Electromagnetic fields - 350 entries found
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Démaret P., Donati P.
Integrating electromagnetic radiation hazard into the unique occupational risk management document
Intégrer le risque "rayonnements électromagnétiques" dans le document unique d'évaluation des risques professionnels [in French]
The number of industrial applications involving electromagnetic radiation has significantly increased in recent years. These applications are likely to expose operators to electromagnetic fields exceeding the limits laid down by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/EC. A survey was carried out to identify the types of equipment emitting the most radiation, which were then classified into eight types: resistance welding, magnetization, induction heating, magnetoscopy, dielectric loss welding, electrolysis, magnetic resonance imagery and microwaves. The number of installations by type was estimated by a market survey, which specifically identified several tens of thousands of resistance welding or magnetization machines. This survey enabled the deduction that at least 100,000 operators in France are at risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields. An assessment of exposure levels for operators at their workstations was undertaken for each equipment type. Electromagnetic fields were measured at 635 workstations fitted with radiation emitting machinery. For each measurement, a severity index corresponding to the ratio of the measured value to the action-triggering value (ATV) recommended by Council Directive 2004/40/EC was calculated. The results show that, for seven equipment types out of the eight which were evaluated, 25-50% of measurements resulted in electromagnetic field values exceeding the corresponding ATV. These findings demonstrate the need for prevention. In most cases, exposure reduction is achieved by moving the workstation away from the radiation source. Technical solutions do exist for certain types of equipment, such as shielding for microwave ovens and high-frequency presses.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2011, No.225, p.45-53. Illus. 4 ref.
Intégrer_le_risque_rayonnements_électromagnétiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Baltrėnas P., Buckus R.
Research and assessment of safety distance of TV electromagnetic fields
The evaluation covers the strengths of electric field and magnetic flux density measured in frequency ranges of 5 Hz-2 kHz and 2-400 kHz of selected TV sets. The dependence of the electromagnetic field on the distance is addressed with reference to ergonomics and safety. Ten TV sets (5 tube and 5 LCD) were measured. There were 16 measurements for each TV set. The aim was to evaluate electric field and magnetic flux density versus the distance from the tested device with regard to exposure levels. In addition, the distance and the strengths of electric field and magnetic flux density emitted by tube and LCD TVs were compared. The results are presented in charts.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Yamaguchi-Sekino S., Ojima J., Sekino M., Hojo M., Saito H., Okuno T.
Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time
The assessment of the electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding which uses relatively strong electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. This study measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders during their work. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to the subjects' wrists in order to place the sensor probe as close as possible to the magnetic source. Data was acquired every 5s. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT. Finite element analyses of human hand tissue were conducted for electromagnetic field dosimetry. Magnetic fields associated with grinders, air hammers and electromagnetic drills were also measured, but were found to be much lower than those generated during the welding process.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.274-279. Illus. 20 ref.
Measuring.pdf [in English]
Electromagnetic fields - When work aptitude is an issue
Champs électromagnétiques - Quand l'aptitude est en question [in French]
The return to work of an employee with a heart implant raises questions regarding the possible interference between the implant and the electromagnetic fields that are present in the work environment. This article discusses concerted solutions involving the employer, the occupational physician and the concerned worker, aimed at avoiding medical inaptitude and reconciling health and employment.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.12-14. Illus.
Champs_électromagnétiques.pdf [in French]
McNamee D.A., Corbacio M., Weller J.K., Brown S., Prato F.S., Thomas A.W., Legros A.G.
The cardiovascular response to an acute 1800-μT, 60-Hz magnetic field exposure in humans
Previously published literature has suggested an effect of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) on human heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). This study investigated the effects of 1-h exposure to an 1800-μT, 60-Hz MF on human microcirculation, HR, low-frequency HRV, and high-frequency HRV. Fifty-eight volunteers were recruited to partake in a double-blinded, counterbalanced study consisting of two testing sessions (real and sham) administered on separate days. Each session included four consecutive blocks of measurements, separated by 15-min rest periods, allowing measurement of cumulative and residual MF effects. Within subjects, ANOVA were conducted on each of the measured parameters. The MF used in this experiment did not affect cardiovascular parameters. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.441-454. Illus. 55 ref.
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]
Studies and research 2009/2010
Etudes et recherche 2009/2010 [in French]
This bilingual French/English booklet presents the research efforts undertaken by the French national institute for research and safety (Institut national de recherche et sécurité, INRS) for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases during 2009 and 2010.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 104p. Illus.
