Heating and air conditioning - 250 entries found
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Lavoie J., Marchand G., Cloutier Y., Beaudet Y., Lavoué J.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning - Validation of system cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions
Chauffage, ventilation et conditionnement d'air - Validation, dans des conditions réelles, des critères de déclenchement du nettoyage des systèmes [in French]
The cleanliness of a ventilation system invariably affects the quality of the air that it distributes. However, it is difficult for building managers to assess the relevance of having their systems cleaned and to choose among the many proposals from cleaning specialists because no objective method exists for evaluating the dustiness of systems. This study developed a method for collecting surface dusts in heating, ventilation and air conditioning ducts and identified criteria for initiating cleaning. The method was validated in the laboratory and compared to other methods mentioned in the scientific literature. The criteria for these methods were validated in the ventilation systems of occupied non-industrial buildings. Building managers can now rely on the objective criteria of the offered methods, rather than basing themselves solely on visual inspection, which is subjective.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vi, 15p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: CAD 5.25. Downloadable version free of charge.
Report_R-666.pdf [in English]
Rapport_R-657.pdf [in French]
Improving indoor air quality
This information note lists the main steps to be taken to improve indoor air quality: ensuring a sufficient supply of fresh air; regularly cleaning air outlets and filets; using materials and furnishings that do not contain volatile organic compounds; regularly washing carpets and furniture fabrics; installing a central ventilation system; adopting a no-smoking policy; controlling temperature and humidity levels.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2008. 2p. Illus.
Improving_indoor_air_quality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Non-infectious occupational respiratory diseases due to air conditioning/humidifying systems
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux humidificateurs/climatiseurs [in French]
Occupational non-infectious respiratory diseases due to air conditioning or humidifying systems are caused by moulds or bacteria that colonize the water used to humidify the air by vaporization. They include humidifier fever, humidifier lung, rhinitis and asthma. These diseases are currently rare in occupational settings thanks to improved understanding of the risks, which are taken into account early in the design phase of the equipment. In practice in cases of collective outbreaks, a simple visual inspection of humidification system is performed, followed by cleaning after having identified the critical locations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2008, No.116, p.533-542. Illus. 41 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2044/$File/TR44.pdf [in French]
Norbäck D., Lindgren T., Wieslander G.
Changes in ocular and nasal signs and symptoms among air crew in relation to air humidification on intercontinental flights
This study evaluated the influence of aircraft air humidification on self-reported symptoms among aircrew. Participants comprised 71 flight staff who were examined during eight outbound flights from Stockholm to Chicago and eight return flights. The aircraft were equipped with an evaporation humidifier in the forward part of the cabin. Four of the flights had the air humidification device active on the outbound and deactivated on the inbound flights, while the other four flights had the inverse humidification sequence. The humidification increased the relative air humidity by 10% in the first row of the cabin, by 3% in the last row and by 3% in the cockpit. Air humidification increased tear-film stability and nasal patency and decreased ocular, nasal and dermal symptoms, and headache. The mean concentration of viable bacteria was low, both during the humidified and non-humidified flights. Air humidification could improve passenger and crew comfort and reduce the incidence of various symptoms.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.138-144. 29 ref.
Gebhardt H., Müller B.H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Assessment of radiant heating systems (tube heaters)
Bewertung von Strahlungsheizungen (Dunkelstrahler) [in German]
This report presents the results of laboratory tests of tube heaters. Measurements of convective and radiant heat transfer were carried out at ambient temperatures of between -2°C to +15°C, while simultaneously changing the strenuousness of the tasks, work postures (sitting or standing) and tube intensities. The evaluations took account of physiological effects and subjective assessments. Findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 72p. Illus. 58 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
de la Fuente L.
