Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Pathak M.K., Fareed M., Bihari V., Mathur N., Srivastava A.K., Kuddus M., Nair K.C.
Cholinesterase levels and morbidity in pesticide sprayers in North India
The objective of this study was to compare cholinesterase activity and symptoms in knapsack and tractor-mounted pesticide sprayers in North India. Blood cholinesterase activity and symptoms were recorded for 42 knapsack and 66 tractor-mounted sprayers attending a health camp in 2009 and for 30 non-exposed controls. One hundred and eight of 197 (55%) eligible sprayers consented to participate. Mean acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activity was 33 and 60% lower, respectively, in knapsack sprayers than in controls and 56 and 62% lower, respectively, in tractor-mounted sprayers than in controls AChE depletion was greater in tractor-mounted sprayers than in knapsack sprayers. In knapsack sprayers compared to controls, odds ratios (OR) were significantly raised for musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 3.9) but not for other symptoms. In tractor-mounted sprayers compared to controls, ORs were significantly raised for neurological (OR 7), ocular (OR 8.7), respiratory (OR 5.14), cardiovascular (OR 7.5), gastrointestinal (OR 5.43) and musculoskeletal (OR 6.12) symptoms but not for dermal symptoms (OR 1.93). The risk of cholinesterase inhibition and symptoms is greater in tractor-mounted than in knapsack pesticide sprayers and in both groups compared to controls. Occupational exposure in pesticide sprayers in North India needs better control, perhaps through redesign of spraying equipment.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.512-514. 9 ref.
Frost G., Brown T., Harding A.H.
Mortality and cancer incidence among British agricultural pesticide users
The objective of this study was to compare mortality and cancer incidence experienced by a cohort of United Kingdom pesticide users to that of the general population. Altogether, 62,960 pesticide users (94% male) were followed up between 1987 and 2005. All-cause mortality was lower for both men (SMR 0.58) and women (SMR 0.71) compared to the general population. Mortality and incidence were below those expected for all cancers combined among men (SMR 0.71, SIR 0.85), particularly for cancers of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx, digestive organs and respiratory system. The incidence of testicular cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer and multiple myeloma were above expected. Mortality from injury by machinery was significantly above expected for men (SMR 4.21). This study suggests that pesticide users are generally healthier than the national population but may have excesses of non-melanoma skin cancer, testicular cancer and multiple myeloma.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61. p.303-310. Illus. 20 ref.
Blanco-Muñoz J., Lacasaña M.
Practices in pesticide handling and the use of personal protective equipment in Mexican agricultural workers
In this study, information was collected by means of questionnaires from 99 Mexican agricultural workers (35 women and 64 men) concerning sociodemographic data, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and risk perception. As expected, men handled pesticides more frequently than women (67% versus 20%). The workers carried out several agricultural tasks, used a great number of pesticide products (59 commercial brands of pesticides, 33 active ingredients, and 20 chemical families), used mostly manual application equipment, and showed a low rate of correct usage of PPE (2%) and insufficient levels of proper hygienic practices. In addition, storage of pesticide products and application equipment at home was frequent among this group of workers (42%), and provides a significant source of exposure for the workers' families. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd quarter 2011, Vol.16, No.2, p.117-126. 30 ref.
Arcury-Quandt A.E., Gentry A.L., Marín A.J.
Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states
The golf course sector has a growing Latino work force in the United States. This study examined golf course superintendents' and maintenance workers' pesticide knowledge, beliefs and safety training. In particular, it focused on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Interviews were conducted with 10 golf course superintendents in five states and with 16 maintenance workers in four states. Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.474-485. 28 ref.
MacFarlane E., Simpson P., Benke G., Sim M.R.
Suicide in Australian pesticide-exposed workers
Epidemiological research has observed that workers with exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides, and particularly those with a history of acute overexposure, may be at increased risk of depression. However, there is little published research about the risk of suicide in relation to pesticide exposure. A nested case-control study was performed within a retrospective cohort study of pesticide-exposed workers. Ninety male suicide deaths and 270 male controls were matched by age bands, state of residence and live status. Cholinesterase inhibition was determined using subject-specific biomonitoring records collected at the time of exposure. This study did not find an elevated suicide risk associated with use of any major class of pesticide and there was little evidence that overexposure was associated with increased risk of suicide.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.259-264. 29 ref.