Studies_and_research_2009/2010.pdf [in English]
Etudes_et_recherche_2009/2010.pdf [in French]
Vrijheid M., Mann S., Vecchia P., Wiart J., Taki M., Ardoino L., Armstrong B.K., Auvinen A., Bédard D., Berg-Beckhoff G., Brown J., Chetrit A., Collatz-Christensen H., Combalot E., Cook A., Deltour I., Feychting M., Giles G.G., Hepworth S.J., Hours M., Iavarone I., Johansen C., Krewski D., Kurttio P., Lagorio S., Lönn S., McBride M., Montestrucq L., Parslow R.C., Sadetzki S., Schüz J., Tynes T., Woodward A., Cardis E.
Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study: Implications for exposure assessment
The output power of a mobile phone is directly related to its radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field strength, and may theoretically vary substantially in different networks and phone use circumstances due to power control technologies. To improve indices of RF exposure for future epidemiological studies, this study assessed determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study. More than 500 volunteers in 12 countries used GSM software-modified phones (GSM SMPs) for approximately one month each. The SMPs recorded date, time, and duration of each call, and the frequency band and output power at fixed sampling intervals throughout each call. Questionnaires provided information on the typical circumstances of an individual's phone use. Linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of possible explanatory variables on the average output power and the percentage call time at maximum power for each call. Measurements of over 60,000 phone calls showed that the average output power was approximately 50% of the maximum, and that output power varied by a factor of up to 2 to 3 between study centres and network operators. Maximum power was used during a considerable proportion of call time (39% on average). Output power decreased with increasing call duration, but showed little variation in relation to reported frequency of use while in a moving vehicle or inside buildings. Higher output powers for rural compared with urban use of the SMP were observed principally in Sweden where the study covered very sparsely populated areas.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.664-671. 41 ref.
Berlana Llorente T., Diego Segura B., Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Study of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments
Estudio de la exposición laboral a campos electromagnéticos en servicios de fisioterapia [in Spanish]
This article presents a study of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in two physiotherapy departments. Firstly, the workplaces were examined according to three criteria: characteristics of emission sources, places of work and type of work. This initial analysis permitted to then define the type of dosimetry measures to implement and the most appropriate equipment for these measures. Findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.12-19. Illus. 4 ref.
Mee T., Whatmough P., Broad L., Dunn C., Maslanyj M., Allen S., Muir K., McKinney P.A., van Tongeren M.
Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields
The objective of this study was to assess levels of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the United Kingdom and to test the use of a job-exposure matrix to assign exposures. Personal ELF MF dosimetry measurements were carried out continuously during three days in 317 subjects, who recorded their times spent in occupational, travel and various activities. Overall exposure was significantly higher at work than at home. Elevated average occupational exposure was found for welding trades, printers, telephone operators and filing and other records assistants. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.619-627. 35 ref.
Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable cardiac stimulators and defibrillators with ambient electronic security systems
Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Herzschrittmachern und implantierten Defibrillatoren im Umfeld von elektronischen Sicherheitssystemen [in German]
Compatibilité électromagnétique de stimulateurs cardiaques et de défibrillateurs implantables dans l'environnement de systèmes électroniques de sécurité [in French]
Electromagnetic fields can cause interferences with active implanted medical devices. This article addresses the issue of compatibility of implantable heart stimulators and defibrillators in the presence of ambient electronic security systems. It presents the various existing security systems, explains their health hazards, including based on findings of studies, and proposes a number of recommendations for avoiding interferences.
Suva Medical, 2009, No.80, p.40-49. 12 ref.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_80_09_d.pdf [in German]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_80_09_f.pdf [in French]
McNamee D.A., Legros A.G., Krewski D.R., Wisenberg G., Prato F.S., Thomas A.W.
A literature review: The cardiovascular effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields
The effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human cardiovascular parameters remain undetermined. Epidemiological studies have utilized dosimetry estimations of employee workplace exposure using altered heart rate variability (HRV) as predictive of certain cardiovascular pathologies. Laboratory studies have focused on macrocirculatory indicators including heart rate, HRV and blood pressure. Findings have been largely inconclusive. Future studies should investigate the macro- and microcirculatory relationship and the use of laboratory geomagnetic shielding.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.919-933. 79 ref.
Sharifian A., Gharavi M., Pasalar P., Aminian O.
Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on antioxidant activity in plasma and red blood cells in spot welders
The purpose of this study was to determine a possible relation between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and human antioxidant activity. The total serum antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in red blood cells were measured in 46 spot welders who were occupationally exposed to ELF-MFs. The results were compared with those of a non-exposed control group. The correlation between magnetic field strength and antioxidant activity in red blood cells and plasma was then assessed. No significant differences in TAS levels were observed. However, in red blood cells of the exposed group, there were significant decreases in SOD and GPX activities. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between SOD/GPX activities and magnetic field intensity was observed. The results indicate that ELF-MF could influence the red blood cell antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 20 ref.
Hansson Mild K., Alanko T., Decat G., Falsaperla R., Gryz K., Hietanen M., Karpowicz J., Rossi P., Sandström M.
Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques
European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions for assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.3-33. Illus. 56 ref.
Kheifets L., Bowman J.D., Checkoway H., Feychting M., Harrington J.M., Kavet R., Marsh G., Mezei G., Renew D.C., van Wijngaarden E.
Future needs of occupational epidemiology of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: Review and recommendations
Occupational epidemiological literature on the health effects of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) encompasses a large number of studies that have addressed various health outcomes, including cancers, cardiovascular disease, depression, suicide and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Extensive epidemiological research conducted during the past 20 years on occupational EMF exposure does not indicate strong or consistent associations with cancer or any other health outcomes. Inconsistent results may be attributable to numerous shortcomings in the studies, most notably in exposure assessment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.72-80. Illus. 104 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment uncertainties relating to electromagnetic fields (EMF) measurement and computation
Guidelines for limiting occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been produced by international organizations, and have been recommended for use in the United Kingdom by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). There is also an EU Directive (the EMF Directive) which sets restrictions on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and which is expected to be implemented in United Kingdom legislation by April 2012. Technical standardization bodies have produced assessment methods that can be used with these guidelines and with the EMF Directive. Neither the exposure restrictions nor the technical assessment standards specify how measurement and computation uncertainty should be considered as part of an over-all EMF assessment in the workplace. This report describes possible uncertainty management regimes, and discusses the likely implications of these regimes for United Kingdom industry. Although it does not describe in detail how to make an assessment of uncertainty, its appendices contain examples of uncertainty assessment from three CENELEC EMF assessment standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 33p. Illus. 6 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_649.pdf [in English]
Electromagnetic fields: What hazards?
Champs électromagnétiques: quels risques? [in French]
Limits concerning the exposure of the general population to electromagnetic fields are by and large followed. However, construction workers may be required to perform tasks in the immediate vicinity of important radiation sources such as high voltage power lines or mobile communications antennae. This article on the risks due to electromagnetic fields to construction sector workers discusses the measures to be taken to limit exposures, European and French regulations and the effects of electromagnetic fields on humans.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2008, No.111, p.56-58. Illus.
Milham S., Morgan L.L.
A new electromagnetic exposure metric: High frequency voltage transients associated with increased cancer incidence in teachers in a California school
In 2003, the teachers of a school in California complained of an abnormally high incidence rate of cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the cancer incidence among these teachers, and its cause. A retrospective study of cancer incidence in the teachers' cohort was investigated in relationship to the school's electrical environment. Sixteen school teachers among the 137 teachers working at the school from 1988 to 2005 were diagnosed with 18 cancers. The observed to expected (O/E) ratio for all cancers was 2.78, while the O/E ratio was 9.8 for malignant melanoma, 13.3 for thyroid cancer end 9.2 for uterine cancer. A positive relationship was found between cancer risk and cumulative exposure to high frequency voltage transients on the classroom's electrical wiring. It is concluded that high frequency voltage transients may be a universal carcinogen, similar to ionizing radiation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.579-586. Illus. 10 ref.
Extremely low frequency fields
This monograph represents the most thorough health risk assessment currently available on extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range up to 100kHz. It reviews evidence for a number of health effects, and updates the evidence regarding cancer. By far the majority of studies have been conducted on power-frequency electric fields. In addition, there have been a number of studies concerning very low frequency (VLF, 3-30kHz) fields, switched gradient magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging, and the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units and televisions. Key gaps in knowledge are also identified and recommendations are made with respect to the research needed to fill these gaps.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xxiv, 519p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: CHF 50.00, USD 50.00; CHF 35.00 for developing countries.