Prevention and control of Legionella pneumophila
Prevención y control de Legionella pneumophila [in Spanish]
This article describes the prevention and control of Legionella pneumophila, a bacteria which causes legionellosis (legionnaire disease) and Pontiac fever. Contents: characteristics of the bacteria; factors that contribute to its development (nutrients, resistance against biocides, water temperature); epidemiological aspects; clinical symptoms; diagnosis; prevention; equipment likely to be contaminated (hot and cold drinking water, cooling towers, evaporation condensers); relevant legislation and standards.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2005, Vol.25, No.99, p.15-27. Illus.
http://www.mapfre.com/fundaciones/es/FundacionMapfre/publicaciones/pdf/Prevencion_MapfreSeguridad_n99_art2.PDF [in Spanish]
Effective protection of the respiratory system against organic vapours and gases
Efektywna ochrona układu oddechowego przed parami i gazami organicznymi [in Polish]
This handbook examines the use of air-purifying respirators for protection against organic vapours and gases. It also describes the characteristics of porous solids used for air cleaning and the principles of vapour absorption.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2004. 54p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Workplace ventilation - Air circulation techniques [Germany]
Arbeitsplatzlüftung - Lufttechnische Maßnahmen [in German]
This technical rule instructs employers on how to provide appropriate workplace air for their workers in order to protect their health and well-being. Contents: requirements for air in the workplace; principal protection measures (prevention of harmful emissions, aspiration, ventilation, personal protection); requirements for aspiration; aeration techniques; organizational measures within the enterprise. In annex: air capture equipment; separation for particles and gases; use of heat in ventilation equipment; list of relevant regulations, rules and standards. Formerly known as ZH 1/140.
Carl Heymanns Verlag, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 2004. 55p. Illus.
http://www.bau-bg.de/arge_infopool_live/internet/zh/Z140/Titel.htm [in German]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Manual of thermal comfort - Heating periods
Handbuch der thermischen Behaglichkeit - Heizperiode [in German]
This manual consists of a decision-support tool for selecting appropriate heating systems for office and residential buildings. It is aimed at building proprietors, architects, physicists, engineers and designers specialized in the technical equipment of buildings, as well as at hygienists, safety specialists and scientists working in the field of thermal comfort. Contents: thermal comfort principles and criteria; work algorithms; limiting and constraining conditions; overview of the study parameters; diagrams illustrating thermal comfort of highly diverse structures and equipment; graphical representations; analysis of the results based on comfort comparisons.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 368p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: EUR 27.00.
Kliemt G., Kupec P., Voullaire E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Hazardous substances management in the building trades: Roofing and sanitation, heating and air conditioning
Gefahrstoffmanagement im Handwerk: Dachdecker und Sanitär-Heizungs-Klimatechnik [in German]
This study discusses the management of dangerous substances in small enterprises involved in roofing, sanitary equipment installation, heating and air conditioning. For each trade, the dangerous substances to which workers' may be exposed during the various tasks they carry out were identified. Workers were also questioned on their awareness of the hazards to which they were exposed. The findings show that workers are insufficiently informed about the hazards they face. Several measures aimed at improving the management of dangerous substances in small enterprises are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 76p. Illus. 58 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of legionella bacteria in water systems: Audit checklists
This document provides checklists designed to help the responsible person in an enterprise audit the arrangements in place to control legionella bacteria in water systems in the premises. Three checklists are presented: one for the auditing of the risk assessment process and two for the auditing of the system itself (cooling towers and hot and cold water services).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 19p. Price: GBP 4.25.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Pulido E.V.