Arcury T.A., Grzywacz J.G., Talton J.W., Chen H., Vallejos Q.M., Galván L., Barr D.B., Quandt S.A.
Repeated pesticide exposure among North Carolina migrant and seasonal farmworkers
The objective of this study was to document the multiple and repeated pesticide absorption experienced by farmworkers in an agricultural season and their risk factors. Data were collected from 196 farmworkers four times at monthly intervals in 2007. Urine samples were tested for 12 pesticide urinary metabolites. Questionnaire data provided measures of exposure risks. Farmworkers had at least one detection for many pesticide urinary metabolites: 84.2% had at least one detection for acephate, 88.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Furthermore, most farmworkers had multiple detections for specific metabolites: 64.8% had two or more detections for acephate, 64.8% for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 79.1% for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and 86.7% for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Housing type had a consistent significant association with metabolite detections. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.802-813. 36 ref.
Sanz Albert F., Abril Muñoz I., Delgado Cobos P.
Plant protection products: Preventive features of application equipment
Productos fitosanitarios: medidas preventivas en los equipos de aplicación [in Spanish]
The purpose of this technical note is to help select application equipment for plant protection products, aimed at minimizing the risk of exposure to these products. Selection criteria are proposed by application method and type of equipment. Measures that help prevent loss and leakage that may result in product contact with the workers are also considered. Finally, the note discusses proper use, maintenance and cleaning of the equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 8p. Illus. 11 ref.
NTP_883.pdf [in Spanish]
Feola G., Binder C.R.
Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders
The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. Findings suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: having experienced pesticide-related health problems; age; the share of pesticide application carried out; the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioural change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. Suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.16, p.11-23. Illus. 57 ref.
Occupational respiratory allergy to plant protection products
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux produits phytosanitaires [in French]
Occupational respiratory diseases due to pesticides have been reported with certain fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. Apart from accidental exposures, documented clinical observations are rare. Some recent epidemiological studies conducted in agricultural regions have, however, reported an association between symptoms of rhinitis, asthma and other signs of respiratory irritation, and the use of certain pesticides. The main occupations are agricultural workers (especially pesticide applicators), workers manufacturing these products and pest control workers. The etiological diagnosis is based on medical history. Prevention techniques include collective protection measures and personal protective equipment to reduce exposure. These conditions can be recognized as being occupational diseases warranting compensation in the French general social security system for certain products, or in the agricultural system.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2010, No.124, p.471-482. Illus. 39 ref.
TR_50.pdf [in French]
Gasnier C., Benachour N., Clair E., Travert C., Langlois F., Laurant C., Decroix-Laporte C., Séralini G.E.
Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines
Glyphosate-based herbicides can provoke in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These herbicides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to better understand their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, this study investigates their mechanism of action and possible protection by medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 were monitored for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. All the four glyphosate formulations were found to provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Glyphosate is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can to some extent protect human cell lines against these pollutants.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:28, 13p. Illus. 3 ref.
Dig1_protects_against_cell_death.pdf [in English]
Coronado G.D., Griffith W.C., Vigoren E.M., Faustman E.M., Thompson B.
Where's the dust? Characterizing locations of azinphos-methyl residues in house and vehicle dust among farmworkers with young children
Using data from a community randomized trial to evaluate the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure, this study examined the association between floor surface types and rooms in which dust samples were collected. It also examined the dust concentrations in vehicles used for commuting to and from work. Dust samples were collected from 203 and 179 households and vehicles, respectively. All households had at least one child aged two to six. Thick and thin carpets had a significantly greater dust mass than smooth floor surfaces (6.0g/m2 for thick carpets, 7.8g/m2 for thin carpets, and 1.5g/m2 for smooth surfaces). Of the 179 vehicle samples, 113 were from cars, 34 from trucks, and 32 from other vehicles. Vehicles with no mats had a significantly higher mass of dust (21.3g) than those with hard mats (9.3g) but did not differ from vehicles with plush mats (12.0 g). Quantities of azinphos-methyl per gram of dust ranged between 270 and 540ng. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.663-671. Illus. 33 ref.
