Environmental pollution - 665 entries found
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Constans Aubert A., Solórzano Fàbrega M.
Protection of the ozone layer: Legal aspects
Protección de la capa de ozono: aspectos legales [in Spanish]
This technical note summarizes European Union legislation relative to the protection of the ozone layer directly applicable to Spain, namely Regulation EC/1005/2009 of 16 September 2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer. Contents: introduction; EC/1005/2009 regulations; health hazards; legal provisions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 17 ref.
NTP_874.pdf [in Spanish]
Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Toxic gases - Red flag for green algae
Gaz toxiques - Drapeau rouge pour les algues vertes [in French]
This article discusses methods for the collection, transport and treatment of green algae that overrun the coast of Brittany during summer. Their prompt removal is necessary because of the dangerous gases such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide that may be emitted during their decomposition. In particular, methods of collection, composting and agricultural spreading are described.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2010, No.710, p.2-11. Illus.
Gaz_toxiques.pdf [in French]
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Canalejas Pérez P., Gadea Carrera E., Solórzano Fabrega M.
Medical waste management
Gestión de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note on medical waste management in medical and veterinarian services aims at ensuring public health and protecting workers handling this kind of waste at the site of production as well as outside. It describes the different types of waste and their disposal according to the hazard they present (with household garbage or as special waste). European and Spanish legislation, as well as the specific legislation of the regional authorities in this field is also listed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/838%20web.pdf [in Spanish]
Louvat D., Matcalf P.
Closing the cycle
This article reviews methods for the geological disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste implemented or being developed in several IAEA member states. Topics addressed: Global Safety Regime; Global Inventory of Radioactive Waste; options for the disposal of radioactive waste; geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; safety standards and international projects.
IAEA Bulletin, Apr. 2010, Vol.51, No.2, p.20-23. Illus.
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull512/51202642023.pdf [in English]
Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
This article develops framework for identifying how climate change could affect occupational safety and health based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature, air pollution, ultraviolet exposure, extreme weather, vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change.pdf [in English]
Martuzzi M., Mitis F., Bianchi F., Minichilli F., Comba P., Fazzo L.
Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste
Waste management in the Campania region has been characterised, since the 1980s, by widespread uncontrolled and illegal practices of waste dumping, generating concerns over the health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible adverse health effects of such environmental pressure. The health effects of waste-related environmental exposures in Campania were assessed in 196 municipalities of the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association between health outcomes and environmental contamination due to waste. Statistically significant excess relative risks (ERR) in high-index compared with low-index (unexposed) municipalities were found for all-cause mortality (9.2% in men and 12.4% in women) and liver cancer (19.3% in men and 29.1% in women). Increased risks were also found for all cancer mortality (both sexes), stomach and lung cancer (in men). Statistically significant ERRs were found for congenital anomalies of the internal urogenital system (82.7%) and of the central nervous system (83.5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.725-732. Illus. 39 ref.
Carradori E., Cutaia L., Mastino G.
Industrial waste management: Environmental and economic impact of waste produced by major accident hazard industries
Impatto ambientale ed economico della gestione dei rifiuti industriali prodotti da aziende a rischio di incidente rilevante [in Italian]
This paper presents a research project on the cost-benefits analysis of industrial waste storage and/or disposal in Italy, with particular emphasis on the industries regulated by Decree No. 334/99 (Implementation of Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major accident hazards involving dangerous substances) and its socioeconomic impact. The objective of the project was to provide indications and assessments for the optimization of reusing/recycling industrial waste to reduce the financial and environmental costs of its management and disposal.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Dec 2009, Vol.5, No.3/4, p.53-72. Illus. 24 ref.
Impatto_ambientale.pdf [in Italian]
Industrial_waste_management.pdf [in English]
Meo S.A., Al-Drees A.M., Rasheed S., Meo I.M., Al-Saadi M.M., Ghani H.A., Alkandari J.R.
Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit"
This case-control study aimed at investigating health complaints among 50 healthy, non-smoking male workers subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from an oil tanker, compared to an age-matched group of unexposed nonsmoking male controls. Participants were evaluated by means of a comprehensive interview. Subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates than controls of cough, rhinitis, eye irritation, sore throat, headache, nausea and general illness. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 18 ref.
Feige-Munzig A., Schneeweiss A., Fuchs B.
