Ionizing radiation - 1,185 entries found
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Mangeot A.M., Vogel L.
Production and reproduction - Stealing the health of future generations
Attività produttive e riproduzione umana - Quando il lavoro diventa una minaccia per le generazioni future [in Italian]
This issue reproduces the full contents of a booklet originally published by the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI), whose aim is to help improve awareness of work-related reproductive hazards, which consist of a vast and complex mix including chemicals, ionizing radiation, vibration, heat, biological agents and stress. They also have a wide variety of effects, including male and female infertility, miscarriages, birth defects and impaired child development. They often receive scant attention. There is probably no other sphere of safety and health at work in which the available information is so piecemeal and lacking. The booklet reviews and gives a broad-brush picture of the available knowledge for a general readership. It forms part of the general work of ETUI to develop a critical trade union approach to safety and health at work. This particular publication deals in most detail with chemicals, but also provides relevant information on other reproductive risks.
2087, Casa editrice Edit Coop, Via dei Frentani 4/A, 00185 Rome, Italy, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.6/7, p.1-65 (whole issue). Illus. 69 ref.
Samson E., Telle-Lamberton M., Caër-Lorho S., Bard D., Giraud J.M., Metz-Flamant C., Neron M.O., Quesne B., Acker A., Tirmarche M., Hill C.
Cancer mortality among two different populations of French nuclear workers
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of external photon radiation on the mortality of two populations of French nuclear workers, those exposed only to external photon radiation and those potentially-exposed also to internal contaminations and to neutrons. External photon radiation was measured through individual dosimeters. Potential exposure to internal contamination or to neutrons was assessed by experts on the basis of quantitative measurements or of worksite and type of activity. The mortality observed in each population was compared with that expected from national mortality statistics, by computing standardized mortality ratios. Dose-effect relationships were analyzed through trend tests and log-linear Poisson regressions. A total of 14,796 workers were exposed only to external photon radiation, while 14,408 workers were also potentially exposed to internal radiation or to neutrons. Overall healthy worker effects were observed in both populations (SMR 0.59). However, an SMR of 2.41 was observed for malignant melanoma among workers of the second population. Significant dose-effect relationships were observed among workers exposed only to external photon radiation for leukemia, and in the other population, for cancers and other diseases related to tobacco or alcohol consumption.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.627-634. Illus. 9 ref.
Cancer_mortality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Radiation protection - Radiology
Radioprotection - Scanographie [in French]
This information sheet on X-ray radiography is aimed at persons responsible for the radiological protection of technicians, namely radiological protection specialists, occupational physicians and employers. It is also aimed at users of these techniques, but does not claim to address issues related to the radiological protection of patients. It presents the various procedures, the specific types of hazards involved, hazard analysis and hazard evaluation, together with prevention methods.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.455-462. Illus.
Radioprotection_Scanographie_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Radiation protection: Applicable regulations - Review of regulations concerning radiation protection in medical settings
Radioprotection: textes applicables - Rappel de textes concernant la radioprotection dans le domaine médical [in French]
This information sheet is part of a collection providing a synthesis of useful information on radiation protection, by type of occupational activity. It cites French and European laws and regulations on radiation protection in medical settings.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.449-453.
Radioprotection_dans_le_domaine_médical_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Disposal of radioactive waste - Specific safety requirements
This safety standard establishes safety requirements relating to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types. It sets out the safety objective and criteria for the protection of persons and the environment against radiation risks arising from disposal facilities for radioactive waste in operation and after closure. In order to meet the criteria, measures may need to be taken in site selection and evaluation and in the design, construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility. The requirements are essential from a safety perspective and failure to meet any of the requirements would require action to be taken.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2011. xvi, 62p. 26 ref.
Disposal_of_radioactive_waste_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Stockage_définitif_des_déchets_radioactifs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Menechal P., Valero M., Megnigbeto C., Marchal C., Godet J.L.
Radiation protection of patients and workers in interventional and operating theatre radiology
La radioprotection des patients et des travailleurs en radiologie interventionnelle et au bloc opératoire [in French]
Topics discussed in this review article on the risks from the use of radiological practices in medical settings: times spent implementing the required radiation can lead to major detrimental effects on personnel and patients, if they are not fully controlled; many specialist medical disciplines now perform invasive procedures guided by images; optimization of patient doses mainly depends on the training level of medical teams, the intrinsic performance characteristics of the equipment used, the adjustment of the technical parameters and the presence or absence of qualified personnel; optimization of professional personnel exposure is complex and depends on the performance conditions of procedures, which can expose workers extensively and non-uniformly; designation of personnel competent in radiological protection, assessment of risks and definition of controlled areas, analysis of workstations and dosimetric monitoring of operators (especially of body extremities) are difficult to implement; use of collective and personal protective equipment must be improved.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 2011, No.222, p.27-33. Illus. 6 ref.
