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Hand and portable tools - 750 entries found

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  • Hand and portable tools

2010

CIS 11-0879 Rempel D., Star D., Barr A., Blanco M.M., Janowitz I.
Field evaluation of a modified intervention for overhead drilling
Drilling holes into concrete or metal ceilings is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in construction. The work is done overhead with rotary impact hammer drills that weigh up to 40 N. The task is associated with pain and musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist, forearm, shoulder and back. The mechanism of injury is thought to be the high forces and non-neutral shoulder and wrist postures applied during drilling. Using a participatory intervention model, feedback from 13 construction workers was used to develop a new intervention design that incorporated a wheeled tripod base and a unique method of aligning the drilling column to vertical. A different group of 23 construction workers) evaluated usability and fatigue of the new device during their regular overhead drilling in comparison with the usual method. Four of 12 usability ratings were significantly better with the intervention device compared with the usual method. Subjective shoulder fatigue was less with the new intervention. This difference was supported by objective outcome measures; the mean hand forces during drilling were 26 N with the intervention compared with 245 N with the usual method. The percentage of time with the shoulder flexed or abducted to more than 60 degrees was less with the intervention compared with the usual method. There was significantly less head extension with the intervention compared with the usual method. This study demonstrates that a new intervention device for overhead drilling has improved usability and subjective fatigue ratings compared with the usual method. These improvements are most likely due to the reduced hand forces, reduced shoulder abduction and flexion, and reduced drilling time.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.194-202. Illus. 23 ref.
Field_evaluation.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0284 Tiwari P.S., Gite L.P., Majumder J., Pharade S.C., Singh V.V.
Push/pull strength of agricultural workers in central India
Agricultural workers have to exert push/pull forces in the horizontal plane while operating many farm tools and equipment. However, very little data are available on push/pull strength of agricultural workers. A study was therefore carried out to collect these data on male as well as female agricultural workers, using a specially-developed strength measurement system. Data were collected on 920 subjects from different parts of Madhya Pradesh State in central India of which 604 were male and 316 were female agricultural workers. Findings are discussed. The values obtained can be used to set limits in the design of manually operated farm tools and equipment as well as for manual materials handling activities involving pushing/pulling, depending on the frequency of movement.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.1-7. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 11-0106 Fontaine J.R., Muller J.P., Braud M.C., Brouté P., Accart R., Pinsard D., Marmoret G., Bayle J.P., Bourges P.
Evaluation of the dust collection efficiency of three types of hand-held woodworking machines
Evaluation des performances de captage de trois types de machines à bois portatives [in French]
Widely used in small-scale enterprises, hand-held woodworking machines are among the most polluting in terms of dust. This study involved three types of machine (circular saws, routers and orbital sanders), for which equipment supplied by four manufacturers was compared. Approximately forty configurations were evaluated in the INRS laboratory. This article presents the main findings of the study.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.3-15. Illus. 16 ref.
ND 2321-218-10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0419 Porter W., Gallagher S., Torma-Krajewski J.
Analysis of applied forces and electromyography of back and shoulders muscles when performing a simulated hand scaling task
Hand scaling is a physically-demanding task responsible for numerous overexertion injuries in underground mining. It requires the miner to use a long pry bar to remove loose rock, reducing the likelihood of rock fall injuries. The experiments described in this article simulated "rib" scaling (scaling a mine wall) from an elevated bucket to examine force generation and electromyographic responses using two types of scaling bars (steel and fiberglass-reinforced aluminum) at five target heights ranging from floor level to 176 cm. Ten male and six female subjects were tested in separate experiments. Peak and average force applied at the scaling bar tip and normalized electromyography of the left and right pairs of the deltoid and erectores spinae muscles were obtained. Findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.411-416. Illus. 12 ref.
Analysis_of_applied_forces.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0294 Brasseur G.
Winery work - Efforts targeted towards strenuousness
Travaux viticoles - La pénibilité est un combat nouveau [in French]
This article presents the efforts undertaken by a champagne producer with respect to the prevention of strenuous work. Topics addressed: warming-up before work; manual or electrical picking shears; training on the prevention of upper-extremity MSDs; awareness programme on vibration problems aimed at tractor drivers.
Travail et sécurité, June 2010, No.707, p.42-44. Illus.