Training manual on pesticides
Manuel de formation sur les pesticides [in French]
This training manual on safe work in the presence of pesticides is aimed at safety and health trainers working in the agricultural sector in French-speaking West Africa. Contents: general introduction: objectives, expected results and desired impact; information on pesticides; international laws and standards on pesticides; occupational and environmental hazards from pesticides; health hazards from pesticides; improving safety and health when working with pesticides; alternatives to using pesticides; planning training.
International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations (IUF), rampe du Pont-Rouge 8, 1213 Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, ca 2010. 96p. Illus.
Bhargava A.;, Punde R.P, Pathak N.;, Dabadghao S, Desikan P.;, Jain A.;, Maudar K.K.;, Mishra P.K.
Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: A study after two decades
Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 were injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. This study aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. Participants were divided into three groups: age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones; age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal; age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal. The status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) in these three groups was analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin-induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-208. Illus. 32 ref.
Status_of_inflammatory_biomarkers.pdf [in English]
ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Henwood N., Niu S., Michell K., Mwakini N.K., Kaoneka B.K., Lekei E., Rwako A.J., Matee J.J., Jemneh T.A., Pääkkönen T.
Health care workers
Collection of articles on the safety and health of health care workers of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO list of occupational diseases and health care workers; protection of health care workers with a focus on respiratory health; hepatitis in the context of Botswana. Other topics: safety implications of pesticide use in vegetable cultivation among small-scale farmers in Tanzania; Ethiopian migrant workers' perceptions of the United Kingdom health and safety regulations; review of a conference on well-being held in February 2010 in Helsinki, Finland.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2010, Vol.20, No.4, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health_care_workers.pdf [in English]
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Tobacco, labour market and growing in the province of Jujuy
Tabaco, mercado de trabajo y cultura en Jujuy [in Spanish]
The objective of this project was to identify the socioeconomic and practical aspects of tobacco growing facilitating or obstructing health and environmental protection in tobacco plantations in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. Contents: tobacco growing in Argentina and its importance in the province of Jujuy; tobacco producers; tobacco workers; use of agrochemicals; health system and occupational diseases due to pesticides; findings of a survey on the tobacco sector and the prevention of hazards; conclusions and proposed actions.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009. 135p. Illus. 85 ref. pdf document.
Tabaco.pdf [in Spanish]
Slager R.E., Poole J.A., LeVan T.D., Sandler D.P., Alavanja M.C.R, Hoppin J.A.
Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study
Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, based on data from 2245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators participating in a wider cohort study. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education and growing up on a farm, the associations between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year were evaluated. 74% of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis. There was no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.718-724. 19 ref.
Rhinitis.pdf [in English]
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 2009
This document sets out a classification system to distinguish between the more and the less hazardous forms of selected pesticides based on acute risks to human health. It takes into consideration the toxicity of the technical compound and its common formulations. It lists common technical grade pesticides and recommended classifications together with a listing of active ingredients believed to be obsolete or discontinued for use as pesticides, pesticides subject to the prior informed consent procedure, limitations to trade because of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs convention), and gaseous or volatile fumigants not classified under these recommendations. It replaces the 2004 edition of the classification (see CIS 05-386).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. 78p. Approx. 150 ref. Price: USD 36.00; CHF 30.00; CHF 21.00 for developing countries; downloadable version free of charge
The_WHO_recommended_classification.pdf [in English]
Mancini F., Jiggins J.L., O'Malley M.
Reducing the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning by educating farmers on integrated pest management in South India
Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field conditions. Exposure to organophosphates was confirmed as a serious risk factor for occupational poisoning. The adoption of IPM reduced the use of pesticides and halved the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning. Overall, the pesticide use spectrum shifted towards lower WHO Hazard Classes. A reduction of adverse health effects was attained through a reduction in exposure to toxic pesticides and behavioural changes. Given that other strategies to reduce the rate of acute poisoning have proven ineffective, interventions aiming to minimize pesticide poisoning in India and in other developing countries with similar rural conditions should focus on restricting the use of highly toxic compounds and educating farmers on IPM.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.143-151. Illus. 36 ref.