ND_2343-222-11.pdf [in French]
Radiation protection of workers
Protection des travailleurs contre les rayonnements [in French]
Protección de los trabajadores frente a la radiación [in Spanish]
The purpose of this booklet is to provide information on the size of the workforce affected by, and the occupational activities associated with, exposure to radiation. Appendices include the relevant ILO instruments on the protection of workers against radiation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2011. 15p. 34 ref.
Information_Note_No.1.pdf [in English]
Note_informative_n°1.pdf [in French]
Nota_informativa_núm.1.pdf [in Spanish]
Richardson D.B., Wing S.
Evidence of confounding by smoking of associations between radiation and lung cancer mortality among workers at the Savannah River Site
This study investigates confounding by cigarette smoking in the associations between occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and lung cancer mortality among workers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a facility in the United States involved in the production of basic materials used in the fabrication of nuclear weapons, primarily tritium and plutonium-239. Thirteen thousand two hundred sixty-five white males hired at SRS between 1950 and 1986 were followed through 2002 to ascertain causes of death. Estimates of radiation doses from external sources and internal tritium uptakes were derived from dosimetry records. Logistic regression methods were used to derive discrete-time estimates of rate ratios. Prior to adjustment for smoking, there was minimal evidence of association between lung cancer mortality and cumulative radiation dose under a 10-year lag assumption. Subsequent to indirect adjustment for smoking, the association between lung cancer mortality and cumulative radiation dose under a 10-year lag was positive.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.421-427. 25 ref.
Chan C., Hughes T.S., Muldoon S., Aldrich T., Rice C., Hornung R., Brion G., Tollerud D.J.
Mortality patterns among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant workers
The objective of this study was to determine whether workers of a uranium diffusion plant in the United States had mortality patterns that differed from the general population and to investigate whether mortality patterns were associated with job title or workplace exposures. A retrospective occupational cohort mortality study was conducted on 6759 workers. Standardized mortality ratio analyses compared the cohort with the referent United States population. Internal comparisons producing standardized rate ratios were conducted by job title, metal exposure, and cumulative internal and external radiation exposures. Overall mortality and cancer rates were lower than the referent population, reflecting a strong healthy worker effect. Individual not significant standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios were noted for cancers of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.725-732. 26 ref.
Mortality_patterns_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Zakeri F., Hirobe T., Akbari Noghabi K.
Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on interventional cardiologists
Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are likely to receive high radiation exposure as a result of procedures they undertake. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of low-dose X-ray radiation exposure on chromosomal damage and on selected indices of cellular and humoral immunity in ICs. The study population consisted of 37 ICs and 37 clinical physicians as the control group with similar age, sex and duration of employment, without any work-related exposure to ionizing radiation. Cytogenetic studies were performed by chromosome aberration analysis and immunological studies by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunodiffusion techniques. The frequencies of aberrant cells, chromosome breaks and dicentrics plus centric rings were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the control group, without positive correlation between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative doses of the ICs. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.464-469. Illus. 26 ref.
Biological_effects.pdf [in English]
Radiation safety of gamma, electron and X-ray irradiation facilities
This safety guide provides recommendations on how to meet the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with regard to irradiation facilities. It gives practical information on the safe design and operation of gamma, electron and X ray irradiators in accordance with these requirements, and discusses the beneficial applications of ionizing irradiation and how to avoid potential radiation hazards at industrial irradiators, including contamination arising from damaged radioactive sources. The safety guide is intended for use by the designers and operating organizations of these facilities and also by regulatory bodies.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2010. xiv, 92p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: USD 50.00; downloadable version free of charge.
Safety of conversion facilities and uranium enrichment facilities
This safety guide supplements the publication on safety of fuel cycle facilities and addresses all the stages in the life cycle of conversion facilities (CFs) and enrichment facilities (EFs), with emphasis placed on design and operation. It describes the actions, conditions and procedures for meeting safety requirements and deals specifically with the handling, processing and storage of depleted, natural and low enriched uranium. The publication is intended to be of use to designers, operating organizations and regulators for ensuring the safety of conversion and enrichment facilities.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2010, xiv, 78p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 28.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Specific_Safety_Guide_No.SSG-5.pdf [in English]
Guseva Canu I., Cardis E., Metz-Flamant C., Caër-Lorho S., Auriol B., Wild P., Laurier D., Tirmarche M.