Environmental_Health_Criteria_Monograph_No.238.pdf [in English]
Extremely low frequency fields
This report addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. It reviews the physical characteristics of ELF fields as well as the sources of exposure and measurement. However, its main objectives were to review the scientific literature on the biological effects of exposure to ELF fields, to assess any health risks from exposure to these fields to make recommendations to national authorities on health protection programmes. The frequencies under consideration range from above 0Hz to 100kHz. By far the majority of studies have been conducted on power-frequency electric fields. In addition, there have been a number of studies concerning very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) fields, switched gradient magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging, and the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units and televisions. The main conclusions and recommendations from each section as well as the overall conclusions of the health risk assessment process are summarized. Key gaps in knowledge were also identified and the research needed to fill these gaps has been summarized in the section entitled "Recommendations for research". Summaries in French, Russian and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xxiv, 519p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: CHF 50.00, USD 50.00; CHF 35.00 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.who.int/entity/peh-emf/publications/Complet_DEC_2007.pdf [in English]
Santibáñez M., Bolumar F., García A.M.
Occupational risk factors in Alzheimer's disease: A review assessing the quality of published epidemiological studies
Epidemiological evidence of an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the most frequently studied occupational exposures, namely pesticides, solvents, electromagnetic fields (EMF), lead and aluminium, is inconsistent. Epidemiological studies published up to June of 2003 were systematically searched through PubMed and Toxline. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were included. The quality of the studies was assessed. Eleven studies explored the relationship of AD with solvents, seven with EMF, six with pesticides, six with lead and three with aluminium. For pesticides, studies of greater quality and prospective design found increased and statistically significant associations. For the remaining occupational agents, the evidence of association is less consistent (for solvents and EMF) or absent (for lead and aluminium).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.723-732. Illus. 43 ref.
Bowman J.D., Touchstone J.A., Yost M.G.
A population-based job exposure matrix for power-frequency magnetic fields
A population-based job exposure matrix (JEM) was developed to characterize personal exposures to power-frequency magnetic fields (MF) for future epidemiologic studies. The JEM compiled 2317 MF measurements taken on or near workers by 10 studies in the United States, Sweden, New Zealand, Finland and Italy. The job descriptions were coded into the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification system and then translated to the 1980 job categories of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. For each job category, the JEM database provides the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of workaday exposures to MFs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2007, Vol.4, No.9, p.715-728. Illus. 60 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of electromagnetic fields around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment
This report describes the results of an investigation of operator exposure to magnetic fields from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The project involved both computational modelling and the measurement of personal exposure using magnetic field dosimeters. Findings are discussed. This project has shown that personal dosimeters are capable of detecting, in real-time, situations which might lead to exposure guidelines being exceeded.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 98p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr570.pdf [in English]
Villalba Benavides E.
Evaluation of the exposure of electrotherapy care personnel to electromagnetic radiation
Evaluación de la exposición a campos electromagnéticos del personal de electroterapia [in Spanish]
Within the framework of a general evaluation of occupational hazards, an evaluation was undertaken on the exposure to electromagnetic fields among workers providing electrotherapy care. Following a description of electrotherapy equipment and techniques, and of the biological effects of magnetic fields, the evaluation procedure is described. Findings show that workers are exposed to levels of electromagnetic radiation far below threshold limit values. Recommendations are made concerning the surveillance of workers and the protective measures to be implemented.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2007, No.182, p.6-19. Illus. 7 ref.
http://documentacion.apa.es/pdfs/revista/P182_1.pdf [in Spanish]
Frenette Y., Barré B.
Evaluation of the potential exposure of female hairdressers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields created by hairdryers
Evaluation de l'exposition potentielle de coiffeuses aux champs magnétiques d'extrême basse fréquence provenant de séchoirs à cheveux [in French]
Hairdressers use handheld hairdryers which generate low-frequency magnetic fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential exposure to such fields among women hairdressers working in 33 hairdressing salons in the greater Montreal region, by measuring magnetic field intensity and by determining the number of contacts between the hairdryer and the hairdressers' abdomen per minute of work with a patron. The spectrum of exposure frequencies ranged between 4 and 490μT (average of 180μT) and the average number of contacts per minute between the hairdryer and the hairdressers' abdomen were 1.2 (2.7 for pregnant hairdressers). The dryers were used an average of 4.1 hours during the busiest days. Findings show that several hairdressers were exposed to magnetic fields of intensities higher than those recommended by the ICNIRP. It is recommended that manufacturers reduce the intensity of the magnetic fields emitted by hairdryers. Furthermore, given the risks for the unborn child, pregnant hairdressers should use hairdryers with the lowest possible magnetic field emissions and avoid contact between these appliances and their abdomen.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2007, Vol.23, No.3, p.S-15-S18. Illus. 6 ref.