Construction work in existing structures - Work in contaminated areas
Bauen im Betsand - Arbeiten in kontaminierten Bereichen [in German]
During construction work in potentially-contaminated existing structures, owners are required to conduct an evaluation of the risk of exposure to dangerous substances and to plan the safety of the construction sites. This article summarizes the main legal requirements applicable to this sector of activity in Germany.
Tiefbau, Feb. 2009, Vol.121, No.2, p.77-81. Illus. 3 ref.
Principles for the evaluation of chemical hazards in food safety
Principes d'évaluation du risque chimique en sécurité alimentaire [in French]
When evaluating toxicological risks in the food industry, consumer safety has to be evaluated solely on the basis of animal studies for daily lifelong consumption. Hazards are often identified after the fact, following cases of mass poisoning. Furthermore, it can prove difficult to establish correlations between the increased incidence of a specific pathology and the exposure of the population to a toxic substance through food ingestion. For substances and food items subject to approval, guidelines established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) which imply the specification of a daily permissible level (DPL), need to be followed. With respect to food contaminants such as mycotoxins, reliable toxicological studies that would allow the definition of a no-effect dose level are not always available. Consumer exposure therefore needs to be evaluated as precisely as possible.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2009, No.162, 7p. 13 ref.
Environmental wake-up call
This article discusses some of the challenges and opportunities generated by environmental protection and sustainability responsibility issues, how they are being addressed by various organizations and how safety and health professionals can ensure that they are suitably informed to respond.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2008, p.68-70. Illus. 5 ref.
Environmental_wake-up_call_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Smith G., Fairburn J.
Updating and improving the National Population Database to National Population Database 2
In 2004, Staffordshire University delivered the National Population Database (NPD) for use in estimating populations at risk under the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH, see CIS 06-515). In 2006 an assessment was presented to HSE concerning the updating and potential improvements to the NPD. In 2008, the implementation of the feasibility report led to the creation of National Population Database 2 which both updated and expanded the datasets contained in the original NPD. This report describes the work undertaken for updating the population database.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR_678.pdf [in English]
McGillivray A., Hare J.
Offshore hydrocarbon releases 2001-2008
The United Kingdom offshore industry employs about 28,000 personnel involved in a wide range of activities. Increases in oil prices, declining reserves and an ageing infrastructure have resulted in increased drilling activity around marginal fields. Despite HSE's Major Hazards Strategic Programme Plan aimed at reducing the number of major and significant releases, recent years have witnessed an increase in their number. The objective of this study was to identify the immediate cause of hydrocarbon leaks, and determine if there are discernible reasons for the increasing trends. Two databases currently used by HSE when dealing with offshore releases were utilized, namely the Hydrocarbon Release (HCR) and RIDDOR (see CIS 95-1930) databases. Cross-referencing between the two catalogs yielded detailed information including platform location, release size and type, as well as possible failure causes including structural limitations, system and equipment faults as well as failings in procedural and operational methods.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 68p. Illus. 6 ref.
RR_672.pdf [in English]
Stathopoulos T., Bodhisatta H., Bahloul A.
Analytical evaluation of dispersion of exhaust from rooftop stacks on buildings
The occasional introduction of polluting emissions into buildings by fresh air intakes is one of the main causes of the poor air quality in some workplaces, which can have harmful effects on people's health, particularly those who work in laboratories or hospital establishments. Computer models are commonly used to determine whether existing or expected industrial installations comply or will comply with the American National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) or the standards of other countries. These models also promote the development of effective control strategies for reducing emissions of harmful atmospheric pollutants. This report evaluated the use of the various atmospheric dispersion models approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to model the dispersion of stack effluents in order to determine their concentration at various locations on the roofs where they originate. The results were compared to those obtained in a wind tunnel and in the field. An assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the dispersion models is provided, according to each configuration, and the one best adapted to each situation is proposed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. ix, 71p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-576.pdf [in English]
Codron R., Alcouffe J., Rosenberg N., Andrieu F., Cretté A., Hess C., Le Boedec C., Montéléon P.Y.
Exploratory survey on "atmospheric pollutants" in a water treatment and supply enterprise
Enquête exploratoire "polluants atmosphériques" dans une entreprise de traitement et de distribution de l'eau [in French]
The aim of this study was to compare clinical respiratory criteria among workers of a water treatment plant potentially exposed to hydrogen sulfide, gaseous chlorine, ozone or sulfur dioxide from bisulfites with those of workers considered to be occupationally unexposed. Data were collected by means of anonymous questionnaires and respiratory function tests. Among the 199 subjects, 29 reported having been accidentally exposed to hydrogen sulfide, 41 to gaseous chlorine, 15 to ozone and three to bisulfites; 34 declared one or two accidental exposures and 34 to more than two. No associations were found between potential exposures to the four atmospheric pollutants studied and clinical criteria and respiratory function, except for the sensation of burning nose. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.3, p.249-258. 10 ref.