French cohort of uranium processing workers: mortality pattern after 30-year follow-up
The objective of this study was to investigate mortality among nuclear workers with potential internal exposure to uranium. The cohort included 2,709 workers employed at a French uranium processing plant for at least six months. The plant processed uranium enrichment during the period 1960-1996 and chemical conversion since 1980. Mortality was compared to the national and regional rates available for the period 1968-2005. As expected, an important healthy worker effect was observed. Among cancer sites a priori related to uranium exposure, only mortality for lymphatic cancer was increased among potentially exposed workers. An important increase in mortality from pleural cancer was observed; however none of the deceased workers were exposed to radiation, while all handled asbestos.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.83, No.3, p.301-308. Illus. 46 ref.
Occupational rhinosinusitis due to etoposide, an antineoplastic agent
This article reports a rare case of an occupational hypersensitivity reaction to an antineoplastic agent in a 45-year-old nurse who developed throat irritation and chronic nasal congestion followed by sinusitis shortly after beginning work at an oncological out-patient clinic. The symptoms disappeared upon leaving the clinic two years later, but they returned when she resumed work at the oncology unit of a hospital in Denmark, handling chemotherapy on a daily basis. In vitro histamine release tests were performed against nine suspected antineoplastic agents. The patient's histamine release test against the antineoplastic agent etoposide was positive; the other test results were negative. The histamine release test against etoposide using passive sensitization was also negative. Upon leaving the oncology department, the symptoms of the nurse disappeared once again. She was given a diagnosis of rhinosinusitis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.266-267. 7 ref.
Niu S., Deboodt P., Zeeb H.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), eds.
Approaches to the attribution of detrimental health effects to occupational exposure and their application in compensation programmes for cancer
Workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their work may claim for compensation if they develop cancer. However, cancer is a common disease, especially in older age, and most cancers will be caused by non-occupational risk factors. Compiled by international experts, this book examines in detail the scientific basis for risk attribution, focusing in particular on the methodological issues associated with attributing individual cancers to previous occupational radiation exposures. The general features of compensation schemes are also presented, along with examples of compensation schemes from different countries, which illustrate a variety of approaches.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. xvi, 99p. Illus. 84 ref. Price: CHF 35.00; USD 32.00; GBP 20.00; EUR 23.00.
OSH Series No.73 [in English]
Louvat D., Matcalf P.
Closing the cycle
This article reviews methods for the geological disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste implemented or being developed in several IAEA member states. Topics addressed: Global Safety Regime; Global Inventory of Radioactive Waste; options for the disposal of radioactive waste; geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; safety standards and international projects.
IAEA Bulletin, Apr. 2010, Vol.51, No.2, p.20-23. Illus.
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull512/51202642023.pdf [in English]
Karunanayake C.P., Singh G.V., Spinelli J.J., McLaughlin J.R., Dosman J.A., McDuffie H.H., Pahwa P.
Occupational exposures and Hodgkin lymphoma: Canadian case-control study
The objective was to study the association between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and occupational exposures related to long-held occupation among male workers in Canada. A population-based case-control study of HL was conducted among male workers stratified by province of residence and age group. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit statistical models. Several factors independently increased the risk of HL. Ever exposure to ionizing radiation from uranium showed a significant association with HL. Men who had smoked cigarettes for 25 years or more were the most likely to develop HL. Exposure to ultraviolet light and diagnosis with measles were negatively associated with HL, whereas diagnosis with shingles increased the risk of HL. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1447-1454. 57 ref.
Borehole disposal facilities for radioactive waste - Specific safety Guide
This guide addresses the safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources and provides guidance on meeting the safety requirements and criteria for such facilities. In addition to making recommendations on safety for borehole facilities, such as in site selection and characterization, design and operation, and for closure and post-closure, it also covers provision for containment and isolation, and the performance requirements of the engineered components of the disposal system.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2009. 98p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: EUR 32.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Safety_Guide_No. SSG-1.pdf [in English]
UV protection by textiles - Good stuff
UV-Schutz durch Textilien - Guter Stoff [in German]
Outdoor workers are exposed to UV radiation and should therefore wear protective clothing when working in the sun. This article discusses the protective measures to be adopted to protect workers as well as the UV protection factor of different protection measures (UV protection clothing, cotton clothes, sun cream). An EU-standard for sun protective clothing has been developed (EN 13758) which specifies the UV protection factor (UPF) of protective clothes. Only clothing with a UPF greater than 40 are in compliance with the standard.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.3, p.12-13. Illus. 3 ref.