Reducing_the_incidence.pdf [in English]
International Labour Organization (ILO), Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food
This criteria document describes general principles and methods for the risk assessment of additives, contaminants, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues and natural constituents in foods. It also includes general guidance on the risk assessment of novel and non-traditional whole foods. Some general guidance is also given on risk assessment related to upper levels for nutrients and other beneficial food components. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. lxix, 656p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Index.
Jurewicz J., Hanke W., Sobala W., Ligocka D.
Assessment of the dermal exposure to azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in selected Polish greenhouses after restricted entry intervals expired -The role of the protective gloves
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of skin contamination by azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in a greenhouse in Poland after the expiry of restricted entry following the spraying of this fungicide. Exposure samples were assessed on the day after spraying of azoxystrobin and six days later. Dermal exposure was measured by using patches on the outside of clothing and cotton gloves worn under the regular protective gloves. It was found that women not directly engaged in the process of spraying nonetheless experienced a dermal exposure to azoxystrobin. Protective gloves constituted a source of secondary exposure rather than protecting employees' hands. More efficient protective gloves are needed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.261-267. 17 ref.
Occupational skin diseases from crop protection products
Dermatoses professionnelles aux produits phytosanitaires [in French]
Occupational skin diseases caused by crop protection products consist primarily of irritation contact dermatitis, which may be sometimes severe, and more rarely of allergic contact dermatitis. By far the most exposed occupations are farm workers using crop protection products or working on treated crops. Many pesticides approved in France are toxic to the skin. Diagnosis is based on anamnesis, clinical examinations and skin tests with products used at work in cases of suspected allergy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.119, p.347-364. Illus. 77 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TA%2083/$File/TA83.pdf [in French]
Orsi L., Delabre L., Monnereau A., Delval P., Berthou C., Fenaux P., Marit G., Soubeyran P., Huguet F., Milpied N., Leporrier M., Hemon D., Troussard X., Clavel J.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: Results of a French case-control study
To investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LNs) in men, a case-control study was conducted in six French hospitals between 2000 and 2004. The 491 cases were incident cases with a diagnosis of LN, while 456 controls of the same age and sex as the cases were recruited in the orthopaedic and rheumatology departments of the same hospitals. Exposures to pesticides were evaluated through questionnaires and specific interviews reviewed by experts. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regressions. Strong positive associations between HL and occupational exposures were found for triazole fungicides and urea herbicides (OR 8.4 and 10.8, respectively). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.291-298. 44 ref.
López L., Blanco L., Aragón A., Partanen T.
Insecticide residues on hands: Assessment and modeling with video observations of determinants of exposure - A study among subsistence farmers in Nicaragua
This investigation quantitatively assessed hand residues of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos among 28 farmers in Nicaragua. Hand residues were estimated by standardized wipe sampling for both hands, analyzed with solvent extraction and gas chromatography. Determinants of exposure related to work practices were assessed for each subject from videotapes. Logistic regression analyses estimated the associations between hand residues, application volume, pesticide type and work practices. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.157-164. Illus. 27 ref.
Tomenson J.A., Matthews G.A.
Causes and types of health effects during the use of crop protection chemicals: Data from a survey of over 6,300 smallholder applicators in 24 different countries
This study looks in detail at the causes and types of health incidents reported by 6,300 mainly smallholder agrochemical users in 24 countries during 2005 and 2006. The investigation was based on a questionnaire survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices, as well as on health problems experienced while using agrochemicals. In the 12 months prior to interview, 1.2% of users reported an agrochemical-related incident that required hospital treatment, 5.8% reported an incident requiring at least trained medical treatment but not hospitalisation and 19.8% reported only minor symptoms. In most countries, the incidence of serious health effects was low. However, there was a high incidence of minor symptoms in a few countries, especially in Africa.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.935-949. Illus. 21 ref.
Strong L.L., Thompson B., Koepsell T.D., Meischke H., Coronado G.D.
Reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure: Behavioral outcomes from the Para Niños Saludables study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of community interventions in promoting behaviours to reduce exposure of farmworkers' families to pesticides. Farmworker households in Washington State were divided into 11 intervention and 12 comparison communities to examine differences over time in reported pesticide safety practices. Pesticide safety practices improved in both intervention and comparison communities over time, but there were several further modest improvements in certain behaviors among the intervention community of farmworkers. Further research is needed to identify successful strategies for reducing the exposure of farmworkers' families to pesticides taken home.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.922-933. Illus. 49 ref.