2009

CIS 09-1147 Singh L.P., Bhardwaj A., Deepak K.K., Bedi R.
Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India
This study was carried out in five small-scale hand tool forging units in Northern India. Noise levels in the workshops were measured, and were found to be above 90dB(A) in several areas. Additionally, a cross-sectional sample of workers responded to a questionnaire, results of which revealed that 68% of the workers were not wearing ear protective equipment. Among these workers, 50% were not provided with protective equipment by their employers. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference, although high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.423-430. Illus. 20 ref.

2008

CIS 10-0491
Health and Safety Executive
Top-handled chainsaws
This leaflet covers the safe working practices to be followed when using a petrol-powered top-handled chainsaw for arboricultural offground work. Contents: personal protective equipment; selecting a safe machine; preparing to work; maintenance; fuelling; starting the saw; using the saw.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2008. 6p. 16 ref.
AFAG308(rev1).pdf [in English]

CIS 09-699 Lipscomb H.J., Nolan J., Patterson D., Dement J.M.
Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: Use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness
Nail gun injuries were evaluated over three years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard calling for safer sequential triggers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent and population-attributable risk were calculated yearly for independent risk factors of injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.719-727. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 09-670 Monica L., Nataletti P., Vignali G.
Risk assessment of exposure to mechanical vibrations: Comparison between field measurements and use of databases
Valutazione del rischio da esposizione a vibrazioni meccaniche: confronto tra misurazioni sul campo e uso di banche dati [in Italian]
Many studies have shown that the widespread use of various sources of vibration in the industrial, agricultural and forestry fields, such as vehicles, machinery and tools, constitutes a source of vibration disorders or the worsening of pre-existing symptoms. The objective of this study was to present a comparison between the two types of risk assessment methods currently admissible under Italian legislation, namely direct field measurements and the use of published data. The advantages and operational limitations involved in the use of databases were evaluated through the results of direct field measurements assessing the risk from vibrations in the plant of a mineral water and beverages company. Findings are discussed with reference to Italian legislation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.55-80. Illus. 13 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_en.pdf [in English]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2008_02_3_it.pdf [in Italian]