Measurement and study report as a part of the control system for human safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation 0Hz-300GHz
Raport oraz sprawozdanie z pomiarów i badań jako element systemu kontroli bezpieczeństwa oraz ochrony zdrowia ludzi przed polem i promieniowaniem elektromagnetycznym 0 Hz-300 GHz [in Polish]
The Polish National Control System for safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of up to 300GHz frequency is constantly being reviewed in view of the Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposures to electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (see CIS 03-1039). The overriding goal of the control system is to ensure the protection of workers against the effects of electromagnetic fields in environmental and occupational settings. Data on the impact of investments on the electromagnetic radiation emitted by existing facilities or the ones being put into operation are the important elements of this system. This article comments the provisions of Polish directives and standards on EMF classification which need to be taken into account in measurement and evaluation reports published by accredited laboratories.
Medycyna pracy, 2007, Vol.58. No.2, p.155-160. 19 ref.
Seidler A., Geller P., Nienhaus A., Bernhardt T., Ruppe I., Eggert S., Hietanen M., Kauppinen T., Frölich L.
Occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields and dementia: A case-control study
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between exposure to low frequency magnetic fields and dementia. From 23 general practices, 195 patients with dementia were recruited. Of these, 108 had possible Alzheimer's disease, 59 had possible vascular dementia and 28 had secondary or unclassified dementia. A total of 229 controls were recruited among persons free from dementia. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. Exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields was assessed by expert rating. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression, to control for age, region, sex, dementia in parents and smoking. An increased risk of dementia was found in blue-collar occupations (electrical and electronics workers, metal workers, construction workers, food and beverage processors and labourers). However, findings do not support a significant association between occupational exposure to magnetic fields and dementia.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.108-114. 33 ref.
McElroy J.A., Egan K.M., Titus-Ernstoff L., Anderson H.A., Trentham-Dietz A., Hampton J.M., Newcomb P.A.
Occupational exposure to electromagnetic field and breast cancer risk in a large, population-based, case-control study in the United States
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer among women who were occupationally exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). It involved 6213 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 7390 randomly-selected age-matched controls. Data on occupational history, state of health, lifestyle and personal hygiene were collected by means of phone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. A qualified industrial hygienist classified each job for EMF exposure as background, low, medium, or high. The odds ratio adjusted for age and State of residence was 1.06 for low exposure, 1.09 for medium exposure, and 1.16 for high exposure. It is concluded that exposure to EMF in the workplace is associated with a slight elevation in breast cancer risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.49, No.3, p.266-274. 56 ref.
Karipidis K., Benke G., Sim M., Fritschi L., Yost M., Armstrong B., Hughes A.M., Grulich A., Vajdic C.M., Kaldor J.M., Kricker A.
Occupational exposure to power frequency magnetic fields and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) due to occupational exposure to magnetic fields of 50-60Hz. The study population consisted of 694 cases of NHL, first diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2001, and 694 controls from two regions in Australia, matched by age, sex and region of residence. A detailed occupational history was given by each subject. Occupational exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields was estimated using a specially-developed job-exposure matrix. The odds ratio (OR) for workers in the upper quartile of exposure was 1.48 compared to the referent group. When the exposure was lagged by five years the OR was 1.59. Adjusting for other occupational exposures did not significantly alter the results. These findings provide weak support for the hypothesis that occupational exposure to 50-60Hz magnetic fields increases the risk of NHL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.64, No.1, p.25-29. Illus. 34 ref.
Gryz K., Karpowicz J., Jankowska E.
Method of investigation and assessment of electromagnetic hazards in offices
Metoda badania i oceny zagrożeń elektromagnetycznych w pomieszczeniach biurowych [in Polish]
Typical electromagnetic field sources and characteristics of workers' exposure conditions are described and the principles of occupational and non-occupational exposure limitation established by Polish and European legislation are outlined. Requirements regarding electromagnetic field measurements in offices and the principles of interpreting such results are examined and situations justifying decisions not to perform electromagnetic field measurements in office buildings are analysed.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 2007, No.2, p.11-15. Illus. 15 ref.
Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Aniołczyk H., Brzeźnicki S., Raźniewska G., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Matczak W.