Chiu B.C., Blair A.
Pesticides, chromosomal aberrations, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposures and risk of NHL was largely limited to NHL cases with the chromosomal translocation t(14;18). This review summarizes the findings of various epidemiologic studies, speculates on implications, and suggests the research needed to clarify the role of pesticides in NHL.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.250-255. 20 ref.
Kisby G.E., Muniz J.F., Scherer J., Lasarev M.R., Koshy M., Kow Y.W., McCauley L.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon were analysed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and was serum analysed for lipid peroxides. Cellular DNA damage was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Compared to unexposed populations, urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators, with 8-OH-dG levels being 8.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively and malondialdehyde levels 4.9 and 24 times higher, respectively. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were also significantly greater in lymphocytes of applicators and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.206-214. Illus. 22 ref.
McKinney P.A., Raji O.Y., Feltbower R.G., Van Tongeren M.
Health and Safety Executive
Parental occupational chemical exposures and childhood cancer
Interview data from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study, an epidemiological case control study, was used to extend and refine previous analyses of parental occupations. Specific work-related exposures were examined as possible risk factors for childhood leukaemia and lymphoma for three exposure time windows (preconception, pregnancy, postnatal). Mothers had a lower prevalence of exposure to chemical agents at work (18%) compared to fathers (44%). In order to refine exposure assessment all available data was examined. Parents self-reported being exposed in over 24,000 jobs; the reviewed exposure assessment reduced the numbers of reported exposures, reclassifying 33% of mothers and 50% of fathers as exposed. Many statistically significant risks for self-reported exposure disappeared when applying the reclassified exposure. For the refined exposure assessment, maternal exposure to solvents during pregnancy remained a statistically significant risk for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a dose-response relationship. Paternal exposure to fertilizers during pregnancy and post-natally were associated with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Hodgkin lymphoma but without dose-response relationships.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. xii, 130p. Illus. Approx. 220 ref.
RR_661.pdf [in English]
Fritschi L., Shirangi A., Robertson I.D., Day L.M.
Trends in exposure of veterinarians to physical and chemical hazards and use of protection practices
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to physical and chemical occupational hazards and use of protective practices has changed in recent veterinary graduates, and to describe trends in exposure to occupational hazards and use of protective practices over time. It involved a cohort of veterinarians who graduated from four Australian veterinary schools between 1960 and 2000 and were currently in clinical practice. A self-completed postal questionnaire was used to collect personal details, professional history since graduation, and details of occupational hazards and protective practices used. The prevalence of occupational hazards and use of protective practices was examined by decade of graduation adjusting for gender, type of practice and number of hours worked. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.371-378. 12 ref.
Rushton L., Mann V.
Estimating the prevalence and incidence of pesticide-related illness presented to General Practitioners in Great Britain
The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and extent of pesticide-related illness presenting to and diagnosed by general practitioners (GPs) in the United Kingdom. A screening checklist was completed by GPs for patients over the age of 18. Patients were classified as eligible for a detailed interview if: exposure was specifically mentioned by patients; there were serious acute symptoms; the patient had newly occurring flu type, respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, eye or acute neurological symptoms and the GP thought that symptoms were related to pesticide exposure. Checklists were completed for 59320 patients from 43 practices and 1335 interviews were carried out. The annual prevalence and incidence of illness reported to GPs because of concern about pesticide exposure were 0.07% and 0.04% respectively (42 and 24 patients). The annual prevalence and incidence of consultations where symptoms were diagnosed by GPs as likely to be related to pesticide exposure were 0.01% and 0.003% respectively, with estimates of prevalence and incidence of symptoms possibly related to pesticide-related symptoms being 2.7% and 1.64%. Limited information on actual chemicals and active ingredients of pesticides restricted the study's ability to establish a definite causal relationship between pesticide exposure and symptoms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. xiv, 80p. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr608.pdf [in English]
Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Deckovic-Vukres V., Trosic I., Chiarelli A.