Using respirators and goggles to control exposure to air pollutants in an anatomy laboratory
This study explored the feasibility of wearing one or a combination of respirators and goggles to control exposure to chemicals in laboratories of anatomy. A total of 28 subjects were trained in wearing protective equipment and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their subjective reaction after having worn the assigned protective equipment while carrying out their normal work. The subjects' exposure to formaldehyde was also measured and it generally exceeded the recommended limits. When a full-face respirator or the combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles were worn, a majority of subjects reported no odour problem and no irritation to the eyes or the upper respiratory system. Subjects accepted the protective equipment to a certain degree, but those using respirators encountered difficulties communicating with others. The combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles was found to be the best combination to control exposure to air pollutants in a laboratory of anatomy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.326-331.19 ref.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Implementation and evaluation of air flow and heat transfer routines for building stimulation tools
The objective of this thesis was to study the implementation and evaluation of air flow and heat transfer routines, in order to allow a better understanding of thermal and ventilation performance in buildings. Simulation routines were developed, focusing on the methods of predicting air infiltration and ventilation processes and multi-mode heat transfer within and between different building structures. The simulation routines were implemented in a new building simulation tool entitled BUS++ and various tests were conducted to validate the air flow and heat transfer routines.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 45+52p. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/2002/P471.pdf [in English]
Aguado Sierra S., Polo Bamala A.C., Coronas Ceresuela J., Santamaría Ramiro J.
Elimination of volatile organic compounds from the interior air of buildings
Eliminación de compuestos orgánicos volátiles del ambiente interior de edificios [in Spanish]
The pollution of indoor air by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a well-known problem to which there is no single and permanent answer. After reviewing the various methods currently used for limiting the concentration of the VOCs in the indoor air of buildings, this article proposes a new method based on the use of microporous zeolitic membranes. Compared to other processes or other types of membranes, zeolitic membranes have several advantages: they do not saturate and can be operated continuously, they are chemically and thermally stable and experimental results indicate that high filtering efficiencies are possible at reduced costs. These compact and modular membranes could be easily adapted for integration into air conditioning systems.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.87, p.23-31. Illus. 13 ref.
Pollution control on work premises
Ograniczanie emisji zanieczyszczeń w pomieszczeniach pracy [in Polish]
This publication describes the various types of ventilation and dust-removal systems. It is aimed at helping to select means of controlling internal air pollution in the work environment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 71p. Illus. 30 ref.
Goyer N., Lavoie J.
Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents
Measurements were taken in summer in 11 Canadian paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill and identified and quantified the main chemical compounds and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. Sulfur compounds had the highest concentrations in the air. Next were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, some organic acids and terpenes, which come from wood. Odour perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mould Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are managed by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air and through the wearing of personal protective equipment. Stringent personal hygiene measures remain the best means of prevention for bioaerosols.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.330-341. Illus. 27 ref.
Khémili A., Paulus-Lanckriet M., Battistoni F., Lallemand A., Ben Lakhdar M., Bel O., Banach R., Goetz F.
Special feature on heating and cooling energy
Dossier énergie chaud/froid [in French]
Special feature consisting of a collection of articles on the topic of industrial heating and cooling. Contents: work in view of standardization of industrial heating and cooling; new cooling fluids having both environmental protection and technical performance capabilities; numerical simulation applied to the design of complex installations; research and development needs in the area of binary-phase cooling fluids; attractiveness of treating water used in steam boilers; safety of pressure systems.
Revue Technique Apave, 2nd quarter 2001, No.294, p.9-26. Illus.
Heitbrink W.A., Yacher J.M., Deye G.J., Spencer A.B., Burroughs G.E.
Mist control at a machining center, Part 1: Mist characterization; Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners
The mists generated by a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF), consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA), used at a machining centre producing transmission parts were analysed for concentration, particle size and distribution. This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist, which was installed in more than 25 machining centres. The facility also implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involved regularly scheduled filter changes. Air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3, and personal air particulate concentrations were reduced from 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation and filtration in significantly reducing exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centres.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.275-289. Illus. 43 ref.
von Kempski D., Zieger H.R.
