasks carried out and their possible effects on health; products used and their possible effects on health; tools and equipment used and their possible effects on health; work clothing and protective gear; statistics of fishing accidents in France.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2007, Vol.47, No.3, 2p. Insert.
http://www.fmpcisme.org/FMPPDF/264/FicheResume.pdf [in French]
Lucas D.L., Lincoln J.M.
Fatal falls overboard on commercial fishing vessels in Alaska
Falls overboard are a major contributor to commercial fishing fatalities in Alaska. This article describes the problem of falls overboard and discusses possible ways to reduce the risk factors. Data from the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System on fatal falls overboard in the commercial fishing sector in Alaska between 1990 and 2005 were used; 71 such accidents were identified. An in-depth descriptive analysis of these fatalities was then performed to identify areas for intervention. Falls overboard did not decline significantly during those years. The most common circumstances associated with falling overboard were working with fishing gear, being alone on deck, losing balance or slipping, heavy weather, gear entanglement and alcohol.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.962-968. Illus. 17 ref.
Chauvin C., Le Bouar G.
Occupational injury in the French sea fishing industry: A comparative study between the 1980s and today
This study compared two databases related to occupational injuries in the French sea fishing sector, one for the years 1977 to 1980 and the other for the years 1996 to 2001. The study focused on the accidents occurring while the vessel was in the process of fishing. In the 1980s, as well as today, working with fishing gear is a highly dangerous task, correlated with the risk of being "struck by, swept along, pinned". The processing and handling of the catch also cause a large amount of accidents. During these tasks, fishermen have to cope with two main risks: being "cut or pricked" and "excessive efforts and awkward movements". The frequency and features of occupational accidents do not show significant trends. These findings lead to a questioning of the prevention measures implemented in France during the last few decades and to proposing new prevention strategies.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2007, Vol.39, No.1, p.79-85. 16 ref.
Work in the fishing sector. International Labour Conference, 96th Session, 2007
Le travail dans le secteur de la pêche. Conférence internationale du Travail, 96e session, 2007 [in French]
Trabajo en el sector pesquero. Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, 96.a reunión, 2007 [in Spanish]
This report was prepared for the 96th session of the International Labour Conference in 2007 and contains the draft text of the proposed Convention and Recommendation concerning work in the fishing sector.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 84p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2b.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2b.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2b.pdf [in Spanish]
Work in the fishing sector. International Labour Conference, 96th Session, 2007
Le travail dans le secteur de la pêche. Conférence internationale du Travail, 96e session, 2007 [in French]
Trabajo en el sector pesquero. Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, 96.a reunión, 2007 [in Spanish]
This report was prepared for the 96th session of the International Labour Conference in 2007 and presents a summary of the replies received by the Office to the questionnaire concerning the proposed Convention and Recommendation on work in the fishing sector. Includes ILO commentary and the report of the Interregional Tripartite Round Table on Labour Standards for the Fishing Sector, December 2006.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. vi,118p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2a.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2a.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/standards/relm/ilc/ilc96/pdf/rep-iv-2a.pdf [in French]
Murray M., Tilley N.
Promoting safety awareness in fishing communities through community arts: An action research project
Commercial fishing is a very dangerous industry. Traditionally safety education has focused on making fishermen aware of safety regulations and procedures. An alternative approach is to raise community awareness of safety issues and to consider both individual and collective strategies for improving safety in the industry. This article discusses of the use of drama, music and associated arts-based activities designed to promote safety awareness in three fishing communities in Newfoundland. Local residents planned and performed all of the activities. Discussions were subsequently conducted with key community leaders to clarify the process of implementing safety measures identified. The participants were very enthusiastic about the projects and keen to develop other similar activities in their communities.
Safety Science, Nov. 2006, Vol.44, No.9, p.797-808. Illus. 26 ref.
Lucas D., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Arvieux C., Dewitte J.D.
Occupational asthma in maritime environment
In the maritime environment, employees are exposed to various chemical and biological substances, some of which may cause occupational asthma. This is the case for some fished products such as crustaceans and molluscs, but also for cereals carried as cargo or for certain chemicals, either carried as cargo or used in the maintenance of ships. This article consists of a literature review of known etiological factors of occupational asthma to which seafarers and other maritime workers are likely to be exposed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.177-187. 72 ref.