Respiratory function in pesticide workers
Pesticide aerosols are frequently toxic irritants associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities in 82 workers employed in processing pesticides and in 60 unexposed controls employed in a soft drink bottling plant. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was greater among pesticide workers than among controls. There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift in pesticide workers. Ventilatory capacity showed significant reductions in all tests. The effects of smoking and work exposure were different in men and women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1299-1305. 28 ref.
Harley K.G,, Marks A.R., Bradman A., Barr D.B., Eskenazi B.
DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including DDT, was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP). A total of 402 pregnant women living in a migrant farm worker community were asked how many months they took to conceive. Women reported their and their partners' occupational and home pesticide exposure preceding conception. In a subset of 289 participants, levels of DDT and its decomposition product DDE were measured in maternal serum. No associations were seen with DDT exposure. However, longer TTP was seen among women reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides, but not among men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1335-1342. Illus. 44 ref.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The objective of this study was to assess the safety consciousness of farmworkers with respect to pesticide exposure. Behaviours of 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California, were assessed via self-reports. Organophosphorus (OP) exposure was evaluated using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended protective clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. However, despite these precautions, participants still had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
McCauley L.A., Lasarev M., Muniz J., Nazar Stewart V., Kisby G.
Analysis of pesticide exposure and DNA damage in immigrant farmworkers
This study was designed to use the comet assay to describe the association of markers of DNA damage in oral leukocytes with biomarkers of pesticide exposure. It involved 134 farmworkers working in berry crops in the U.S. State of Oregon and 55 non exposed controls. It also examined the extent of DNA damage in young workers compared to adults and the effect of work histories, lifestyle factors, and diet on markers of DNA damage. Tail intensity and tail moment were significantly higher for agricultural workers compared to controls. However no parameter was significantly associated with years spent working in agriculture, age, sex, body mass index, diet, and alcohol or tobacco use. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility for using the comet assay in biomonitoring studies of farmworkers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.237-246. Illus. 33 ref.
Bretveld R., Kik S., Hooiveld M., van Rooij I., Zielhuis G., Roeleveld N.
Time-to-pregnancy among male greenhouse workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is prolonged in 694 male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides in comparison with 613 non-exposed controls. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires with detailed questions on TTP, as well as on lifestyle (smoking habits, coffee and alcohol consumption, etc.), work tasks, and occupational exposures of the men and their partners in the six months before conception of the most recent pregnancy. TTP was compared between male greenhouse workers and non-exposed controls. The crude analyses did not show a decreased overall fecundability among greenhouse workers compared to the non-exposed reference group. However, when fecundability was assessed for primigravidous couples, duogravidous couples, and multigravidous couples separately, greenhouse workers were found to be less fecund when trying to conceive their first pregnancy. Among couples who already experienced one or more pregnancies, no association was seen between pesticide exposure and TTP after adjustment for confounders.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 21 ref.
MacFarlane E., Chapman A., Benke G., Meaklim J., Sim M., McNeil J.
Training and other predictors of personal protective equipment use in Australian grain farmers using pesticides
The objective of this study was to investigate patterns of use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce pesticide exposure in a sample of Australian farmers and also to assess possible predictive factors. A cross-sectional survey of 1102 farmers was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Up to 40% of the farmers reported routinely using no PPE at all when exposed to pesticides. In multivariate analyses PPE use appeared to be most strongly associated with younger age and farm chemical training. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.141-146. 33 ref.
Cocco P., Brennan P., Ibba A., de Sanjosé Llongueras S., Maynadié M., Nieters A., Becker N., Ennas M.G., Tocco M.G., Boffetta P.
Plasma polychlorobiphenyl and organochlorine pesticide level and risk of major lymphoma subtypes
There is conflicting epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and plasma levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The concentration of 17 OC pesticides was measured in the plasma samples of 174 NHL cases and 203 controls from France, Germany and Spain. The risk of NHL and its major subtypes associated with increasing blood levels of OC pesticides and PCBs was calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and plasma levels of OC pesticides and PCBs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.132-140. 35 ref.
Dhillon A.S., Tarbutton G.L., Levin J.L., Plotkin G.M., Lowry L.K., Nalbone J.T., Shepherd S.
Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas
Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0), the use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.37-48. 62 ref.
Nicol A.M., Kennedy S.M.