Addition of fragrances to indoor air and indoor air quality
REZ Raumluft-Essenzen-Zugabe und Raumluftqualität [in German]
Removing odours and contaminants from indoor air in order to satisfy technical standards is not enough to ensure worker satisfaction. The addition of fragrances is required for providing olfactory comfort. The main features of a fragrance addition system are outlined. Fragrance is placed in a bypass of a building's ventilation air stream. Concentrations of the fragrance between the thresholds of perception and recognition are required for the air to be perceived as fresh and pleasant. Humidity, temperature, air flow and the ratio of air intake and re-circulation are measured to control the system. An experimental test with a specific fragrance mix revealed an optimum at 1.7ppm of the mix in the air when the temperature was 19°C and the relative humidity 38%.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Feb. 2000, Vol.51, No.2, p.68, 70-74. Illus. 14 ref.
Parat S., Perdrix A.
Air conditioning and health
Climatisation et santé [in French]
Topics: aerosols; air conditioner disease; air conditioning; aspergillosis; bacterial toxins; bronchiolitis; data sheet; encyclopaedia; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; filter dust collectors; France; health hazards; immuno-allergy; interleukins; legionellosis; mycotoxins; organic dust; risk factors; sick building syndrome; workplaces.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1999, No.122, 6p. Illus. 71 ref.
Menzies D., Pasztor J., Rand T., Bourbeau J.
Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: Effect on office worker health and well-being - A pilot study
The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of gernimicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. 104 workers participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work-related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does not seem to result in any adverse effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.397-402. 34 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
The thermal environment: Local thermal discomfort
Ambiente térmico: inconfort térmico local [in Spanish]
This information note defines the factors leading to local thermal discomfort (draughts, asymmetric thermal radiation, vertical air temperature gradients or contact with warm or cold floors) and describes experimental studies which have led to recommended limits for avoiding discomfort.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 6p. Illus. 10 ref.
Alcouffe J., Chaudron B., Crestois M., Haëntjens C., Hemery J.M., Özkan Rabret E., Peyronnet M.
Comparative analysis of occupational accidents among elevator and air conditioning maintenance personnel
Analyse comparative d'accidents du travail chez les agents de maintenance d'ascenseurs et de génie climatique [in French]
An epidemiological study of work injuries (W.I.) was conducted among lift and climatic engineering maintenance operators. Lesion locations were similar (hands, eyes). However, low back pain was more frequent among climatic engineering maintenance operators who had more sick leave lasting more than a week. The injuries linked to the device occurred more often in the morning and in August/September for climatic engineering maintenance operators, while peaks of frequency were in the afternoon and in April/October among lift maintenance operators. The primary difference between the two groups was the occurrence of public highway injuries, seven times higher among lift maintenance operators than among controls. Currently, lift maintenance operators mostly use motorized bikes in the Paris area while climatic engineering maintenance operators use cars. In conclusion, the reason why lift maintenance personnel have a greater incidence of W.I. than climatic engineering maintenance personnel is that they are exposed to greater risk on the public highway.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.537-542. 8 ref.
Does the sick building syndrome also occur in naturally ventilated buildings?
Sick-Building-Syndrom auch bei Fensterlüftung? [in German]
Preliminary results of a questionnaire survey of 3,252 workers in 10 air-conditioned or naturally ventilated office buildings in Germany show that health complaints such as headache and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes were voiced by employees in both types of office buildings. Between 22 and 55% of workers had complaints. Younger, less well-trained workers and those working on visual display terminals voiced complaints more frequently than others. Workers complained of too dry air and poor air quality, and measurements verified that humidity was low in both air-conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings. In 53 of 859 workplaces in which measurements were taken the carbon dioxide concentration was above 1000ppm. Most of these worklaces (51) were in naturally ventilated buildings. Topics: air conditioning; CRT display terminals; ergonomics; lighting; microclimate; natural ventilation; office work; qualifications; questionnaire survey; sick building syndrome.
Argus Journal, Mar. 1998, Vol.10, No.1-2, p.22-23. Illus.