Use of dispersants in cases of hydrocarbon spills
Uso de dispersantes en derrames de hidrocarburos [in Spanish]
Dispersants have long been used in cases of hydrocarbon spills. Their formulations are designed to ensure a rapid and safe mitigation of important environmental damage. This article presents the key elements of a guide aimed at persons responsible for decision-making in cases of hydrocarbon spills, so as to enable them to make prompt and informed decisions. Main topics addressed: mode of action of dispersants; questions that one must ask oneself when deciding to use or not to use dispersants; equipment for the spraying of dispersants; aircraft used for spraying; relevant Colombian legislation.
Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2008, Vol.54, No.321, p.63-73. Illus. 13 ref.
Urueña Romero D.G.
Sources and emissions of dioxins and furans
Fuentes y liberaciones de dioxinas y furanos [in Spanish]
The Stockholm Convention is an international agreement negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), whose purpose is to provide the legal grounds for the urgent elimination of persistent organic compounds, including dioxins and furans. The Convention was adopted into Colombian legislation in June 2008. This insert summarizes the current situation in Colombia with respect to the sources and emissions of dioxins and furans. Contents: technical information on dioxins and furans; conditions that give rise to the formation of PCDD and PCDF; emissions of PCDD and PCDF; situation with respect to dioxins and furans in Colombia; main categories and sub-categories of sources and emissions of PCDD and PCDF in Colombia; compliance with the obligations under the Convention.
Protección Integral y Contra Incendios, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.20, No.80, 4p. Insert. 2 ref.
González Domínguez M.E., Rueda Ygueravide M.D., Gutiérrez Fernández D., Gómez Gutiérrez J.M., León Jiménez A., Pérez Álvarez J.
Exposure to airborne pollutants and respiratory pathology
Exposición a contaminantes ambientales y patología respiratoria [in Spanish]
This investigation was carried out following an outbreak of five cases of respiratory symptoms among workers of an aerospace industry in Spain exposed to various chemicals. Measurements included airborne aluminium dust, trichloroethylene and ethylene glycol. Workers were subjected to skin tests, blood tests, chest radiography, spirometry, metacholine challenge tests and electrocardiography. The peak-flow measurement and the direct bronchial hyperactivity test using metacholine were negative. The allergic tests performed were also generally negative. These findings practically exclude work-related asthma. These cases may have been caused by a reactive airways dysfunction syndrome having occurred at a specific moment before the investigation was carried out. Further implications of these findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.41-46. 12 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original3.pdf [in Spanish]
Carder M., McNamee R., Beverland I., Elton R., Van Tongeren M., Cohen G.R., Boyd J., MacNee W., Agius R.M.
Interacting effects of particulate pollution and cold temperature on cardiorespiratory mortality in Scotland
In this study Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between lagged black smoke concentration and daily mortality, and whether the effect of black smoke on cardiorespiratory mortality was modified by cold temperature for three Scottish cities from January 1981 to December 2001. For all-cause respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, there was a significant association between mortality and lagged black smoke concentration. Generally the maximum black smoke effect occurred at lag 0, although these estimates were not statistically significant. A 10µg/m3 increase in the daily mean black smoke concentration on any given day was associated with a 1.68% increase in all-cause mortality and a 0.43%, 5.36% and 2.13% increase in cardiovascular, respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, respectively, over the ensuing 30-day period. The results of this study suggest a greater effect of black smoke on mortality at low temperatures. Since extremes of cold and particulate pollution may coexist, for example during temperature inversion, these results may have important public health implications.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 34 ref.
Historical review of major environmental accidents involving chemicals
Histoire des catastrophes environnementales d'origine chimique [in French]
A first part of this article presents a concise overview of the 100 or so major chemical accidents having occurred since the beginning of the 20th century. Some 45 major accidents are next reviewed in more detail, with data on the extent, causes and victims. The toxicology of the products involved, together with the epidemiological and ecotoxicological implications are provided for each accident.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2008, No.161, 21p. 119 ref.
Braconnier R., Chaineaux C., Triolet J., Fontaine J.R., Sallé B.