The effect of combined exposure to chemical and physical factors on the nervous system during aluminium production: A preliminary finding
Skutki zdrowotne w układzie nerwowym łącznego narażenia na czynniki chemiczne i fizyczne podczas produkcji aluminium: Doniesienie wstępne [in Polish]
Medical examinations were carried out on 39 male workers exposed to aluminium dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and magnetic fields during aluminium production. Clinical symptoms, such as headache (46.2%), increased emotional irritability (66.7%), concentration difficulty (25.6%), insomnia (30.8%), hypersomnia (15.4%), and mood lability (10.3%) predominated among functional disorders of the nervous system in workers chronically exposed to chemical and physical factors. Objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous system. In EEG recordings classified as abnormal, paroxysmal changes were most common (20.5%).
Medycyna pracy, 2006, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-13. 28 ref.
Lope V., Pérez-Gómez B., Aragonés N., López-Abente G., Gustavsson P., Floderus B., Dosemeci M., Silva A., Pollán M.
Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden
This study evaluated the risk of thyroid cancer in relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) in a cohort of close to three million Swedish workers. The cohort was followed up from 1971 through 1989. Exposures to ELFMF and ionizing radiation were assessed using job exposure matrices. Relative risks (RR), adjusted for age and geographic area, were computed using Poisson models. Occupational ELFMF exposure showed no effect on the risk of thyroid cancer. However, women exposed to high intensities of ionizing radiation registered a marked excess risk (RR 1.85). This trend was not in evidence among men.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.276-284. 45 ref.
Bisseriex C., et al.
Electromagnetic fields - Visual display screens
Champs électromagnétiques - Les écrans de visualisation [in French]
Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) emit electromagnetic fields of very weak intensity and are themselves particularly vulnerable to fields from other emission sources, as may be observed by distortions or flicker of the display. They are giving way to flat screens, which emit less radiation and are less sensitive to external radiation. This information sheet outlines the principles of operation of CRT displays and flat screens and sets out the levels of electromagnetic radiation emitted, the interference caused by nearby electromagnetic fields and measures to improve screen performance.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2006. 4p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/CC7DA2B69EE0CCD4C125721200322A56/$FILE/ed4208.pdf [in French]
Falsaperla R., Spagnoli G., Rossi P.
Electromagnetic fields: Principles of exposure mitigation
The basic principles for reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields are reviewed. Measures to reduce exposure can be divided into organizational and technical actions. Both strategies are briefly analysed and the basic principles of the theory of shielding are presented. A definition of shielding effectiveness is given, and the results from the general transmission lines theory are presented. Practical situations of shielding static and time-varying electric and magnetic fields are discussed on the basis of the physical properties of the fields and of the shield.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.195-200. 9 ref.
Karpowicz J., Gryz K.
Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to a magnetic field from magnetic resonance imaging devices
Health care personnel who operate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices are exposed to magnetic fields at levels depending both on the type of the magnet and on the ergonomic design of the MRI device. This article presents methods used for measuring and assessing workers' exposure. It also discusses the results of inspection measurements carried out next to several MRI devices. The variability of workers' exposure supports the need for monitoring occupational exposure. International exposure assessment standards and guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the European Commission and Poland are compared.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.155-167. Illus. 19 ref.
Electromagnetic fields in offices
This review article discusses the implications of the increased use of electric and electronic equipment in offices, including the increasingly complex nature of daily exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the wide variety of frequencies used. Focus has shifted from monitors as the dominating source of electromagnetic fields to other electronic equipment, cabling, nearby substations, power lines and stray currents in buildings. In the last five years, wireless communications based on devices using radio frequency waves have become common. To a certain degree, all these technologies add to the complicated issue of the wide range of frequencies found in offices. The exposure of office workers is generally considered to be low and not in conflict with the existing guidelines, but there are a number of measures that can be taken to reduce electromagnetic fields in offices as a precautionary measure.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.137-147. Illus. 21 ref.
Karpowicz J., Hietanen M., Gryz K.
EU Directive, ICNIRP guidelines and Polish legislation on electromagnetic fields
This review article describes the general provisions of and the philosophy behind European Directive 2004/40/EC (CIS 03-1039) and ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines. As an example of national legislation on the protection of workers against excessive electromagnetic field exposure, regulations established in Poland are summarized. The problems of the practical implementation of the EU Directive's provisions are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.125-136. Illus. 21 ref.
Hauptverband de gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Elektromagnetische Felder [in German]
This code of practice addresses the protection of workers against the health hazards posed by exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 0Hz to 300GHz. Topics covered: exposure limits; exposure evaluation; identification of areas where the exposure limits are exceeded and display of appropriate warning signs; safe distances from electromagnetic fields produced by e.g. cell phone transmitter stations; information of workers of possible hazards; supply of workers with personal protective equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2006. 53p. Illus. Price: EUR 7.80.
http://www.systronemv.de/NISV/BGR-B11.pdf [in German]
Herrault J., Donati P.