Air purification ventilation system for earthmoving machinery used in moving solid waste
Erdbaumaschinen mit Anlagen zur Atemluftversorgung bei der Müllumlagerung [in German]
For moving approximately 40,000m3 of refuse at a waste landfill site in Germany an excavator was equipped with a pressurized driver's cabin and an air purification ventilation system. Ambient air was passed through 2 consecutive dust filters for the collection of coarse and fine dust and an activated carbon filter for the removal of harmful gases and vapours. The equipment was selected on the basis of quantitative analyses of the harmful substances present in the landfill. Topics: air purification; civil engineering; drivers cabs; dust collectors; earthmoving equipment; excavators; garbage; harmful substances; refuse collection; ventilation systems.
Tiefbau, Feb. 1998, Vol.110, No.2, p.84-86. Illus.
Muzi G., Abbritti. G., Accattoli M.P., Dell'Omo M.
Prevalence of irritative symptoms in a nonproblem air-conditioned office building
In a questionnaire survey of 198 employees in an air-conditioned office building and 281 controls working in naturally ventilated buildings, a significantly higher proportion of workers in the air-conditioned building reported a lack of comfort in the working environment compared with controls. The most common complaints were strong lighting, high temperature and dry, dusty and/or stuffy air. The prevalence of ocular, upper airway and cutaneous symptoms was higher among the workers in the air-conditioned building. No significant difference was observed in respiratory or general symptoms. Working with video display units and photocopiers influenced ocular symptoms; while upper airway and cutaneous symptoms were influenced by female gender and working in the air-conditioned building. Topics: air-conditioned premises; CRT display terminals; eye irritation; irritation; natural ventilation; offices; questionnaire survey; sick building syndrome; symptoms.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1998, Vol.71, No.6, p.372-378. Illus. 39 ref.
Simmons R.B., Price D.L., Noble J.A., Crow S.A., Ahearn D.G.
Fungal colonization of air filters from hospitals
Topics: air filtration; air-conditioned premises; fungi; hospitals; microorganisms; moulds.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.12, p.900-904. Illus. 25 ref.
Seneviratne M., Phoon W.
Do indoor air quality remedies cure "sick" buildings? A case study
Topics: air-conditioned premises; airborne dust; Australia; offices; questionnaire survey; sick building syndrome; social aspects; subjective assessment; thermal environment.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1997, Vol.13, No.4, p.381-387. Illus. 12 ref.
Chen Y.T., Constable S.H., Bomalaski S.H.
A lightweight ambient air-cooling unit for use in hazardous environments
A compact battery-powered beltpack cooling unit was developed to deliver filtered ambient air to the face and body. The device was tested on seven subjects wearing chemical protective clothing who performed exercises in a thermally controlled chamber under different experimental conditions. Intermittent cooling (air conditioned cooling during rest periods but no personal cooling during work cycles) and continuous air cooling (personal cooling during work cycles and conditioned air cooling during rest periods) resulted in significant reductions in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, and heart rate compared with the no-cooling conditions. The continuous air-cooling trial significantly improved thermal comfort and sweat evaporation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 10 ref.
Ventilation and purification of workplace air
Aération et assainissement des ambiances de travail [in French]
Topics: air purification; comment on directive; comment on law; France; glossary; harmful substances; legislation; limitation of exposure; mechanical ventilation; natural ventilation; responsibilities of employers; ventilation; workplaces.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1996. 48p. Illus. 39 ref.
Parat S., Fricker-Hidalgo H., Perdrix A., Bemer D., Pelissier N., Grillot R.
Airborne fungal contamination in air-conditioning systems: Effect of filtering and humidifying devices
Air samples collected above and below filters and humidifiers in air-conditioning systems were analyzed for total culturable airborne fungi and for 4 specific moulds. Two types of filters were studied in four air-conditioning systems. Concentration levels below the high-efficiency filters were significantly lower than those above the filters; filter efficiency was dependent on the fungi. Concentration levels below the humidifier were lower than above it. The association of a high-efficiency filter with a humidifying device containing uncontaminated water reduces the risk of microbiological air contamination. The effect of particle size on filter efficiency is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.996-1001. Illus. 34 ref.