CIS 09-178 Mahbub M.H., Harada N.
Digital blood flow and temperature responses in palmar and dorsal skin induced by short-term vibration exposure while grasping a vibratory handle
This study was designed to examine the responses induced by acute exposures to short-term vibration while grasping a vibratory handle, and to evaluate the importance of measurement site for such responses. Finger blood flow (FBF) and finger skin temperature (FST) were measured from the palmar (index finger) and dorsal (middle finger) regions of the right hand in eight male subjects, at rest and after gripping the handle for 15min. At the end of fifth minute during grasping of the handle, subject's hand was exposed for 5min to three vibration frequencies and to no vibration. Findings show that vibration can affect the digital circulation in both palmar and dorsal skin but in different ways. Therefore, when comparing the data of responses induced by acute exposure to hand-transmitted vibration recorded at the palmar and dorsal sides of the hand, caution is required when interpreting the results.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.889-897. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 08-1447 Lipscomb H.J., Nolan J., Patterson D., Dement J.M.
Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: Use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness
Nail guns are responsible for many injuries in residential construction in the United States. Risk is particularly high among apprentice carpenters. In this study, nail gun injuries were evaluated over three years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programmes. Rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression models, for each year and for risk factors of injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly. While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.719-727. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 08-1418 Govindaraju S.R., Curry B.D., Bain J.L.W., Riley D.A.
Nerve damage occurs at a wide range of vibration frequencies
Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is an occupational disorder caused by years of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from powered tools. Patients with late-stage HAVS have peripheral neuropathy. To protect workers from developing HAVS, ISO 5349 (2001) sets vibration exposure limits based on vibration frequency weighting which progressively reduces injury potential at 16Hz and higher. Rat tails were used to characterize the early changes in tail-nerves exposed to vibration frequencies of 30, 120 and 800Hz continuously for 4h at 49m/s2 rms. All three frequencies caused similar nerve oedema, dilation of arterioles and percentages of disrupted axons. These findings demonstrate that early vibration injury of nerves occurs at both low and high frequencies.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.687-692. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-1417 Peterson D.R., Brammer A.J., Cherniack M.G.
Exposure monitoring system for day-long vibration and palm force measurements
This article describes a vibration exposure monitor consisting of a small, portable data-logging system, including an adapter containing an accelerometer and a force sensor, developed to record user-specific tool-operating times, hand-transmitted vibration, and palm forces throughout all, or a representative part, of an 8-h workday. The microprocessor-based device has proved to be cost-effective, robust and flexible and can be applied across a wide range of occupations and occupational settings involving exposures to vibration.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.676-686. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 08-1415 Rimell A.N., Notini L., Mansfield N.J., Edwards D.J.
Variation between manufacturers' declared vibration emission values and those measured under simulated workplace conditions for a range of hand-held power tools typically found in the construction industry
Manufacturers' declared vibration emission values for hand-held power tools used were compared with those of the OPERC HAVTEC database. The values recorded in this database are made according to ISO 5349 using simulated workplace conditions. A total of 656 tool and attachment combinations were evaluated, covering a wide range of applications typically found within the construction industry. These data were compared with the manufacturers declared values, with and without the multiplication factors provided in technical report CEN/TR 15350. In general, it was found that workplace vibration emissions were underestimated by manufacturers' declared values, while they were overestimated by the multiplication factors given in CEN/TR 15350.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.661-675. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 08-1414 Vergara M., Sancho J.L., Rodríguez P., Pérez-González A.
Hand-transmitted vibration in power tools: Accomplishment of standards and users' perception
This article presents the results of the measurements of hand-arm vibration levels of 70 tools used in various industrial sectors. Ninety workers were interviewed on their perception of vibration levels and on the symptoms of diseases related to hand-transmitted vibration. Compliance with current regulations was checked and the relationships between workers' perception of vibration, measured vibration levels and symptoms of vibration-related disorders were analysed. About 15% of the tools exceeded the action limits according to applicable standards. No preventive action was taken in any of these cases. Furthermore, in most of the cases, workers did not perceive these levels as being too high, which constitutes an additional risk factor.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.38, No.9-10, p.652-660. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 08-937 Marcotte P., Oddo R., Boutin J., Boilley R., Nélisse H., Boileau P.E., Drouin P., Sirard C., Daigle R.
Automobile repair industry - Characterization of the noise and vibration emitted by hand-held tools
Industrie de la réparation automobile - Caractérisation du bruit et des vibrations émis par les outils portatifs [in French]
Workers in the automobile and heavy vehicle repair sector are exposed to high noise levels and to the vibration of their hand-held pneumatic tools, which can cause occupational deafness and hand-arm vibration syndrome. Although the vibration and sound emissions of these tools can be determined in the laboratory, they do not represent the exposure levels in actual work situations because the processes used do not take into account the noise and vibration produced by contact of the tool with the part being worked on. The objective of this study was to develop laboratory methods for characterizing the noise and vibration of the most common tools used in the automobile repair shops and to define means of reducing them. A questionnaire was addressed to 40 automobile mechanics, working with five types of hand tools; they were also interviewed. The tools were also evaluated with respect to their noise and vibration emissions in a laboratory test bench. Findings are discussed, and various recommendations are proposed, involving the selection and maintenance of the tools, the use of hearing protectors and adopting proper work postures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. x, 97p. Illus. 16 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-554.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-970 May J., Hawkes L., Jones A., Burdick P., Ginley B., Santiago B., Rowland M.
Evaluation of a community-based effort to reduce blueberry harvesting injury
Harvesting of blueberries is associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study assessed the effects of several alternative designs of the harvesting rake. A total of 29 migrant worker subjects rated rakes of two widths and four handle lengths after 4h of use. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that there was increased productivity, greater acceptability, less force and less pain with the extended handle designs. Also, wider widths were favoured.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.307-315. Illus. 14 ref.

2007

CIS 08-1433 Heaton R., Hewitt S., Yeomans L.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Fastener driving tools
This report describes the programme of experimental work carried out on exposure to vibration among users of nail guns, staplers and other fastener driving tools. The objectives were to assess the ISO 8662 emission tests for usability and repeatability, to investigate some of the factors that influence the vibration magnitude measured under standard test conditions, to compare vibration emission values with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions and to investigate alternative parameters for assessing the vibration from single shock tools. In order to achieve these aims, the vibration emission of each tool was measured according to the provisions in ISO 8662-11. Additional laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the effect of fastener size, work piece and mode of operation on the measured vibration magnitudes. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 40p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr591.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1435 Hewitt S., Heaton R., Shanks E., Mole M.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Polishers and sanders
This report describes the programme of experimental work carried out on exposure to vibration among polishers and sanders in the woodworking, plastics and metalworking industries. The objectives were to assess the BS EN ISO 8662 (non-electric tools) and the BS EN 60745 (electric tools) emission tests for usability and repeatability, to compare test results with manufacturers' declared vibration emission values, to compare declared vibration emission values with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions and to assess vibration emission data as an indicator of vibration hazard. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. v, 40p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr590.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1434 Shanks E.
Health and Safety Executive
Correlation between vibration emission and vibration during real use: Nibblers and shears
The aims of this study were to assess the BS EN ISO 8662-10 (pneumatic tools) and the BS EN 60745-2-8 (electric tools) vibration emission tests for usability and reliability by comparing vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions with manufacturers' declared vibration emission values, and to assess whether vibration emission values are a reliable indicator of vibration hazards for various power-driven hand tools used in metalworking industries. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 38p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr576.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-438 Richard A.M.
Low vibration equipment - Major improvements for limiting vibrations
Matériels antivibratiles - Des innovations majeures pour limiter les vibrations [in French]
Regardless of whether they apply to the hands and arms when using a hand-held power tool or to the whole body when driving earthmoving machines, excessive vibrations cause injuries. This article discusses vibration exposure and applicable French regulations, vibration measurement, limitation of the length of exposure and the advantages of investing in recent equipment offering distinct improvements in vibration emission levels. These improvements apply to both hand-held power tools and earthmoving machines.
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2007, No.94, p.34-36. Illus.