Measurement of volatile liquid evaporation rates in work environments
Mesures du flux d'évaporation de liquides volatils dans des ambiances de travail [in French]
This article presents results of an experimental study on volatile liquid evaporation from an open surface in contact with air. Measurements were taken under conditions similar to situations which can arise in workplaces. Mass flow rates were found to vary widely, depending on the type of volatile liquid, the surface air velocity and the temperature. Study results are compared with those provided by forecasting formulae available in the literature.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.61-71. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202296/$File/nd2296.pdf [in French]
Galland B., Carvalho V., Martin P.
Assessment of photoionization detectors integrated into portable multi-gas detectors
Evaluation des détecteurs à photo-ionisation embarqués dans les détecteurs de gaz portables multigaz [in French]
This article describes laboratory tests on photoionization detectors (PIDs) integrated into portable multi-gas detectors, the purpose being to demonstrate the usefulness of these instruments in occupational hygiene. The performance characteristics of these PIDs (sensitivity, linearity, response time, etc.) were determined using a polluted atmosphere generating system. The laboratory test results reveal that these detectors are particularly advantageous for preventing occupational risks, particularly for monitoring pollutant concentration levels and for developing a sampling strategy. However, they cannot perform all the functions normally fulfilled by more sophisticated PIDs, such as exposure profile plotting or installation gas leak detection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.19-28. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202293/$File/nd2293.pdf [in French]
Thaller E I., Petronella S.A., Hochman D., Howard S., Chhikara R.S., Brooks E.G.
Moderate increases in ambient PM2.5 and ozone are associated with lung function decreases in beach lifeguards
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to pollutants would adversely affect the lung function of healthy athletes. Pulmonary function was recorded on beach lifeguards at three different times during the day. Daily and average peak pollutant levels were also measured. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Afternoon forced vital capacity (FVC) and one-second forced expired volume (FEV1) decreased significantly compared with morning values and decreased with increasing fine particulates (PM2.5). The FEV1/FVC ratio decreased with increasing ozone (O3) levels. The deleterious effect of PM2.5 and O3 were transient and occurred at pollutant levels far below national standards. At low levels of exposure, PM2.5 was associated with reduced lung volumes, while increasing O3 levels were associated with airway obstruction.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.202-211. Illus. 40 ref.
Brook R.D., Jerrett M., Brook J.R., Bard R.L., Finkelstein M.M.
The relationship between diabetes mellitus and traffic-related air pollution
Air pollution is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Several of the biological pathways involved could also promote diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated the association between DM prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO2). Study participants were patients who attended two respiratory clinics in Canada. Those among them with DM were identified by linkage to the database of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Geographic information systems methodology was used to assign individual estimates of NO2 based on a network of samplers in each city. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relations between NO2 exposures and the odds of DM. After adjusting for age, body mass index and neighborhood income, there were weak positive effects in women (odds ratio 1.04) but not among men.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.32-38. Illus. 45 ref.
Hoffmann W., Terschüeren C., Heimpel H., Feller A., Butte W., Hostrup O., Richardson D., Greiser E.
Population-based research on occupational and environmental factors for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study (NLL)
The Northern Germany Leukaemia and Lymphoma Study is a population-based study designed to provide a quantitative basis for investigations into occupational and environmental risk factors for leukaemia and lymphoma. Subjects include all incident cases of leukaemia and lymphoma diagnosed between 1986 and 1998 in six counties in Northern Germany, together with controls selected from population registries. Self-reported exposure information was used in conjunction with direct environmental measurements. In addition, geographical information system (GIS) data were used to derive estimates of environmental exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields associated with transmission lines, and ionizing radiation from nuclear power stations. Findings can be used to calculate risk factors in subsequent studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.246-257. 40 ref.
Chuang K.J., Chan C.C., Su T.C., Lin L.Y., Lee C.T.
Associations between particulate sulfate and organic carbon exposures and heart rate variability in patients with or at risk of cardiovascular diseases
To determine whether specific components in fine particles are associated with heart rate variability (HRV), 46 patients with or at risk of cardiovascular diseases were recruited to measure 24-hour HRV by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Fixed-site air-monitoring stations were used to represent participants' exposures to particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10µm (PM10) and 2.5µm (PM2.5), and particulate components of sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon and elemental carbon, and gaseous pollutants. It was found that HRV reduction was associated with sulfate, organic carbon and PM2.5, but not with the other pollutants in single-pollutant models. Sulfate was found to remain in significant association with HRV reduction adjusting for organic carbon and PM2.5 in three-pollutant models.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.49, No.6, p.610-617. Illus. 42 ref.