Air-conditioned storage of hydrofluoric acid
Stockage climatisé pour l'acide fluorhydrique [in French]
Description of the changes made in the operation and maintenance of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) storage facility in France. Originally, the facility was an open-air one, in order to reduce the risk of HF leakage and its eventual effects on the environment. Main features of the change: maintenance of storage temperature below the boiling point of HF, reduction of pressure in the storage tanks, reduction in the diameter of the pipes. The whole of the storage facility, storage tanks and pumping equipment included, is enclosed in a thermally isolated building with air-conditioning that maintains the ambient temperature at a constant +5°C. Because of the risk of projectiles/splashes, sensitive points are enclosed in protective polycarbonate cages, while the long-distance manual valve controls are placed just outside these cages.
Travail et sécurité, May 1996, No.548, p.2-5. Illus.
Ventilation inspection and records for health care and residential facilities
Inspection et documents relatifs à la ventilation dans les établissements de santé et dans les établissements résidentiels [in French]
Topics: air conditioning; Canada; check lists; data sheet; hospitals; inspection records; inspection; local exhaust; long-term care facilities; mechanical ventilation.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Mar. 1995. 4p.
Turner W.A., Bearg D.W., Brennan T.
Principles of workplace ventilation are reviewed. Topics covered: guidelines on the delivery of adequate quantities of ventilation air; types of air delivery systems for residential and commercial buildings; techniques for the evaluation of outdoor air supply, carbon dioxide levels and the adequacy of the heating, ventilation, air conditioning operation schedule compared to the occupancy period in the building; demand-controlled ventilation; quality of outdoor air delivered to building occupants.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.41-57. Illus. 6 ref.
Platforms for maintenance and repair of air-conditioned trucks
Arbeitsbühnen für Wartungs- und Reparaturarbeiten an Kühlfahrzeugen [in German]
Fruits and vegetables are usually transported in air-conditioned trucks. The air-conditioning system is usually installed at the top of the truck. For access, ladders need to be installed on these trucks which, in Germany, must be designed in compliance with Accident Prevention Directive VBG 74. Different types of mobile platforms are described for the installation, maintenance and repair of air-conditioning equipment on trucks. Some are adjustable in height and all have railings protecting against falls from heights.
Unfall-Stop - Mitteilungsblatt der Grosshandels- und Lagerei-Berufsgenossenschaft, Mar. 1995, No.2, p.11-13. Illus.
Batterman S.A., Luoma M.
Characterization of emission sources in buildings and HVAC systems: Quantification and uncertainty
The use of in situ mass balance techniques to characterize emission sources in buildings and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is described. The techniques use flow and concentration measurements taken in the building or HVAC system from which contaminant fluxes and emissions are computed. Uncertainties in results caused by measurement errors and variability in observed concentrations and flows are discussed, and the accuracy of emission estimates derived in this way is evaluated. Results show the required measurement accuracies for various source and building conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1083-1089. Illus. 19 ref.
Use of ozone generating devices to improve indoor air quality
A literature survey was carried out on the use of ozone to remove organic contaminants from the air and the health effects of overexposure to ozone. Health effects of ozone exposure are outlined along with its occurrence, olfactory detection and gaseous-state chemistry. Reports on the use of indoor ozone generators evaluate their potential for excess exposure and their effectiveness in removing air pollutants. It is concluded that ozone is not a practical or effective means of improving indoor air quality, especially in the light of its potentially serious risk to health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.590-598. Illus. 69 ref.
The influence of the microclimate in commercial vehicles on the driver's performance
Der Einfluss des Mikroklimas im Nutzfahrzeug auf die Leistungsfähigkeit des Fahrers [in German]
The results of simulation tests are used to illustrate the effects of temperature rises in the driver's cab. An increase to 30°C increased the number of errors by 28%. At an increase to 35°C the errors rose by 40%. Present air conditioning systems for commercial vehicles are helpful in maintaining a comfortable climate that neither lowers the attention-span of drivers nor increases their reaction time.