CIS 08-444 Boutin J., Marcotte P., Jasinski J.
Determining the vibration emissions from percussive hand tools - Feasibility of a mechanical system for the substitution of human subjects
Détermination de l'émission vibratoire d'outils manuels percutants - Faisabilité d'un système mécanique de substitution de personnes [in French]
Estimating the vibratory emissions of vibrating manual tools in the laboratory calls for methods that require human subjects to handle these tools under well-defined conditions. The recruitment, availability and training of these individuals, as well as the variations in the results attributable to their different biodynamic characteristics, are all factors that make such tests difficult. This report describes a project to evaluate the feasibility of using a mechanical system rather than human subjects, thus simplifying the application of the protocol for evaluating a type of percussive tool, namely chipping hammers. It was found that the tested substitution mechanism considerably reduces the variability in the test results and that it could serve as an effective replacement for the current standardized test method.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. ix, 27p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-486.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-201 Marcotte P., Ouellette S., Boutin J., Boileau P.E., LeBlanc G., Oddo R.
Jackleg drills - Development of a test bench to characterize vibration emission values
Foreuses à béquille - Mise au point d'un banc d'essai pour caractériser les valeurs d'émission vibratoire [in French]
Jackleg drills, very common in the mining industry, produce a level of vibration that can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome in their users. In a previous study, the researchers created a prototype of an antivibration handle for jackleg drills. This handle reduced hand-arm vibration exposure by approximately 50%. The handle prototype was refined and adapted to the mining environment for the purpose of marketing it. To support the development of the antivibration handle, a test bench for evaluating the vibration emissions of jackleg drills under controlled conditions was developed and validated. This test bench evaluates the efficiency of the antivibration handle in relation to its wear.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. ix, 35p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-499.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-200 Boutin J., Marcotte P., Jasinski J.
Determining the vibration emissions from percussive hand tools - Feasibility of a mechanical system for the substitution of human subjects
Détermination de l'émission vibratoire d'outils manuels percutants - Faisabilité d'un système mécanique de substitution de personnes [in French]
Estimating the vibratory emissions of vibrating manual tools in the laboratory calls for methods that require human subjects to handle these tools under well-defined conditions. The recruitment, availability and training of these individuals, as well as the variations in the results attributable to their different biodynamic characteristics, are all factors that make such tests difficult. This report describes a project to evaluate the feasibility of using a mechanical system rather than human subjects, thus simplifying the application of the protocol for evaluating a type of percussive tool, namely chipping hammers. It was found that the tested substitution mechanism considerably reduces the variability in the test results and that it could serve as an effective replacement for the current standardized test method.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. ix, 27p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 10.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-486.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 11-0197 Goglia V., Gospodaric Z., Filipovic D., Djukic I.
Influence on operator's health of hand-transmitted vibrations of a single-axle tractor
The operators of the single-axle tractors are especially exposed to hand-arm transmitted vibrations. These vibrations can cause complex vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, collectively named hand-arm vibration syndrome. Among these, the most common disorder is vibration-induced white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). The vibration levels were measured in three tractor working conditions, namely idling, transportation and soil tillage. The frequency-weighted acceleration, given in m/s2, was calculated. Findings are discussed with reference to daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 5349. Results showed that 10% of workers are exposed to a risk of vibration-induced white finger disorder of the hands after relatively short periods (3-4 years), if the tractor is used eight hours per day in soil tillage and transportation at full load. Considering the criteria of the ISO 5349, the daily working time with the single-axle tractor should be limited in order to protect the operator and work schedules should be arranged to include vibration-free periods.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 21 ref.
Influence_on_operator's health.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1449 Sutinen P., Toppila E., Starck J., Brammer A., Zou J., Pyykkö I.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome with use of anti-vibration chain saws: 19-year follow-up study of forestry workers
In this follow-up study of a cohort of 52 forestry workers in Finland initiated in 1976, the prevalence of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and cumulative exposure to vibration were evaluated, with special emphasis given to numbness and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities and the neck. Total exposure of hand-arm vibration was recorded during 11 cross-sectional surveys, the last of which was carried out in 1995. The lifetime dose of vibration energy was calculated. As a result of the increased use of anti-vibration chain saws, the prevalence of active vibration white finger (VWF) decreased significantly. However, that of numbness increased. Numbness did not follow the vibration exposure profile. Neck pain was present in 38% of workers and associated with low back pain. The effect of smoking on WWF was significant. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2006, Vol.79, No.8, p.665-671. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 07-1163 Rytkönen E., Sorainen E., Leino-Arjas P., Solovieva S.
Hand-arm vibration exposure of dentists
The vibration of 22 dental handpieces was measured with an accelerometer during normal work. The weighted vibration and the total acceleration of high frequency vibration in the frequency range of 1.6-10kHz were analysed. Non-contact vibrations were also measured during idling with a portable digital vibrometer, and the findings compared with those of the accelerometer. A group of 295 female dentists aged 45-63 years responded to a questionnaire on working conditions, lifestyle, and state of health. It was found that the daily vibration exposure of dentists was below the exposure action value of the Vibration Directive of European Union (CIS 02-24). However a long work history in dental filling and root treatment as well as high body mass index seem to be associated with frequent finger symptoms perceived as vibration-related by the dentists.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.521-527. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 07-975 Easy ergonomics. A guide to selecting non-powered hand tools
Ergonomía fácil - Guía para la selección de herramientas manuales [in Spanish]
This booklet provides guidance on the selection of ergonomically designed non-powered hand tools. The information and the hand tool checklist are based on peer-reviewed articles and expert input. The checklist has been evaluated for reliability in identifying the presence or absence of basic ergonomic design criteria. Use of the correct tool will help reduce a worker's risk of injury, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis or muscle strain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 14p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 3.38.