Cyprowski M., Piotrowska M., Żakowska Z., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Microbial and endotoxin contamination of water-soluble metalworking fluids
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbial contamination of metalworking fluids as a potential source of harmful biological agents in three metalworking plants in Poland. Ten samples of fluids, including four fresh fluids, were analyzed. The analysis showed total bacterial counts ranging from 1.0x101 to 3.2x107 CFU/mL, 60% to 100% of which were Gram-negative bacteria capable of producing endotoxins. The predominant species of bacteria was Shewanella putrefaciens present in 60% of the samples. As for moulds, the predominant species was Acremonium butyric. The average concentration of bacterial endotoxins was 773 EU/mL in used fluids and 285 EU/mL in fresh fluids. A correlation was found between endotoxin concentration and the number of Gram-negative bacteria detected in the fluids. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.365-371. Illus. 23 ref.
Delgado Saborit J.M.
Measurement of environmental hazards
La medida del riesgo ambiental [in Spanish]
This article describes a new method for evaluating the effects of enterprise activities on the natural environment. It includes an evaluation of the risks of environmental hazards using environmental factors (toxicity, volatility, bio-concentration, adsorption, biodegradability, synergies). This analysis, together with the use of various scenarios, enables the determination of the two main constituents of environmental hazards, namely environmental consequences and the probability of occurrence of accidents.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.107, p.50-63. Illus. 9 ref.
Ettel S., Winkler M., Zellner R.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Emissions of selected hydrocarbons from uses of liquid fuels for combustion engines and heating in Germany
Emmissionen ausgewählter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Anwendungen flüssiger Kraft- und Brennstoffe im Verkehrswesen, im Off-Road-Bereich und in der Wärmeerzeugung in Deutschland [in German]
This criteria document investigates the emissions of selected hydrocarbons through spillage and evaporation losses, and in exhaust gases as the result of incomplete combustion from liquid fuels in road, railroad, inland waterways and aircraft traffic, in other types of off-road engines and in heating. The analysis covered the period between 1990 and 2010 in Germany. The selected compounds are: buta-1,3-diene, pentane, cyclohexane, 2,4,4-trimethypent-1-ene, 2,4,4-trimethypent-2-ene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, styrene, cumene, mesitylene, tert-butyl benzene, tetrahydronaphthalene, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, 1-methyl naphthalene and 2,6-dimethyl naphthalene.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xix, 196p. (German); 139+38p. (English). 78 ref. Price: EUR 60.00.
Concawe Review 16:2
Topics addressed in this review of CONCAWE activities: future demand and composition of fuels for road transport, including biofuels; software tool to assist enterprises comply with the information dissemination requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation (E-PRTR); challenges in accurate measurements of particulate matter (PM10) in diesel emissions; assessing the environmental sensitivity of petrol stations across Europe with respect to leaks and groundwater protection.
CONCAWE Review, 2007, Vol.16, No.2. p.1-21 (whole issue). Illus.
Phoon W.O., Parekh R.
Occupational and environmental health - A practical manual
This book comprehensively covers the health impact of man's interaction with his environment and occupation. Through eight chapters, it provides an understanding of the most important environmental and health issues. Many examples are drawn from developing countries in areas such as construction, agriculture and issues related to women workers. Other topics addressed include genetic factors in occupational health, addictions, behavioral aspects, occupational stress, shift work and sickness absenteeism.
Bhalani Publishing House, 11 Mavawala Building, Opp. K.E.M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India, 2007. viii, 376p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Pérez Suárez R.
Advantages of an integrated environmental management and response system based on centres for emergency intervention
Beneficios de una gestión integral ambiental y de repuesta mediante centros de atención de emergencias [in Spanish]
An early response in the event of an oil spill can help mitigate the environmental damage caused by such accidents. This article explains the functions of centres for emergency intervention integrating a proactive approach and how they should be organized for maximum effectiveness. Such centres should consist of integrated systems that include a logistical chain of support with clear responsibilities and defined areas of specialization, working as a pluridisciplinary team. They should be staffed by persons having backgrounds in particular in nautical sciences, safety engineering, biology, geology and oceanography.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.60-61. Illus.