Resistance welding - Magnetic field mapping and risk prevention
Soudage par résistance - Cartographie du champ magnétique et prévention [in French]
Metalworking shops are often equipped with several resistance welding machines. In this study, the distribution of the magnetic field around several resistance welding machines was analysed with a view to applying prevention measures if necessary. The results of the measurements confirmed that the emitted levels could exceed those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) beyond which health risks could exist. In addition to the field mapping, this article describes the principle of resistance welding, reviews the health risks linked to exposure to this type of magnetic field, presents current French and European regulations and offers guidance on prevention measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.21-31. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202252/$File/ND2252.pdf [in French]
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Medical imaging devices, trains and television sets are examples of man-made equipment that can generate static magnetic or electric fields. In some areas of research and medical imaging, stronger and stronger static magnetic fields are being used. This environmental health criteria document reviews current knowledge on potential health consequences of static fields. Topics addressed: definition, sources and measurement of static electric and magnetic fields; interactions with the human body; dosimetry; studies of effects on cell cultures and animals; possible effects on humans; health risk assessment; protection of the public and workers; needs for further research. The document includes a glossary and detailed summaries in Russian, French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. xvii, 351p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. Price: CHF 54.00 (CHF 37.80 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.who.int/entity/peh-emf/publications/EHC_232_Static_Fields_full_document.pdf [in English]
Bortkiewicz A., Gadzicka E., Zmyślony M., Szymczak W.
Neurovegetative disturbances in workers exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields
This study was undertaken to assess autonomic function in workers occupationally exposed to 50Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) by analyzing the heart rate variability. The study group comprised 63 workers of switchyard substations, aged 22-67 years and a control group of 42 workers with no EMF exposure. To assess the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiac function, heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed based on 512 normal heart beats recorded at rest. The relative risk of decreased HRV, calculated with use of a logistic regression model, was significantly higher in the exposed group than in controls (odds ratio 2.8). It is concluded that occupational exposure to 50Hz EMF could influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.19, No.1, p.53-60. 37 ref.
Contaminación electromagnética [in Spanish]
All workers are exposed to the magnetic fields that surround electrical equipment. Although there is no scientific proof that exposure to magnetic fields presents a risk to health, it is advisable to limit workers' exposure by selecting electrical equipment that emits the weakest possible electromagnetic radiation. Topics addressed in this review of current knowledge: average exposure to magnetic fields during different tasks; practical recommendations; relevant Argentinean legislation; units and nomenclature.
Protección y seguridad, Mar.-Apr. 2006, Vol.52, No.306, p.38-41. Illus. 10 ref.
San Martín Ferrer D.
Electromagnetic fields between 0 Hz and 300 GHz: ICNIRP criteria for evaluating occupational exposure
Campos electromagnéticos entre 0 Hz y 300 GHz: criterios ICNIRP para valorar la exposición laboral [in Spanish]
This information note sets out exposure limits for electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Potential health effects of different radiation frequencies are outlined and guidance is given on the use of reference levels for assessing compliance with basic restrictions for particular exposure situations.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 4p. 3 ref.
http://www.mtas.es//insht/ntp/ntp_698.htm [in Spanish]
Bracken T., Senior R., Dudman J.
60-Hertz electric-field exposures in transmission line towers
This study investigated 60-Hz electric field exposures among line workers in 230 to 765-kV transmission line towers. The exposures were based on computations of the unperturbed electric field along climbing routes and at work positions on the towers and on insulated ladders suspended in towers. Computed exposures are generally expressed in terms of the unperturbed electric field averaged over the body surface as stipulated by guidelines. However for realistic on-tower positions, the worker's posture, the uniformity of the field, and the field orientation differ from the guideline exposure scenario of standing erect in a vertical uniform field. The average electric-field exposure during climbing ranged from 10kV/m for a 230-kV tower to 31kV/m for a 765-kV tower, occasionally exceeding the 20kV/m limit given in the recently adopted IEEE Standard C95.6 2002.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.444-455. Illus. 8 ref.
Håkansson N., Stenlund C., Gustavsson P., Johansen C., Floderus B.