CIS 07-456 Lipscomb H.J., Dement J.M., Nolan J., Patterson D.
Nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: Risk factors and control measures
Surveillance data from 772 apprentice carpenters in the USA were used to document the injury risk associated with the use of nail guns and the potential impact preventive actions. Using estimates of hours of tool use, Poisson regression modelling was used to calculate adjusted rate ratios for injury associated with time in the trade, trigger mechanism on the tools and training prior to injury. Forty-five percent of these apprentices had sustained a nail gun injury. Those with less than one year in the trade and those with no training in tool use were at greatest risk compared to those with more than five years of experience (relative risks of 2.7 and 2.9 respectively). After adjusting for experience and training, the rate of injury was twice as high with tools with a contact trigger compared to those with a sequential trigger.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.505-513. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 07-443 Marcotte P., Boileau P.E., Rakheja S., Aldien Y., Boutin J.
Controlling hand-arm vibrations produced by the operation of vibrating portable tools: Consideration of the human interface and biodynamic behaviour
Contrôle des vibrations main-bras engendrées par l'opération d'outils portatifs vibrants - Considérations de l'interface humaine et comportement biodynamique [in French]
The aim of this study was to establish the foundations for the development of models that can be used to effectively reproduce the dynamic behaviour of a vibrating hand tool and the hand-arm system by taking into account the effect of variations in the gripping and thrust forces applied to the handle, the subject's posture, the configuration of the handle and the amplitude of the vibrations. This study characterized the effect of these different parameters on the hand-arm system's biodynamic response and established mathematical relationships between the gripping and thrust forces and the contact force at the hand-handle interface.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. x, 55p. Illus. 48 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-467.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-430 Trompette N., Cafaxe M.
Analysis of the methodology for declaring machinery noise: Application to electrical grinding machines
Analyse de la méthodologie de la déclaration du bruit des machines: application au cas des meuleuses électriques [in French]
European Directive 98/37/EC on the design of machinery (see CIS 99-29) requires manufacturers to declare acoustic emission pressure levels at the workstation and acoustic power levels (if acoustic emission pressure levels at the workstation exceed 85 dB(A)) in the machine instruction manual and technical documentation. This article describes a methodology for declaring machine noise by applying the appropriate test protocols in the case of an electrical grinding machine. The study indicates that the levels displayed are not always representative of the real acoustic power delivered by the machines and are unrelated to user exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2006, No.203, p.7-17. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/E0BE8EE63D93A0DBC125719D0038F341/$FILE/nd2246.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-193 Cherniack M., et al.
Nerve conduction and sensorineural function in dental hygienists using high frequency ultrasound handpieces
Oscillatory vibration from industrial power tools poses a well-recognized risk of peripheral nerve injury. There have been reports of elevated vibrotactile perception thresholds (VPT) among dentists, dental technicians, and dental hygienists, using rotary devices and ultrasonics. Elevated VPTs are an indicator of small fibre nerve or mechanoreceptor injury. This cross-sectional study of 94 experienced dental hygienists was conducted to assess peripheral nerve function and clinical signs and symptoms. Testing included measurement of VPTs for three different categories of mechanoreceptors, sensory nerve conduction tests with fractionated digit and palmar segments, and measurement of calibrated pinch force. A high level of paraesthesia was observed among dental hygienists. This and other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.313-326. 43 ref.