Zielinski J.M., Garner M.J., Band P.R., Krewski D., Shilnikova N.S., Jiang H., Ashmore P.J., Sont W.N., Fair M.E., Letourneau E.G., Semenciw R.
Health outcomes of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure among medical workers: A cohort study of the Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers
The objective of this study was to determine the occupational doses of ionizing radiation and examine possible associations with mortality rates and cancer incidence in a cohort of 67,562 Canadian medical workers over the period of 1951-1987. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios (SMR and SIR, respectively) were ascertained by linking data from the national dose registry with the Canadian mortality and cancer incidence databases. Mortalities from cancer and non-cancer causes were generally below those of the general Canadian population. However thyroid cancer incidence was significantly elevated among both men and women. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.149-156. Illus. 25 ref.
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Data sheet aimed at helping hazard evaluation in exobuccal dentistry radiology
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire exobuccale [in French]
Based on the findings of a survey conducted in the Ile-de-France region, a multidisciplinary working group developed a series of information sheets aimed at helping evaluate the hazards related to the use of radiology in dental services. This data sheet presents an overview of useful information applicable to exobuccal dentistry. Contents: personnel concerned; sequence of steps and filming; hazards; "ionizing radiation" hazard identification; hazard evaluation and determination of exposure levels; risk management strategies; evaluation of the risk management system; other hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.119, p.291-297. 19 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20127/$File/TC127.pdf [in French]
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Sheet aimed at helping hazard evaluation in high-dose curietherapy
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en curiethérapie à haut débit [in French]
Based on the findings of a survey conducted in the Ile-de-France region, a multidisciplinary working group developed a series of information sheets aimed at helping evaluate the hazards related to radiotherapy. This data sheet presents an overview of useful information applicable to high-dose curietherapy. Contents: personnel concerned; sequence of steps and filming; hazards; "ionizing radiation" hazard identification; hazard evaluation and determination of exposure levels; risk management strategies; evaluation of the risk management system; other hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.411-429.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20129/$File/TC129.pdf [in French]
Viau S., Dion C., Perrault G., Dufresne A.
Cleaning and decontamination of workplaces containing beryllium - Techniques and cleaning solutions
Nettoyage et décontamination des lieux de travail où il y a présence de béryllium - Techniques et solutions nettoyantes [in French]
This study evaluated the effectiveness of alternative cleaning methods for surfaces of materials made of copper-beryllium (CuBe) and materials without Be, three surface sampling techniques (wipe sampling with moistened wipes, "micro-vacuuming" and colorimetry using the ChemTest), and various cleaning and decontamination methods used in practice. The results indicate that it is difficult to comply with the threshold value of 0.2µ/100cm2 of Be on surfaces made of copper-beryllium. However, cleaning with a neutral or alkaline product (less aggressive than an acid cleaner) keeps the surface contamination level below 3.0µ/100cm2.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. viii, 62p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-614.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-613.pdf [in French]
Zaebst D.D., Seel E.A., Yiin J.H., Nowlin S.J., Chen P.
Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates
An earlier nested case-control study at a U.S. nuclear naval shipyard primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and ionizing radiation. Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fumes, and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume. In this study, exposures to the potential confounders were estimated by an expert panel based on a set of quantitatively defined categories of exposure. Findings suggest that a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to asbestos and welding fumes. However, the levels of these exposures were not sufficient to affect the risk estimates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.404-414. Illus. 21 ref.
Yong L.C., Sigurdson A.J., Ward E.M., Waters M.A., Whelan E.A., Petersen M.R., Bhatti P., Ramsey M.J., Ron E., Tucker J.D.
Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience
Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. This study determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects. Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in the mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects. However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.56-62. 40 ref.
Zielinski J.M., Ashmore P.J., Band P.R., Jiang H., Shilnikova N.S., Tait V.K., Krewski D.