ATZ, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.96, No.7-8, p.406-410. Illus. 7 ref.
Squinazi F., Lanfranconi I., Giard A.M.
Comfort and health in air-conditioned buildings: Proposal for a self-administered questionnaire survey to be used by the occupational physician
Confort et santé dans les bâtiments climatisés. Proposition d'un auto-questionnaire à utiliser par le médecin du travail [in French]
As more and more time is spent inside air-conditioned buildings, workers expect the quality of inside air to be as good as or better than outside air. Such buildings tend increasingly to be hermetically sealed, i.e. their windows cannot be opened and forced ventilation systems are in use. A number of infectious and allergic conditions have become relatively common in such indoor environments in recent years, often under the name of sick building syndrome. The self-administered questionnaire survey presented here was developed in order to obtain information on the incidence of these conditions.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.60, p.341-352. 36 ref.
Melenk K., Breunig P.
Ventilation system for workplaces with sorting table conveyors
Raumlufttechnik an Sortierbandarbeitsplätzen [in German]
The sorting-table conveyor in a garbage composting plant in Germany was entirely enclosed for the installation of a ventilation system. All air polluted by smelly substances and pathogens in the breathing zone of workers who sort garbage into compostable and non-compostable components manually is removed by exhaust ventilation. Fresh air is supplied to each of the workplaces at the rate of 300m3/h. In addition, high thermal comfort is provided by the ventilation system. Tracer experiments revealed that unpolluted, fresh air is pushed deep down into the cabin so that even workers who have to bend over the sorting table conveyor are still within the unpolluted zone.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Dec. 1994, Vol.45, No.12, p.609-612. Illus. 2 ref.
Air velocities in rooms with cooling ceilings
Luftgeschwindigkeiten in Räumen mit Kühldecken [in German]
Cooling ceilings consist of a network of cooling ducts suspended from the ceiling and covered with ceiling panels. The air velocities account for much of the comfort in an air conditioned room. Air velocities were measured in model rooms where the cooling ducts covered 90% of the ceiling. The heaters were either arranged in one corner or evenly distributed throughout the room. Lacquered and unlacquered ceiling panels used to cover the cooling ducts were tested. Results are presented in diagrams and a table. It is concluded that comfortable air velocities below 15cm/s are produced in rooms cooled from the ceiling at the level occupied by people.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Dec. 1994, Vol.45, No.12, p.605-608. Illus. 11 ref.
From above - Limits of application of water cooling systems in the ceilings of offices
Von oben - Anwendungsgrenzen von Kühldecken zum Klimatisieren von Büros [in German]
By combination with water cooled ceilings, the required capacity of air conditioning systems can be reduced and costs can be saved. The expenditures for water circulation are less than for air circulation. The maintenance requirements are lower. Different kinds of water cooled ceilings are illustrated and recommendations for the installation are presented.
Maschinenmarkt, Feb. 1994, Vol.100, No.6, p.24-27. Illus. 5 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
Indoor air quality: Microbiological hazards in air conditioning and ventilation systems
Calidad del aire interior: riesgos microbiológicos en los sistemas de ventilación/climatización [in Spanish]
Topics: air conditioning; air humidification; allergies; biological hazards; data sheet; infectious diseases; legionellosis; microclimate; Monday fever; Spain; ventilation systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.
Safety of household and similar electrical appliances. Part 2: Particular requirements for air-cleaning appliances
Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues. Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les épurateurs d'air [in French]
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., June 1993. 21p. ###
Smoragiewicz W., Cossette B., Boutard A., Krzystyniak K.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings
The presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust samples from the air conditioning systems of four office buildings in Montreal, Canada, was determined. The buildings were known to cause sick building syndrome among their occupants. Analyses of the dust samples by thin-layer chromatography yielded four kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins. The results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method appeared to be more sensitive while positive colour reaction on thin-layer chromatography plates using 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine proved less costly and less time-consuming. It was found suitable for qualitative detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust extracts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.113-117. 25 ref.