CIS 06-1048
Health and Safety Executive
Chainsaws at work
This booklet provides advice on using portable, hand-held petrol-engine chainsaws at work. It is aimed at employers, the self-employed and those who control the use of work equipment. Topics include: fitness to operate a chainsaw; qualifications; young workers; health risks; training and competence; equipment selection; maintenance; personal protective equipment; lone working; first aid; safe working methods; tree felling; off-ground work. Replaces CIS 00-1577.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 11p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg317.pdf [in English]

2005

CIS 07-1465 Gonzaga M.C., Funes Abrahão R., Braunbeck O.A.
Use of protective gloves for the manual harvesting of sugar cane
O uso das luvas de proteção no corte manual de cana-de-açúcar [in Portuguese]
This study on gloves used for the manual harvesting of sugar cane resulted from a tripartite negotiation between FUNDACENTRO, a workers' union and a sugar mill. A key factor of glove efficiency is their adherence to the knife handle. Data on the quality of four models of gloves were collected by means of questionnaires distributed to 47 workers. Their friction coefficient with wood was also measured. The qualitative research showed that workers prefer gloves made of leather straps and nylon because they fit their hands comfortably, without causing aches or blocking their movements. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.35-40. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-1197 Powered and non-powered hand tools
Machines et outils à main [in French]
Machines en handgereedschappen [in Dutch]
The objective of the SOBANE approach (screening, observation, analysis and evaluation) is to ensure occupational safety and health by means of a systematic analysis of occupational hazards. This booklet presents the SOBANE approach applied to powered and non-powered hand tools. Following a review of general aspects of occupational safety and health management, it explains how to proceed with the observation, analysis and evaluation, together with the qualifications required for carrying out these steps. The following topics are summarized on information sheets: various types of powered and non-powered hand tools; locking procedures; control systems; work postures; manual handling; lifting devices; personal protective equipment; Belgian and European regulations.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005. 180p. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=3868 [in Dutch]
http://www.nova.inrct.be/pdf/pd/frdd73.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1479 East J., Sood D.
Ergonomic guidelines for selecting hand and power tools
Advances in tools have created new challenges involving the complex interactions between users and their tools. Improper hand tool selection has been known to result in unreliable quality of work and decreased efficiency and productivity. Using the wrong tool or using the right tool incorrectly can cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), which consist of injuries to the muscles, tendons, joints and nerves that usually manifest over a period of time and can affect a variety of body parts. This article discusses the risk factors of WMSDs associated with the use of hand tools, which include awkward wrist and hand postures, static muscle loading, mechanical stress, vibration, noise, torque, temperature and pinch points. By eliminating or minimizing exposure to these risk factors, the risk of WMSDs for workers is reduced.
Occupational Hazards, Dec. 2005, Vol.67, No.12, p.39-41. Illus.