Assessment of pesticide exposure control practices among men and women on fruit-growing farms in British Columbia
Exposure to pesticides can be reduced by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) or by implementing alternative pest control techniques, such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to explore the prevalence of these practices among a total of 380 men and women involved in fruit growing in British Columbia, Canada. Among the 119 workers who applied pesticides, 63% indicated that they usually wore PPE during application. Individual equipment use varied. Gloves were worn most frequently (84%), followed by a spray suit (77%) and breathing protection (75%). Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.217-226. 42 ref.
Salvatore A.L., Bradman A., Castorina R., Camacho J., López J., B. Barr D.B., Snyder J., Jewell N.P., Eskenazi B.
Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California
The relationship between self-reported behaviours and agricultural pesticide exposures were assessed in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Wearing recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA levels. Despite these protective behaviours, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for ``take home'' exposures to farmworkers' families.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.782-794. Illus. 57 ref.
Safety and health in the use of agrochemicals: A guide
Agrohimikattardy koldonuudagy ėmgektin koopsuzdugu žana gigienasy: koldonmo [in Kirghiz]
Arabic and Kirghiz translations of a the training manual analysed under CIS 91-792. Contents: safety and health aspects (how dangerous substances enter the body, classification, labelling and identification, safe handling and use, disposal of waste, operational control and use of personal protective equipment); poisoning by agrochemicals, its management and emergency responses (types and symptoms of poisoning and injury, first-aid treatment, role of poison information centres, effects of temperature and fire emergencies); roles and responsibilities of manufacturers, government agencies, retailers, employers, workers and the public; education and training; case histories illustrating accidents resulting from improper use of agrochemicals in developing countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 81p. Illus. 34 ref. (ar); 101p. Illus. 34 ref. (ky).
Manganese and its compounds
Manganèse et ses composés [in French]
Occupational exposures to manganese and its compounds are mainly encountered in the steel and smelting industries, as well as in welding. Other industries such as dry cell manufacture, glassworks, and the production of paints and pigments can give also rise to exposures, as can certain pesticides used in agriculture. Occupational exposure to manganese occurs almost exclusively through inhalation, with the lungs and the central nervous system being the main target organs. In cases of chronic exposure, neurological disorders and in particular perceptual-motor performance, constitute the main critical effect. Higher exposures (generally above 5mg/m3) give rise to Parkinson-like symptoms. The identification of groups of exposed workers is possible by means of determinations in blood or urine. Monitoring of manganese exposure rests mainly on atmospheric sampling. Acceptable occupational exposure levels are 0.050 and 0.200mg/m3 respectively for respirable and inhalable fractions. Replaces CIS 03-827.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 10p. 72 ref.
This training manual on the ILO WIND (Work improvement in Neighbourhood Development) aimed at agrarian communities in the Philippines contains a variety of information, education and communication materials, including flipcharts, comic strips, posters, booklets and presentations. Originally aimed at rice farmers, the programme has been extended to include other crops (banana, coconut and sugarcane).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. Binder containing a collection of documents. Approx. 140 p. Illus.
MacFarlane E., Benke G., Goddard D., Sim M.
Urban pest control operators in Australia
This article describes the occupational tasks of domestic and commercial pest control operators in Australia, the hazards they face and the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: tasks of the job; hazards of the job and in the workplace; measures to protect workers (protective clothing, respirators, measures related to pesticides, physical hazards and biological hazards, training and qualification of workers).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.64, No.6, p.422-427. Illus. 16 ref.
Hoppin J.A., Umbach D.M., Kullman G.J., Henneberger P.K., London S.J., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self-reported farmer's lung among farm residents in the agricultural health study
Farmer's lung, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an important contributor to respiratory morbidity among farmers. Using the 1993-1997 data from the Agricultural Health Study, this cross-sectional study of occupational risk factors for farmer's lung was conducted among approximately 50,000 farmers and farm spouses in Iowa and North Carolina using hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age, state, and smoking status. Participants provided information on agricultural exposures, demographic characteristics and medical history via self-administered questionnaires. Approximately 2% of farmers and 0.2% of spouses reported doctor-diagnosed farmer's lung. It is suggested that organochlorine and carbamate pesticides should be further evaluated as potential risk factors for farmer's lung. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.64, No.5, p.334-342. 40 ref.