Controlling the safety management of oil spills
Control de gestión de la seguridad en los derrames [in Spanish]
This article is based on the IPIECA report entitled "Guidelines for oil spill waste minimization and management". It explains the waste generation implications of different oil spill clean-up techniques and describes best practice options for oiled waste management, which in many countries is strictly regulated. Contents: site safety and health plan; safety communications and information meeting; hazard evaluation; chemical safety with respect to the spilled product and the agent used for the clean-up; flammability; explosive vapours; toxicity; hydrogen sulphide; oxygen deficiency; slippery environment; equipment used for air monitoring and record keeping; use of personal protective equipment to avoid contact of hydrocarbons with the skin; chemicals and cleaning agents used for the clean-up.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.52-59. Illus.
Anastasiadou K., Gidarakos E.
Toxicity evaluation for the broad area of the asbestos mine of northern Greece
In this study, the environmental quality of an open-air asbestos mine in northern Greece was evaluated over a twelve-year period (1993-2005) by measuring and monitoring the concentration of asbestos fibres in air, soil and water. Measurements were also made in nearby villages. The mine ceased operations in the year 2000. Concentrations of chrysotile asbestos were lower than in older measurements taken at the same sampling points during the operation of the mine, but were still found to be high. The results of this work have provided a reliable framework for estimating the risk of the mine to its surrounding environment and helped to determine a plan for the remediation of the site. In addition, mathematical models based on human and animal studies were used to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from breathing air containing asbestos fibres in the wider vicinity of the mine in order to define appropriate procedures for evaluating asbestos-related risk.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 2007, Vol.139, No.1, p.9-18. Illus. 20 ref.
Baverstock S., Gennart J.P., King D., Money C., Phillips R., Taalman R., Urbanus J.
Report of a workshop on environment and health: Air quality research needs in the EU 7th Framework Programme of Research, 15-16 January 2007
Report on a conference on air quality research needs held in Brussels, Belgium, on 15-16 January 2007, organized with the collaboration of the European Commission's Directorate General Research. The aims were to foster a multidisciplinary approach to identifying research needs, serve as a forum for international exchange and provide the opportunity for participants to reveal gaps in order to identify areas for future studies. Topics addressed included studies of the mortality and morbidity in the European population, the impact of traffic emissions on public health, elucidating the mechanisms of toxic action, development of toxicity screening tests and impact of particulate matter metrics on human health. The complete proceedings and conference materials are included in the accompanying CD-ROM in PDF format.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Brussels, Belgium, May 2007. iv, 28p. + CD-ROM
http://www.concawe.org/DocShareNoFrame/Common/GetFile.asp?PortalSource=156&DocID=11743&mfd=off&pdoc=1/ [in English]
Ferguson E., Cassaday H.J., Ward J., Weyman A.
Health and Safety Executive
Triggers for non-specific symptoms in the workplace: Individual differences, stress and environmental (odour and sound) factors
Non-specific symptoms are not related to any given disease and include fatigue, weakness, sleep difficulties, headache and muscle aches. They have a high reported incidence and result in high rates of sickness absenteeism. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the work environment, characteristics of individual workers, external factors and physiological factors that contribute to reporting non-specific symptoms. It was carried out in the form of a survey of a cross-sectional sample of 711 volunteer participants, who answered questionnaires on their symptoms and work environment. A sub-group of volunteers furthermore submitted daily diary entries and saliva samples, which were analysed for cortisol and immunoglobulin-A secretion. Key findings are that non-specific symptoms are related to odour perceptions, the time of day, individual differences, particularly with respect to anxiety, perceived stress and job demand/control imbalance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 110p. Illus. Approx 120 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr501.pdf [in English]
Soil remediation: Careful, danger!
Dépollution des sols, attention danger! [in French]
This collection of articles covers soil remediation, an area which is experiencing rapid growth because of the scarcity of land and the increased interest in the redevelopment of derelict industrial areas. Contents: current situation; comments by the vice president of the French trade association of site remediation enterprises and the director of a remediation enterprise; hazards related to the various types of treatment and their prevention; rules to be followed on a typical site; prevention measures adopted by an enterprise involved in the remediation of an illegal waste site containing solvents.
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2006, No.91, p.39-47. Illus. 3 ref.
Accidental pollution in the paper industry
Les pollutions accidentelles dans l'industrie papetière [in French]
On average, one in three accidents in the paper and board industry results in the environmental release of toxic or polluting liquids which reach surface waters or the water table. As an example, decontamination work was necessary following the emission of dioxins and furans caused by a transformer fire in a paper plant. Among the 287 accidents occurring in this sector and listed in the ARIA database, 83 resulted in the environmental release of dangerous substances in water, 29 in air and 9 in soil. This article summarizes the main types of accident and their consequences, provides examples of accident descriptions from the database and underscores the importance of containment systems.