CIS 06-978 Kumar R., Chaikumarn M., Kumar S.
Psychological, subjective and postural loads in passenger train wagon cleaning using a conventional and redesigned cleaning tool
A cleaning process for passenger train wagons was studied and analysed using both conventional and ergonomically-redesigned cleaning tools. Results of a study of 13 cleaners performing their normal tasks showed that perceived exertion, oxygen consumption and heart rate were significantly lower when using the new tool and the postural load was also significantly less. It is concluded that the redesigned cleaning tool allowed cleaners to maintain a more upright posture when cleaning, thus reducing biomechanical load.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2005, Vol.35, No.10, p.931-938. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-722 Fernandez J., Ware B.
Selecting healthy hand tools
Choosing the right hand tool for a job can protect workers from painful injuries and improve productivity at the same time. Contents of this article on the ergonomics of hand tools: handle shapes (pistol or in-line); tool handle interfaces (length, diameter, material, vibration-damping); working with hand tools (positioning of the activation lever, force required to activate, location of the power cord); noise (use of earplugs or earmuffs).
Occupational Hazards, July 2005, Vol.67, No.7, p.35-39. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-536 Benczek K.M., Gliński M., Dąbrowski M., Karski H.
Principles of hazard limitation during hardwood woodworking operations using mechanized hand tools
Zasady ograniczania ryzyka zawodowego podczas obróbki drewna twardego ręcznymi narzędziami zmechanizowanymi [in Polish]
Risk factors associated with hardwood woodworking operations are identified and preventive measures are described. The responsibilities of employers, managerial staff and employees are listed.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 54p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 06-227 Marsot J.
QDF: A methodological tool for integration of ergonomics at the design stage
Following a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders observed in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) launched a research program in 1999 on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design. This article briefly reviews the problems of integrating ergonomics at the design stage and shows how the "Quality Function Deployment" method was applied to the design of a boning knife, highlighting some of the difficulties encountered. Finally, it shows how this method can be used as a methodological tool for the integration of ergonomics into product design.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2005, Vol.36, No.2, p.185-192. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 06-187 Bentley T.A., Parker R.J., Ashby L.
Understanding felling safety in the New Zealand forest industry
This article reports findings from a safety analysis of the chainsaw tree felling task in New Zealand, together with data from the New Zealand Accident Reporting Scheme for logging injuries for 1996-2000. Key safety factors were determined from the task and job safety analysis, along with possible adverse consequences and potential solutions for reducing injury risk. The analysis of 351 reported felling injury cases allowed the identification of high-risk task elements, common injury initiating events and temporal and logger population injury patterns. The potential risk associated with inexperienced employees, who incurred a high proportion of felling injuries, and the need for good judgment and decision-making for various aspects of the felling task were particularly noted.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2005, Vol.36, No.2, p.165-175. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 06-13
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration: Advice for employees
This pocket card provides advice for users of hand-held powered work equipment on controlling exposure to hand-arm vibration. It briefly describes health hazards (symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome), tools and equipment involving a risk and methods for reducing vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. Folded card.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg296.pdf [in English]

2004

CIS 09-475 Easy ergonomics: A guide to selecting non-powered hand tools
Ergonomía fácil - Guía para la selección de herramientas de mano no-energizadas [in Spanish]
This booklet provides guidance on the selection of ergonomically designed non-powered hand tools. The information and the hand tool checklist are based on peer-reviewed articles and expert input. The checklist has been evaluated for reliability in identifying the presence or absence of basic ergonomic design criteria. Use of the correct tool will help reduce a worker's risk of injury, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis or muscle strain.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-998, USA,. 2004. 14p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.dir.ca.gov/DOSH/dosh_publications/HandToolsSP.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-164/pdfs/2004-164.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-471 Schneider S., Dababneh A., Lowe B., Krieg E., Kong Y.K., Waters T.
A checklist for the ergonomic evaluation of nonpowered hand tools
A simple 16-item checklist developed to evaluate nonpowered hand tools for basic features related to good ergonomic tool design is presented. The reliability of the checklist questions was assessed in a study in which 14 ergonomists and 126 carpenters evaluated 18 typical hand tools. Agreement among the carpenters and ergonomists was high for most of the checklist items. However, a few questions resulted in relatively low agreement, indicating that the criterion was not explicit or that users had difficulty identifying whether the tool satisfied the particular criterion. The majority of the 18 hand tools evaluated were considered to be lacking in several highly important ergonomic design features. Additional studies are being conducted to make appropriate revisions to the checklist criteria based on quantitative measures of musculoskeletal loading.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2004, Vol.1, No.12, p.D135-D145. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 05-487 Cleaning and disinfection. Knives that retain their cutting properties for reducing MSDs
Nettoyage et désinfection. Un couteau qui garde son pouvoir de coupe pour réduire les TMS [in French]
The importance of knife sharpness on reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders is well known: when knives don't cut well, tasks require more time, more cuts are needed and cuts are less precise. Workers are forced to adopt gestures that are detrimental to their health. In order to maintain the cutting properties of knives over time, it is important that they be sharpened at regular intervals by suitably trained persons. However, proper sharpening is possible only if the knives are sufficiently cleaned and disinfected. This booklet explains how to ensure that the cutting properties of knives are not impaired by cleaning and disinfection operations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2004. 19p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 4.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/E34A26EB5132707EC1256F6D004DDD67/$FILE/ed939.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-202 Mitchell R.H., Garner K.F., Vaghela S.
Health and Safety Executive
Implications of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive for SMEs
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the proposed vibration exposure action and limit levels specified within the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (see CIS 02-24) on small to medium enterprises (SME's). Work involved a literature survey, a telephone survey and site visits. 16% of the 121 companies that participated in the survey were aware of the Directive. 29% were estimated to expose their employees to vibration levels of 2.8m/s2 or greater, and 44% to vibration levels of 2.5m/s2 or greater. It is concluded that HSE guidance publications would be useful.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 127p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr267.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1899 Alonso Valle F.
Hazards related to the use of portable pneumatic equipment and tools
Riesgos en la utilización de equipos y herramientas portátiles, accionados por aire comprimido [in Spanish]
Pneumatic equipment and tools are used in a wide variety of industrial sectors. This information note describes the specific hazards related to the use of this type of equipment together with the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: specific hazards related to compressed air and to the use of pneumatic equipment; preventive measures during installation; precautions to be taken before working with pneumatic tools; precautions to be taken during work with pneumatic tools; what needs to be done on completion of the task; training and information of workers.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_631.htm [in Spanish]