Labour standards, safety and health, and risk assessment in the fishing sector
This article gives an overview of the ILO's standards concerning occupational safety and health, of the specific standards concerning work on board fishing vessels and of the work to develop a new Convention and Recommendation on Work in the Fishing Sector. It includes proposed requirements and guidance concerning risk assessment. Examples are provided of how risk assessment has been used in ILO instruments, in European Union Directives concerning the fishing sector and in national laws, regulations and practice in this sector. The objective of this article is to stimulate debate on how risk assessment on fishing vessels could be promoted worldwide, taking into account differing levels of development and the considerable diversity of fishing.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.114-126.
Le Bouar G., Chauvin C.
An analysis of the risk in the French sea fishing industry. Example of the dockside accident risk
When considering the risks of fishing, one generally thinks about major risks like collisions or vessels running aground, as well as accidents caused ropes or trawling equipment. However there is little data on accidents involving fishermen while the vessel is docked in port. In France, these accidents account for about 30% of all registered injuries for the sea fishing sector. This study analyses the data on the 5074 such accidents reported between 1996 and 2005. Findings are discussed and various preventive measures are proposed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.103-113. Illus. 11 ref.
Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian fishing fleet - Occupational accident analysis - Period of 1998-2006
Using data from the Norwegian Maritime Directorate, this article analyses accidents having occurred in the Norwegian fishing fleet during the years 1998-2002, together with the general trends in fatal accidents from 1955 to 2006. The risk rate was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years, the rate being the highest for the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years). From 1998 to 2006, a rate of 24.8 fatal accidents per 10,000 man years was found for the smaller fleet, length of vessel (Loa) < 13m. This rate is 4.1 times higher than for the medium fleet (Loa < 28m) and 11.3 times higher than for the deep sea fleet (Loa > 28m). Other findings are discussed and measures for the reduction of fatal accidents are proposed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.76-84. Illus. 5 ref.
Perez-Labajos C., Azofra M., Blanco B., Achutegui J., González J.
Analysis of accident inequality of the Spanish fishing fleet
Safety is a vital factor in the running of a country's fishing sector. However, the planning of the necessary resources and their adequate distribution according to the sector's needs are only possible if detailed information is available on the distribution in the frequency of accidents within the sector. In this context, the aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to formalise a methodology for the fishing sector of a country which allows the differences in the frequency of accidents to be analysed; and secondly, to apply this methodology to the Spanish fishing fleet for the period 1994-2002. Using the methodology, indices were built by regions and by types of vessel for two variables: fishermen and vessels. Findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2006, Vol.38, No.6, p.1168-1175. Illus. 45 ref.
Morel G., Chauvin C.
A socio-technical approach of risk management applied to collisions involving fishing vessels
In this study, a case-by-case analysis of collisions at sea involving fishing vessels resulted in the identification of two basic causes: undetected signals and wrong diagnoses. It also allowed definition of the real operating space of the functional units (fishing vessels) most often involved in collisions, as well as the permeable areas of the safety barriers, through which operations migrate toward unsafe zones. As far as the collision risk is concerned, functional units work in a borderline area, close to the limits of safe behaviour. To prevent accidents, it is necessary to reinforce these safety barriers, thus limiting the migration factor and bringing the functional units back into an area where the factors of safety, performance and individual profitability are all acceptable.
Safety Science, Aug. 2006, Vol.44, No.7, p.599-619. Illus. 26 ref.
Neitzel R.L., Berna B.E., Seixas N.S.
Noise exposures aboard catcher/processor fishing vessels
Commercial fishing workers have extended work shifts and potential for 24h exposures to high noise. Noise exposures aboard two large fish catching and processing vessels were assessed using dosimetry and sound-level mapping, together with self-reports of work tasks and hearing protection device (HPD) use. These data were combined to estimate work shift, non-work, and 24h overall exposure levels. The length of time during which HPDs were worn was also used to calculate the effective protection received by crew members. Nearly all workers had work shift and 24h noise levels that exceeded current limits. After HPD use was accounted for, half of the 24h exposures remained above the limits. Non-work-shift noise contributed nothing to 24h exposure levels. HPDs reduced the average exposure by about 10dBA, but not all workers wore them consistently.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.624-633. Illus. 29 ref.