Joshaghani H.R., Ahmadi A.R., Mansourian A.R.
Effects of occupational exposure in pesticide plant on workers' serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity
Blood samples were collected from 63 workers in an Iranian pesticide manufacturing plant in order to determine cholinesterase levels in their erythrocytes, both before they started employment there and three months after starting work. There was a significant decrease in cholinesterase levels in erythrocytes (48IU/g to 37IU/g) and in serum cholinesterase levels (9569IU/L to 7970IU/L) in the workers after three months of exposure. In light of these results, a routine assessment of cholinesterase levels is recommended for workers engaged in the manufacturing and handling of pesticides.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.381-385. 21 ref.
Liebman A.K., Juárez P.M., Leyva C., Corona A.
A pilot program using promotoras de salud to educate farmworker families about the risks from pesticide exposure
This paper reviews a successful education effort to minimize pesticide exposure to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families through innovative training curricula, informal participatory educational techniques and culturally sensitive outreach methods. In 2004, lay health educators (promotoras de salud), were trained in pesticide safety and in ways to promote safety information in the farmworker community in New Mexico. Through home visits and small group workshops, the promotoras trained 273 farmworkers and farmworker family members on ways to reduce exposures to pesticides in their homes and at work, with an emphasis on protecting children. The families received a Spanish language comic book that reinforced the pesticide safety information. The project resulted in a significant increase in knowledge regarding the routes of exposure, the vulnerability of children, the signs and symptoms of pesticide poisonings and the ways to minimize pesticide exposures.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2007, Vol.12, No.2, p.33-43. Illus. 22 ref.
Veiga M.M., Duarte F.J.C.M., Meirelles L.A., Garrigou A., Baldi I.
Contamination by pesticides and personal protective equipment (PPE)
A contaminação por agrotóxicos e os equipamentos de proteção individual (EPIs) [in Portuguese]
This study analysed the efficiency of personal protective equipment (PPE) used when mixing and spraying pesticides in Brazilian and French farming. Analysis was based on two case studies: the first concerning a tomato crop located in a small rural community in the Southeast of Brazil; the second, a vineyard in France. The findings showed that PPEs used in both cases did not offer proper protection against pesticides, and sometimes even turned into a source of contamination. The study concludes that PPE by themselves cannot eliminate or neutralize unhealthy conditions related to pesticide use, as law demands. It also shows that PPEs have not always been properly designed, selected, used, maintained, stored and disposed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.57-68. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Ensaio%20Agrotóxicos%20e%20EPIs.pdf [in Portuguese]
Del Prado-Lu J.L.
Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: A cross sectional study
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine associations between haematological indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cut flower farmers in a region of the Philippines. A total of 102 randomly-selected cut flower farmers underwent comprehensive medical examinations and answered a questionnaire their on work practices and state of health. A majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), fatigue (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Statistical analyses showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were associated with age and the selling of pesticide containers. The number of years of using pesticides, the use of contaminated cloth, the incorrect mixing of pesticides, sex and illnesses due to pesticides were correlated with abnormal MCV. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Sep. 2007, Vol.2, No.9, 8p. 34 ref.
Verma G., Sharma N.L., Shanker V., Mahajan V.K., Tegta G.R.
Pesticide contact dermatitis in fruit and vegetable farmers of Himachal Pradesh (India)
In this case-control study on pesticide allergic contact dermatitis conducted in Himachal Pradesh, an Indian state with an important fruit and vegetable production, cases included 30 farmers with dermatitis on the face, neck, hands and feet, while controls consisted of two groups of 10 subjects each: group 1 had a history of exposure to pesticides but no dermatitis while group 2 had neither dermatitis nor history of exposure to pesticides. All subjects were patch tested with the 10 most common pesticides used in the region. Positive patch test reactions from pesticides were observed in eight cases, while three group 1 subjects also showed sensitization to several pesticides. No reactions were observed among group 2 subjects. Captan was the most common sensitizer (five patients), two patients were sensitive to propargite. Chlorpyrifos, tree spray oil and thiuram gave a positive reaction in one patient each. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2007, Vol.57, No.5, p.316-320. 25 ref.
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