Burkhart J.E., Stanevich R., Kovak B.
Microorganism contamination of HVAC humidification systems - Case study
Water samples were collected from humidification system water reservoir pans in a large office building. Air washers and steam injection humidification systems are used in the building. Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were found to be the most predominant microorganisms. Only small quantities of bacteria were found in the steam systems, while water collected from the air wash systems was highly contaminated. Data were also available to test the effectiveness of the cleaning system. A sample collected one day before cleaning had 58,100 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU/mL). Samples collected one and two days after cleaning had 250,200 and 258,160 CFU/mL, respectively. This demonstrates not only that the cleaning process is ineffective biologically but also that it may increase the risk of bioaerosol contamination. Sample concentrations, in colony forming units per millilitre, were found to be quite different depending upon the side of the baffle plates from which the sample was collected.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 1993, Vol.8, No.12, p.1010-1014. Illus. 8 ref.
Ventilation of workplaces in production facilities to carry off air pollutants
Gezielte Belüftung der Arbeitsbereiche in Produktionshallen zum Abbau der Schadstoffbelastung [in German]
A ventilation design was tested on models. The design uses convection to carry off air pollutants from workplaces. Through its use, pollution levels could be reduced by up to 90%, a much larger reduction than is possible through conventional ventilation systems. Heat exposure could be reduced by 60%. Application of the new concept to the modernization of an existing ventilation system confirmed the results obtained on the models. The modernized ventilation system reduced the exposure to coolants on the workplaces by 50%. Computer programmes were developed and applied which permit the calculation of the energy consumption as well as of the heat and air pollution levels connected with the ventilation system design.
Verein der Förderer der Forschung im Bereich Heizung-Lüftung-Klimatechnik, Pfaffenwaldring 6a, 7000 Stuttgart, Germany, Sep. 1993. xii, 157p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Luftbefeuchtung [in German]
Umidificazione dell'aria [in Italian]
Humidification de l'air [in French]
Some enterprises require the installation of humidification equipment because constant relative humidity is necessary in the production process. However, poorly or infrequently cleaned humidifiers can cause diseases, such as "humidifier fever" or "humidifier lung". This booklet describes measures for preventing these diseases.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1993. 8p. Illus. 3 ref.
Indoor air quality and HVAC systems
This manual provides a practical guide to the design, installation, operation and maintenance or evaluation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Contents: introduction to indoor air quality problems and the role of HVAC systems; descriptions of HVAC systems; individual components of HVAC systems; evaluation criteria for indoor air quality; evaluation of the ventilation system; quantity of outdoor air delivered to occupants; ventilation characterisation; air movement pathways and pressure relationships; evaluation tools and techniques; sources of air contaminants; glossary and acronyms.
CRC Press, 22-24 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HJ, United Kingdom, 1993. xii, 220p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 48.00.
The HVAC technician
L'agent d'exploitation en génie climatique [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) technicians: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: normal work areas, tools, equipment, products used, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures - safety plans, emergency preparedness, specific first-aid measures); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: this is a job involving, in general, solitary work, high-level of technical knowledge and cognitive strain; it is recommended to provide postural training and to prepare plans for emergency response.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1992, Vol.32, No.4. Insert.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Apparatus for heating, flaming and melting apparatus used in the construction industry [Germany]
Heiz-, Flämm- und Schmelzgeräte für Bau- und Montagearbeiten [in German]
Revised version of safety regulations (updating document abstracted under CIS 87-372) applying to heating, flaming and melting apparatus used in the construction industry.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct. 1992. 22 + 12p.
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