O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Work-related maritime fatalities
During the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities among seafarers in Australia, including 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The main contributing factors were hazardous weather conditions, errors of judgment, unsafe practices and failure to wear personal flotation devices (PFDs) in circumstances where they would have saved life. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.
Mode N.A., Wopat P., Conway G.A.
Proceedings, Second International Fishing Industry Safety and Health Conference
Proceedings of an international conference on safety and health in the fishing industry held in Sitka, Alaska, USA, on 22-24 September 2003. Topics of the sessions: overview of international fishing safety efforts; findings from recent investigations of a commercial fishing vessel mishap; risk factors for commercial fishermen; deck safety; regional approaches to fishing safety; social factors contributing to work-related injuries among commercial fishermen; vessel safety; workers in fish processing industries; new approaches to safety training; new findings in fishing safety.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Apr. 2006. xvi, 386p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-114/pdfs/2006-114.pdf [in English]
Jensen O.C., Stage S., Noer P.
Injury and time studies of working processes in fishing
The purpose of this study was to relate the length of the working time to the number of injuries for specific work processes in fishing in Denmark. Time measurements were performed during participation in fishing trips with four different kinds of vessels. The risk index for each work process was calculated by dividing the number of injuries within a five-year period by the total minutes used for each working process. The highest risk index values were found for embarking and disembarking the vessel, which however only take minimum time for the fishermen. High index values were also found for other work processes, especially working with the gear and nets. This approach can be used as a supplemental tool for injury prevention to highlight work processes that need high attention for prevention. The method can also be applied to other industries.
Safety Science, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.349-358. Illus. 13 ref.
Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D.
Health of deep-sea fishermen: Past and present, and future prospects
La santé des marins pêcheurs: passé, présent et perspectives d'avenir [in French]
This article discusses the health hazards faced by deep-sea fishermen, in particular smoking, alcoholism and poor diets. Other risk factors include noise (it is estimated that the average on-board exposure during the time spent at sea is higher than 85dB(A)), as well as postures and movements that can give rise to musculoskeletal diseases. Finally, there are stress, fatigue and other psychological risk factors that have effects on health and on the frequency of accidents.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 8p. 30 ref.
Jégaden D., Lucas D., Loddé B., Dewitte J.D.
Psychological barriers to safety in deep-sea fishing
Résistances psychologiques à la sécurité dans la pêche maritime [in French]
During 2003 in France, there were 2100 accidents among 21,532 fishermen, which corresponds to a rate of 97 accidents per thousand workers, while the corresponding rate is 40 per thousand for on-land occupations. The ILO estimates that there are approximately 80 fatalities annually for each 100,000 sailors. These fatality rates appear stable and do not seem to be improving. This article discusses risk factors of occupational accidents in deep-sea fishing that are related to human behaviour, and in particular the psychological mechanisms that are behind often irrational risk-taking.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 6p. 5 ref.
Dangers of entanglement during lobster fishing
This leaflet describes recommended work practices and controls to prevent drowning following entanglement in trap lines. Contents: reducing the risk of entanglement by keeping the deck free of loose lines; helping to escape from entanglement by stopping the engine and untangling or cutting the line; and helping to reboard the vessel if pulled overboard.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Aug. 2005. 4p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions/2005-137/pdfs/2005-137.pdf [in English]
Wang J., Pillay A., Kwon Y.S., Wall A.D., Loughran C.G.
An analysis of fishing vessel accidents
In this article, data on fishing vessel accidents collected from the United Kingdom Marine Accident Investigation Branch are presented and an analysis is carried out to determine the most common causes of these accidents. Data are presented by type of accident, by vessel length and by accident cause. Analysis shows that from 1994 to 1999, machinery damage contributed to over 50% of all accidents. Other incidents include foundering/flooding, grounding, collisions and contacts, fires and explosions, capsizing and heavy weather damage.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 2005, Vol.37, No.6, p.1019-1024. Illus. 11 ref.
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