Low dose ionizing radiation exposure and cardiovascular disease mortality: Cohort study based on Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a Canadian cohort of 337,397 individuals (169,256 men and 168,141 women) occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and included in the National Dose Registry of Canada. The cohort consisted of employees at nuclear power stations as well as medical, dental and industrial workers. During the study period (1951-1995), there were 3533 deaths from cardiovascular diseases (3018 among men and 515 among women). Overall CVD mortality was significantly lower than in the general population of Canada. However the cohort showed a significant dose response both among men and women. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.27-33. Illus. 27 ref.
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Guidance note on risk analysis in intraoral dental radiology and applicable texts
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire endobuccale et textes applicables [in French]
Contents of this guidance note on risk analysis in intraoral dental radiology: personnel affected; radiography procedure sequence; hazards; risk of direct or indirect radiation exposure; hazard evaluation and determination of exposure levels; risk management strategy; risk management evaluation; other hazards. An update of an information sheet on applicable French regulations on radiation protection in the medical field is also included.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2009, No.117, p.7-18. Illus.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20123/22.06File/TC123.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment
This information note provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Contents: legal responsibilities; assessing the risk of using UV tanning equipment; persons at risk; operating UV tanning equipment safely. Replaces CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Apr. 2009. 5p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf [in English]
Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment.
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Legal responsibilities of operators are also summarized. Previous edition: CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 6p. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf [in English]
Atuchaan C., Mueller C.
Evaluation of radiation exposure to TSA baggage screeners
In 2002 and 2003, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received health hazard evaluation (HHE) requests from Transportation Security Administration (TSA) employees at several airports, expressing concerns about a variety of issues including exposure to X-rays from carry-on baggage and checked baggage screening machines. TSA management also submitted a separate request for NIOSH to perform an independent study to determine the levels of radiation emissions from the various TSA screening equipment, and whether routine use of dosimetry is warranted. In May 2003, 12 airports were randomly selected for study. Basic characterizations of work practices, spot measurements for radiation, and employee interviews were completed between 2003 and 2004. Monthly radiation measurements were obtained from personal dosimeters issued to TSA baggage screeners. It was observed that Explosive Detection System (EDS) machines at several airports exhibited a flaw that could be a source of unnecessary radiation exposure to baggage screeners operating these machines. However none of the participants' doses exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit. Furthermore, no doses exceeded 25% of the OSHA quarterly limit which would require employee monitoring. Recommendations include taking some defective machines offline and extending the evaluation to a larger number of airports.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2008. vi, 50p. Illus. 19 ref.
HETA_2003-0206-3067.pdf [in English]
Deep defence - Nuclear safety contribution to industrial safety
La défense en profondeur - Contribution de la sécurité nucléaire à la sécurité industrielle [in French]
This publication presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of deep defence by examining its application in the nuclear field, and subsequently explores its transfer to an industrial context with the help of a specific example, a liquefied natural gas storage and distribution site.
Editions Tec et Doc Lavoisier, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xii, 66p. Illus.43 ref. Index. Price: EUR 32.00.
Safety of radiation generators and sealed radioactive sources
Sûreté des générateurs de rayonnements et des sources radioactives scellées [in French]
The objective of this guide is to assist Member States in implementing regulatory requirements for radiation sources that will ensure their safety. To that end, it provides guidance on infrastructure responsibilities for safety, on methodologies for performing safety assessments and on specific design and operational measures that should be taken to ensure safety throughout the life cycle of radiation generators and sealed radioactive sources. The safety measures recommended are also applicable to radioactive sources in nuclear facilities or radioactive waste disposal facilities, while recognizing that these facilities should in any case provide a high standard of source safety. Contents: introduction; regulatory infrastructure and responsibilities; safety assessment; design, manufacture and use of radiation sources and design and operation of facilities; decommissioning of facilities and management of disused sources. Appendices include: factors relevant to establishing a radiation safety system based on the example of a large industrial irradiation unit; probabilistic evaluation of safety. The English version of the guide is analyzed in CIS 07-1461.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2008. 63p. Illus. 56 ref. Price: EUR 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1258f_web.pdf [in French]
Ahn Y.S., Park R.M., Koh D.H.