Face au risque, Dec. 2006, No.428, p.21-24. Illus.
Ghasemkhani M., Kumashiro M., Rezaei M., Anvari A.R., Mazloumi A., Sadeghipour H.R.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in industries of South Tehran, Iran
The aim this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms resulting from occupational lung hazards among workers in industries of South Tehran, Iran. Data on demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, occupational history and respiratory symptoms were collected from workers through multistage sampling. Among the 880 workers studied, 252 were smokers. Also, it was observed that workers were exposed to pollutants such as dust, gas and fume pollutants. The prevalent respiratory symptoms were cough (20.7%), phlegm (41.6%), dyspnoea (41.7%), chest tightness (27.4%) and nose irritation (23.5%). It is concluded that occupational exposures among workers in industries of South Tehran may cause respiratory symptoms and disorders. Various engineering controls and industrial hygiene measures are recommended.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.218-224. 27 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_218.pdf [in English]
Tovalin H., Valverde M., Morandi M.T., Blanco S., Whitehead L., Rojas E.
DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants
Health concerns about exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in cities of developing countries where air pollution levels are high. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter with mass mean diameter ≥2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone, and the severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. DNA damage (comet assay) and personal exposure were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from Mexico City and Puebla. Outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers. DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Workers with ≥60% of highly damaged cells had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone and certain volatile organic compounds, namely 1-ethyl-2-methyl benzene.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.63, No.4, p.230-236. Illus. 40 ref.
Carpenter D.O., et al.
Children's environmental health in Central Asia and the Middle East
Children in Central Asia and the Middle East bear disproportionate environmental threats to health, of which the most widespread and serious result from poverty, malnutrition, lack of access to safe drinking water and food, and exposures to toxic chemicals. Their psychological health is threatened in several parts of this region by internal wars and strife. Many, or even most, children are regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In many of these countries, children constitute very high percentages of the population. Because children constitute the future, it is critical that these threats to their health be addressed and reduced to the greatest extent possible through both provision of safe and adequate drinking water and nutrition and reduction of exposures to environmental contaminants.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.362-368. Illus. 60 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Carpenter.pdf [in English]
Hurtado J., Gonzales G.F., Steenland K.
Mercury exposures in informal gold miners and relatives in southern Peru
Subjects working in or living near informal gold mining and processing in southern Peru were studied to determine mercury exposures from two tasks: amalgamation and amalgam smelting. The authors collected 17 airborne and 41 urinary mercury levels. The mean urinary levels were 728 (range: 321-1,662) and 113 (45-197)µg/L for working in smelters and living near smelters, respectively. A third group working in amalgamation had a mean 18µg/L (range 8-37). People living in the mining town but with no mining activities had 8µg/L (5-10), while a control group outside the town had 4µg/L (2-6). Mean airborne mercury exposure was 2,423µg/m3 (range 530-4,430) during smelting, 30.5µg/m3 (12-55) during amalgamation, and 12µg/m3 (3-23) in the mining town. Smelters are highly contaminated with mercury, as are the people living around smelters.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.340-345. Illus. 25 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Hurtado.pdf [in English]
Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Létourneau C., Godbout S., Lemay S., Belzile M., Lachance I., Pouliot F.
Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid manure separation system
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air dans les porcheries équipées d'un système de séparation liquide-solide des déjections [in French]
This project involved the evaluation of a system consisting of the separation of solid and liquid manure in a pig facility and its effects on odour, toxic gas emissions and bioaerosol formation. Air samples were collected twice a week during 16 weeks, and concentrations were measured for the following pollutants: bacteria, moulds, endotoxins, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide and nitrous oxide. Other data collected included ventilation throughputs and a subjective evaluation of smell. Findings are discussed. The separation had little effect except for ammonia emissions, that were reduced by half.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 35p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: CAD 5.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-460.pdf [in French]
Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience
The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material, with adverse consequences for the public and the environment. Although the accident occurred two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with other agencies and authorities, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was to generate authoritative consensual statements on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2006. 166p. Illus. Bibl ref. Price: EUR 38.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1239_web.pdf [in English]
Constans Aubert A., Bultó Nubiola M.