Arc and resistance welding and tumours of the endocrine glands: A Swedish case-control study with focus on extremely low frequency magnetic fields
This study examined the relationship between occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields during welding and tumours of the endocrine glands. Subjects included 174 cases of tumours of the endocrine glands and 1692 controls matched by sex and age. Data on job tasks, exposure to different types of welding and exposure to solvents were obtained by means of questionnaires. Among arc welders, there was an overall increased risk for all tumours of the endocrine glands. An increased risk was also observed for the adrenal glands in relation to arc welding, and for the parathyroid glands in relation to both arc welding and resistance welding. A non-significant increase in risk was also noted for tumours of the pituitary gland for arc welding. No confounding effect was found for solvent exposure, and there was no sign of biological interaction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.304-308. 35 ref.
Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
Exposition professionnelle aux champs électromagnétiques [in French]
Directive 2004/40/EC (CIS 03-1039) on occupational exposures to electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic fields was the focus of this meeting organized by French Radiation Protection Society and held in Paris, France, on 15 December 2004. Topics addressed: types of occupational exposure; physical and biological basis for the Directive; specific absorption and thermal effects; biological effects of very low frequency fields and of radiofrequencies; recommendations of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP); dosimetry and precision of measurements; radiofrequency metrology and uncertainties; implications for industries using radiofrequencies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.102, p.225-233. Illus.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/2B6DD4DB190CE6DEC12570340036DF4E/$FILE/td141.pdf [in French]
Patterson R.M., Bracken T.D., Alldredge J.R.
Assessing compliance with 60-Hertz magnetic-field exposure guidelines
Practical guidance for assessing compliance with exposure limits for magnetic fields in the extremely low frequency range (3 to 3000 hertz) is limited. To fill this gap, a statistically-based sampling and analysis methodology using 60-Hertz exposures in the electric utility industry as a model was developed. Using this methodology, specific compliance probabilities and their confidence intervals were estimated for various electric utility scenarios from available personal exposure measurements. This example of the application of the methodology showed that compliance with existing exposure limits may become an issue for certain tasks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.77-85. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement and analysis of magnetic fields from welding processes
This research report comprises a review of information on magnetic fields associated with arc and resistance welding processes, an analysis of the spatially varying magnetic field levels to which welders are exposed during arc and resistance welding and a tabulation of magnetic field data from a range of welding processes. Magnetic field measurements were carried out under typical operating conditions and at varying distances from the welding equipment and cables. Results indicate that the reference levels for magnetic fields issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are likely to be exceeded for many resistance welding machines at the location where the operator would normally stand. These levels may also be exceeded for arc welding in some circumstances.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vii, 40p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr338.pdf [in English]
EMFs in the workplace
Los EMF en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
This data sheet concerns exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) in the workplace. Sources of EMFs are outlined along with average magnetic field exposures for different types of workers, health effects (some studies have associated high magnetic field exposures with increased cancer risks), exposure guidelines, and basic control measures (increasing worker distance from the EMF source, use of low-EMF designs where possible, and reduction of EMF exposure times).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1996, Dec. 2005. 4p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/emf2.html [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/spanish/niosh/docs/96-129sp.html [in Spanish]
Electromagnetic fields and health effects - Epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease
This epidemiological investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases and the risk of cardiac arrhythmia among employees exposed to extremely-low frequency (50Hz) electromagnetic fields in the Danish utility industry. The risk for cancers considered to be possibly associated with the radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile telephones was also examined in a large cohort of mobile telephone users. On the basis of these studies and of the scientific literature, it is concluded that occupational exposure to 50Hz electromagnetic fields is not associated with the overall risk of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular diseases, although there is some indication that these fields (or some other unknown factor related to alternating current electricity) may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2004, Vol.30, Suppl.1, p.1-80 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Forssén U.M., Mezei G., Nise G., Feychting M.
Occupational magnetic field exposure among women in Stockholm County, Sweden
Most epidemiological studies on occupational magnetic field exposure have been based on men. The objective of this study was to create a job-exposure matrix for occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields among women. Measurements were performed using personal magnetic field meters carried by the subjects for 24 hours on a normal workday. Subjects were volunteer Stockholm County women working in the occupations identified as common among women based on census data. 471 measurements were made in 49 different occupations. Parameters representing average and peak magnetic field exposures, temporal change in the exposure, and proportion of time spent above certain exposure levels were calculated both for the workday and for the total 24-hour period grouped by occupational titles. The occupations with higher than average exposure included cashiers, owner-operators of retail trade outlets, air stewardesses, dental nurses, cooks and post-office clerks.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.594-602. Illus. 17 ref.
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