Cancer admission and mortality in workers exposed to ionizing radiation in Korea
Hospital admissions for cancer and cancer mortality among Korean workers exposed to ionizing radiation during 2000 to 2005 were compared to those of autoworkers. Overall admissions were low with the exception of nuclear power workers (standardized rate ratio (SRR) 1.13). Thyroid cancer was statistically significantly elevated in women radiation workers in medical (SRR 2.90) and research institutions (SRR 3.91) and industry (SRR 5.07), and in all nuclear power workers (SRR 2.59), with a significant association with dose. The 935 cancer deaths revealed a healthy worker effect for all causes (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 0.58) and all-cancer (SMR 0.73). Lung cancer (SMR 0.77) and leukaemia (SMR 0.59) mortalities were also less than expected. Compared with autoworkers, radiation workers displayed decreased all-cause mortality except for nuclear power workers (although statistically not significant).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.791-803. 64 ref.
Radiation protection in newer medical imaging techniques: Cardiac CT
This publication focuses on radiation protection of the patient when using computed tomography (CT) for coronary artery calcium scoring and visualization of the coronary arteries (angiography). In addition, it explains under what conditions it is appropriate to use these techniques in symptomatic and/or asymptomatic screening populations. Information is also provided on patient dose and risk levels. Background information on cardiac CT is also provided.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2008. 19p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: EUR 18.00.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1366_web.pdf [in English]
Radiation protection in newer medical imaging techniques: PET/CT
A major part of patient exposure now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. Hybrid imaging systems, such as the combination of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are an example of a technique that has only been introduced in the last decade. PET/CT has established a valuable place for itself in medical research and diagnosis. However, it is an application that can result in high patient and staff doses. This safety guide provides guidance and advice for those working with these systems.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2008. 41p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: EUR 28.00.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/pub1343_web.pdf [in English]
Zielinski J.M., Shilnikova N.S., Krewski D.
Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers: Overview of research from 1951 through 2007
The National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada is a resource allowing a direct estimation of the potential health risks associated with low doses of ionizing radiation. It comprises records for about 600,000 nuclear, industrial, medical and dental workers. An analysis of the NDR data for a cohort of about 200,000 workers first exposed before 1984 and followed through 1987 and 1988 for mortality and cancer incidence revealed that the mortality from most causes of death considered was lower than that in the general population, which is typical of occupational cohorts. Although the same was also observed for cancer incidence, there were significant excesses in the incidence of thyroid cancer and melanoma which, however, were not clearly related to exposures. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.269-275. 36 ref.
The operating organization and the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for research reactors
This safety guide provides recommendations on meeting the requirements on the operating organization and on personnel training and qualification for research reactors. It covers an example of operating organization for research reactor facilities, the recruitment process and qualification in terms of education, training and experience, programmes for initial and continuing training, the authorization process for those individuals having an immediate bearing on safety, and the processes for their re-qualification and re-authorization.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2008. 89p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: EUR 20.00.
Fucic A., Merlo D.F., Ceppi M., Lucas J.N.
Spontaneous abortions in female populations occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation
Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of miscarriages in 61 women exposed to radioisotopes was compared to that reported in 170 X-ray exposed women. Chromosomal aberrations were measured in both radiation-exposed groups and in 53 non-exposed women. Women exposed to radioisotopes experienced at least a threefold higher rate of spontaneous abortions than those exposed to X-rays. Although X-ray and radioisotopes exposed women had significantly higher levels of chromosome aberration frequency than referents, there was no clear difference between radiation-exposed women. For exposure levels within standard recommended guidelines, radioisotopes are far more likely to play a role in the occurrence of spontaneous abortions than X-rays. This effect is not detectable by a difference in chromosome aberration frequency.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.873-879. 49 ref.
Teschke K., Chow Y., Chung J., Ratner P., Spinelli J., Le N., Ward H.
Estimating nurses' exposures to ionizing radiation: The elusive gold standard
This study assessed ionizing radiation exposure in 58,125 nurses in British Columbia, Canada, in view of gathering data for use in a subsequent epidemiological study on cancer morbidity and mortality. It involved a survey of nurses in more than 100 hospitals and health care centers, together with a monitoring of the data reported to the National Dose Registry of Health Canada. Findings are discussed. The difficulty in exposure assessment likely arises because although fewer than 10% of nurses are exposed to ionizing radiation, the settings in which they are exposed vary tremendously. This means that careful hazard assessment is required to ensure that monitoring is complete where exposures are probable, without incurring the excess costs and lack of specificity of including the unexposed personnel.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2008, Vol.5, No.2, p.75-84. Illus. 26 ref.