2003

CIS 06-196
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of protective gloves and gauntlets against laceration and piercing caused by knives
Benutzung von Stechschutzhandschuhen und Armschützern [in German]
This Directive of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association applies to the selection and use of protective gloves and gauntlets against laceration and piercing caused by knives that employers are required to provide to their employees according to the provisions of the law on occupational safety and health. It defines the various types of protection of the upper extremities (short- or long-cuff gloves, gauntlet gloves, thumb protectors), criteria for selecting a suitable type of glove and rules for their use, hygiene, maintenance, repair and storage.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 2003. 28p. Illus.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/fa-psa/service/pdf/bgr200.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-195
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of protective clothing against laceration and piercing caused by knives
Benutzung von Stechschutzbekleidung [in German]
This Directive of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association applies to the selection and use of protective clothing against laceration and piercing caused by knives that employers are required to provide to their employees according to the provisions of the law on occupational safety and health. It describes the various types of clothing (aprons, waistcoats, shirts, hoods, trousers) and the criteria for selecting the suitable type of clothing, together, with rules for their use, hygiene, maintenance, repair and storage.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2003. 34p. Illus.
http://www.sitech.meb.uni-bonn.de/su/arbeitsschutz/psa/text/bgr_196.pdf [in German]

CIS 04-703 Dement J.M., Lipscomb H., Li L., Epling C., Desai T.
Nail gun injuries among construction workers
Based on compensation claims of construction workers in Ohio and North Carolina, this study examines nail gun-related injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9% of workers' compensation claims with 8.3% to 25.5% of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio. The predominant body parts injured were the hands and fingers, with 80-89% of injuries being nail punctures. The analysis of the data suggests that approximately 69% of puncture injuries may be due to an inadvertent gun discharge or misfire, preventable in large part by sequential triggers. Worker training is also an important component of nail gun injury prevention.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2003, Vol.18, No.5, p.374-383. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 04-438 Jetzer T., Haydon P., Reynolds D.
Effective intervention with ergonomics, antivibration gloves, and medical surveillance to minimize hand-arm vibration hazards in the workplace
To determine and monitor the level of hand-arm vibration syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers exposed to upper extremity vibration, 165 workers in eight different facilities with similar vibration exposure were given a vibration exposure questionnaire and subjected to medical examinations. Workers who had no symptoms were placed in a long-term study group and examined every two years. Workers with clinical evidence of symptoms were followed up every six to twelve months. Ergonomic intervention in the form of tools with lower vibration levels and antivibration gloves were associated with a decrease in the pathologic symptoms in these workers, while workers without such intervention were more likely to show progression of symptoms. These findings suggest that ergonomic intervention can be effective in controlling the risks due to vibrating tools.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.45, No.12, p.1312-1317. 10 ref.

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