Protection of the ozone layer: Legal aspects
Protección de la capa de ozono: aspectos legales [in Spanish]
This information note summarizes European and Spanish legislation concerning the production, use and disposal of substances that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, including chlorofluorocarbons, halons and bromofluorohydrocarbons.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p.
http://www.mtas.es//insht/ntp/ntp_706.htm [in Spanish]
Andruchow J.E., Soskolne C.L., Racioppi F., Senthilselvan A., Makhmudov E., Asadov A.
Cancer incidence and mortality in the industrial city of Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
This study, the first environmental cancer study in Azerbaijan, addressed concerns that residents of the industrial city of Sumgayit have an increased cancer burden as a consequence of intense occupational and environmental pollution from industry. Vital statistics data were used to calculate annual crude cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers and regions in Azerbaijan for the years 1980-2000. Poisson regression analysis of age- and sex-specific data from 1995-2000 demonstrates an increased risk for selected cancers in Sumgayit relative to the rest of the country, as measured by adjusted rate ratios [aRR (95% CI)]: larynx 1.39 (1.04, 1.85), lung 1.67 (1.44, 1.92), bladder 2.49 (1.93, 3.22), and all sites 1.51 (1.43, 1.58). Sumgayit appears to suffer from an increased cancer burden; poor data quality and suspected underreporting, however, prevent accurate estimates of incidence or mortality rates. Construction of a modern cancer registry would be prerequisite to more detailed examinations of cancer rates in the country. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.234-241. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Andruchow.pdf [in English]
Spiegel S.J., Savornin O., Shoko D., Veiga M.M.
Mercury reduction in Munhena, Mozambique: Homemade solutions and the social context for change
The health and environmental impacts of artisanal gold mining are of growing concern in Munhena, Mozambique, where more than 12,000 people are involved in such activities. Gold is extracted using mercury amalgamation, posing a considerable threat to human and environmental health. A pilot project ascertained the feasibility of reducing mercury use and emissions by promoting control measures utilizing local resources. Retorts were fabricated with local materials. Training workshops introduced the homemade retorts, and a portable mercury monitor revealed effective mercury reduction. Barriers to widespread technology adoption include poverty, lack of knowledge and trust, and the free supply of mercury from private gold buyers. Homemade retorts are inexpensive and effective, and miners could benefit by building community amalgamation centers. The government could play a greater role in gold purchasing to reduce mercury pollution. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.215-221. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Spiegel.pdf [in English]
Barbosa de Alencar J.R.
Occupational hazards during the production of pharmaceuticals: Analysis of an industry located in northeastern Brazil
Riscos ocupacionais na fabricação de medicamentos: análise de uma indústria localizada no Nordeste brasileiro [in Portuguese]
Pharmaceutical production is a complex industrial process that demands high levels of investment in development, production equipment, quality control and staff training. Paradoxically, in spite of being a sector that deals uses modern technology and the requirements of good manufacturing practices (GMP), the pharmaceuticals industry is a source of several risks to workers' health and the environment. This article presents the findings of a study on occupational hazards carried out internally by the safety and health committee of a pharmaceutical company located in northeastern Brazil.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.112, p.49-67. Illus. 31 ref.
Winder C., van Netten C.
Aviation air quality
Special issue on air quality in aviation. Contents: review of papers presented at a conference on protection against contaminated air held in London in 2005; political aspects of aircraft safety and health in the United Kingdom; organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity; assessment of symptoms of aircrew exposed to fumes; lung injury following hydrocarbon inhalation among the aircrew; clinical evaluation of flight attendants after exposure to fumes in cabin air; aircraft air quality incidents; occupational health research in aviation; proposals for improvement.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2005, Vol.21, No.5, p.379-383, 397-477. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Courtois B., Le Brech A., Diebold F., Lafon D.
Diesel engines and pollution in confined spaces
Moteurs diesel et pollution en espace confiné [in French]
Exhaust fume pollution from internal combustion engines powering heavy-duty mining, materials handling and earthmoving equipment may be important, depending on the site, traffic density and operating frequency. This paper reviews current knowledge in this field and proposes suitable means for limiting the toxic effects of various pollutants. In particular, it focuses on diesel engine-powered off-road vehicles, but also provides information on spark ignition engines on certain road vehicles. Other sections cover the prevention of exposure to both heavy lorry and light vehicle exhaust fumes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.45-62. Illus. 59 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/E9E95C260B221546412570D8004C498A/$FILE/nd2239.pdf [in French]
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