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Information note for helping analyse risks in radium therapy
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en curiethérapie [in French]
This information note on radiation protection is more specifically aimed at radiation protection specialists and occupational physicians. It describes the various procedures, specific dangers, analysis and evaluation of the hazards as well as prevention methods. The procedures described concern low-level radium therapy applications (continuous radiation or intermittent radiation on demand, using a source projector), with the exception of pulsed systems (sequential radiation).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2008, No.114, p.189-199. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20119/$File/TC119.pdf [in French]
Prieto M.J., Moreno M., Nava P., Zapata L., Herranz R.
Study based on biological dosimetry techniques of the possible effects of ionizing radiation on the health of airline personnel
Investigación, mediante técnicas de dosimetría biológica, de posibles efectos sobre la salud por causa de las radiaciones ionizantes en profesionales de líneas aéreas [in Spanish]
Following a presentation of the characteristics, indications and methodology of biological dosimetry, together with the effects of ionizing radiation on biological structures, this article describes a project undertaken in a university hospital in Madrid, Spain, aimed at quantifying the effects of such radiation by means of biological dosimetry. Calibration curves (number of translocations or dicentrics per cell as a function of dose) were determined. The basic frequencies of dicentrics within two population samples were first studied: a sample consisting of subjects not having been occupationally or medically exposed to ionizing radiation and a sample consisting of persons exposed to low radiation doses (personnel of the radiological department). A case-control study was next carried out among employees of an airline (cabin crews and ground staff) in order to determine the rate of translocations among persons chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. This project is still under way and the partial results are yet difficult to interpret.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2008, No.183, p.18-35. Illus.
Protocol for the quality control and assurance of the system of production of radiographies for the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis
Protocolo de control y garantía de calidad del sistema de producción de imágenes radiológicas para el diagnostico de neumoconiosis [in Spanish]
This protocol for the quality control and assurance of hospital radiology services involved in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis is based on the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The proposed procedures concern medical equipment including X-ray generators, development processes, darkroom techniques and display systems.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental , av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2007, 18p. 20 ref.
Protocolo_de_control_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]
Kojo K., Helminen M., Leuthold G., Aspholm R., Auvinen A.
Estimating cosmic radiation dose for a cabin crew with flight timetables
The aim of this study was to develop an assessment method for occupational exposure of the cabin crew of a Finnish airline to cosmic radiation based on flight timetables. The frequency of flights, aircraft types and flight profiles from timetables were collected. The cosmic radiation dose was calculated with the EPCARD software. Based on annual doses and work history, the cumulative dose was estimated. The annual dose increased linearly: 0.7 milliSievert (mSv) in 1960, 1.6mSv in 1980, 2.3mSv in 1985, and 2.1mSv in 1995. The median cumulative dose was 20.8mSv. This method provides a simple algorithm for occupational dose assessment for cabin crew and can also be used in other research settings.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.540-545. Illus. 19 ref.
Kłuciński P., Mazur B., Hrycek A., Maśluch E., Cieślik P., Kaufman J., Martirosian G.
Expression of cellular isoform of prion protein on the surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes among women exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation
The objective of this case-control study was to determine the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the expression of cellular isoform prion protein (PrPc) found on surface peripheral blood lymphocytes of women operating X-ray equipment. It involved 36 exposed women and 30 unexposed controls, also women. The PrPc expression on CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD4 (T helper), CD8 (T cytotoxic) and CD19 (B lymphocytes) as well as the percentage of lymphocytes with PrPc on their surface were tested. A significant increase in PrPc expression on CD3 and CD4 with lowered PrPc level on CD8 and in percentage of CD8 cells with PrPc were observed among exposed subjects compared to controls. Other findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.14, No.2, p.225-228. 27 ref.
Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries
Zircon is used for the manufacture of zirconia (zirconium dioxide), zirconium chemicals and zirconium. The geological processes that formed zircon led to the incorporation of radionuclides of natural origin into the crystal structure. The presence of these radionuclides requires controlling exposures of workers and members of the public. This report provides detailed information on the major industrial applications of zircon and zirconia, the processes involved, the management of radioactive waste material arising from such processes, the radiological characteristics of these materials, exposure pathways to workers and members of the public, exposure levels and annual effective doses, together with examples of good practice with respect to radiation monitoring techniques and practical measures to reduce doses.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2007. 149p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 36.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1289_Web.pdf [in English]
Le Guen B., Masse R.
Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation
Effets des faibles doses des rayonnements ionisants [in French]
The carcinogenic nature of ionizing radiation is widely documented. However, its harmful effects on human reproduction have never been proven. Regulations on low-level exposure to ionizing radiation, based on studies of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, are based on the principle that a residual risk for humans remains whatever the level of exposure. These regulations are. Results are compatible with a linear link between radiation exposure and the excess of solid tumours from exposures of approximately 200mSv. By conducting retrospective epidemiological studies in occupational settings, it is possible to directly estimate the cancer risk among workers exposed to low radiation doses. Although it is currently very convenient for risk management, the assumed linearity of the dose/effect relationship has not been verified for all models. More specifically, with regard to low dose rates delivered by low-LET emitters, this hypothesis has been widely debated in the light of recent observations. Ionizing radiation can alter any of a cell's molecules, but DNA is the most critical biological target owing to the limited redundancy of genetic information it contains. If DNA is altered, some defects in cellular signalling, as well as in DNA repair and cell cycle control, increase the likelihood of cancer and mutations appearing. Phenomena revealed in the past ten years pertaining to variations in low-dose and high-dose radiosensitivity cannot only be explained by variations in the effectiveness of repair or defence systems. Consequently, recent radiobiological data has shown that the body's defence mechanisms against low and high doses are very different. Today, it is known that in the event of radiation exposure, if the initial physical phenomena are indeed proportional to the dose, the nature and effectiveness of the triggered defence mechanisms vary according to dose and dose rate. These findings challenge the validity of high-dose effects extrapolated to low doses.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.156, 13p. 74 ref.
Radiation protection, regulations (II)
Radioprotection, la réglementation (II) [in French]
Radiation protection regulations apply whenever there is a risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, be they electrically-generated or emitted by artificial or natural sources. This article comments the changes in the French regulatory and legal framework since 2002 and in particular since Law No.2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on transparency and safety in the nuclear area came into force. Other topics addressed: permissions procedure for radioactive sources: responsibilities of competent persons in the field of radiation protection; training, dosimetry and medical supervision of workers at risk of exposure.
Face au risque, Mar. 2007, No.431, p.27-29. Illus.
Medical practice and ionizing radiation: Information sheet to help evaluate hazards in radiation therapy, together with current regulations
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en radiothérapie et textes applicables [in French]
Following a survey carried out in the Ile-de-France region of France, a multidisciplinary working group compiled a series of information sheets aimed at helping analyse risks in conventional and interventional radiological services. The information sheet described in this article specifically addresses external radiotherapy (particle accelerators). It includes a synthesis of useful information in this field, together with a list of relevant French legislation on radiation protection in the medical field.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.161-171.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20114/$File/TC114.pdf [in French]
Environmental radiological protection in the law - A baseline survey
This booklet presents the findings of a study of international, European and national legislation aimed at protecting the environment from ionizing radiation. Countries covered include Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The analysis of the legislation draws conclusions about how well the environment is protected from radiation, and identifies strengths and weaknesses of current approaches as well as trends in regulation. The book will be useful reading for regulators and policy makers in radiological protection, but also for those interested in environmental regulation more generally.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine Saint Germain, 12 Boulevard des Îles, 92130 Issy-les.Moulineaux, France, 2007. 61p. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.nea.fr/html/rp/reports/2007/nea6172-law.pdf [in English]
Radiation protection: Effects, doses (I)
Radioprotection, les effets, les doses (I) [in French]
Radiation protection is of relevance to employees and self-employed individuals who work in the presence of ionizing radiation generated electrically (such as X-rays) or by radioactive sources, as well in the case of the risk of contamination by radioactive substances. This article on radiation protection covers the immediate effects of radiation (damage to living tissues), the longer-term effects (DNA damage), the need for radiation protection and the selection of a suitable level of protection, taking into account both technical and cost factors.
Face au risque, Jan. 2007, No.429, p.15-17. Illus.
Fundamental safety principles
Principios fundamentales de seguridad [in Spanish]
Jiben anquan yuanze [in Chinese]
Osnovopolagajuščije principy bezopasnosti [in Russian]
Principes fondamentaux de sûreté [in French]
This report states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles of the IAEA. The fundamental safety objective, which is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities used for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including nuclear installations, the use of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2006. 21p. Price: EUR 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273a_web.pdf [in Arabic]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_web.pdf [in English]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1273_F_web.pdf [in French]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/pub1273r_web.pdf [in Russian]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273c_web.pdf [in Chinese]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1273_S_web.pdf [in Spanish]
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