Ventilation - 744 entries found
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Cheng J., Yang S.
Data mining applications in evaluating mine ventilation system
Ventilation systems are an important component of underground mines. They provide a sufficient quantity of air to maintain suitable working environment. Based on former findings and in-depth analysis of mine ventilation systems, this article proposes an early warning model to improve the mine ventilation safety. The model itself is comprised of two sub-models, and two data mining techniques are used to assist in building each sub-model. One is the optimal indexes selection model which applies the Rough Set theory (RS) to assist the selection of best ventilation indexes. The other is the risk evaluation model based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the risk ranks for the mine ventilation system. Testing cases are used to demonstrate the applicability of this integrated model.
Safety Science, 2011, 5p. Illus. 15 ref.
Data_mining_applications.pdf [in English]
Rossel Farrás M.G., Muñoz Martinez A.
General ventilation in hospitals
Ventilación general en hospitales [in Spanish]
In hospitals, ventilation must ensure appropriate sanitary conditions by reducing contaminant levels in ambient air in order to protect patients and staff. This information note examines the requirements of the various applicable standards concerning air quality as a function of the type of premises.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 6 ref.
NTP_859.pdf [in Spanish]
Dang B., Chen L., Mueller C., Dunn K.H., Almaguer D., Roberts J.L., Otto C.S.
Ocular and respiratory symptoms among lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort
The objective of this study was to determine the cause of eye and respiratory irritation symptoms among lifeguards at an indoor waterpark. The investigation involved environmental sampling for chloramine, endotoxin and microorganisms, administering symptom questionnaires, reviewing ventilation system designs and reviewing water chemistry. Airborne trichloramine concentrations were found at levels reported to cause irritation symptoms in other studies. Some endotoxin concentrations were found at levels associated with cough and fever in previous studies. Exposed lifeguards were significantly more likely to report work-related irritation symptoms than unexposed individuals. The ventilation system may not have provided sufficient air movement and distribution to adequately capture and remove air contaminants. No water microbes were detected and water chemistry met state standards.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.207-213. 26 ref.
Ko J.S., Yoon C.H., Yoon S.W., Kim J.
Determination of the applicable exhaust airflow rate through a ventilation shaft in the case of road tunnel fires
In this study, a model experiment in a long road tunnel employing a longitudinal ventilation system with a ventilation shaft was carried out during a fire accident, to determine the optimum exhaust airflow rate through the ventilation shaft. The appropriate operation of the shaft fan according to the position of fire was investigated, and the optimum exhaust airflow rate for prevention of smoke spreading through the tunnel was determined based on the entire exhaust of both smoke and airflow generated by fire and jet fan operation, respectively. As a result of using the amount of smoke, the critical air velocity produced by jet fans, the effective cross-sectional area of a tunnel and the correction factor, a formula for exhaust airflow rate was derived. In addition, a correction factor for the thermal expansion caused by heat of a 20 MW fire was determined theoretically and experimentally. It is expected that this study will contribute to plan the shaft operation for the emergency ventilation as well as provide the preliminary data to design the airflow rate of shaft.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.722-728. Illus. 13 ref.
The ILO conventions on occupational safety and health: An opportunity to improve working conditions and work environments
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo [in Spanish]
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [in Spanish]
Rapp R., Fontaine J.R., Henry F., Duquenne P., Koehler V., Greff G., Liang S., Görner P., Becker A.
Air diffusion in sorting rooms at domestic waste treatment centres - Which work station ventilation system?
Diffusion de l'air dans les salles tri des centres traitement des ordures ménagères - Quelle ventilation au poste de travail ? [in French]
Domestic waste sorting may be the cause of respiratory or digestive diseases for employees in the waste treatment sector. Site measurements have led to the proposal of ventilation-based prevention methods for reducing biocontamination risk in manual sorting rooms. Each operator is positioned in a unidirectional fresh air flow. Ventilation system performance characteristics were evaluated by measuring dust concentrations, biological indicators and climatic parameters, providing an estimate of the personnel's thermal comfort. Findings are based on a design study involving two pre-sorting cabins before and after modifying the ventilation systems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2009, No.215, p.19-28. Illus. 28 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202309/$File/ND2309.pdf [in French]
Improving indoor air quality
This information note lists the main steps to be taken to improve indoor air quality: ensuring a sufficient supply of fresh air; regularly cleaning air outlets and filets; using materials and furnishings that do not contain volatile organic compounds; regularly washing carpets and furniture fabrics; installing a central ventilation system; adopting a no-smoking policy; controlling temperature and humidity levels.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2008. 2p. Illus.
Improving_indoor_air_quality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Ivings M.J., Clarke M.S., Gant S.E., Fletcher B., Heather A., Pocock D.J., Pritchard D.K., Santon R., Saunders C.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Area classification for secondary releases from low pressure natural gas systems
This report reviews current methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the ventilation of enclosures. British Standard BS 5925 which describes a method for calculating air change rates was applied to two enclosures where the air change rate was measured experimentally. In the first of the two cases considered, the calculated air change rate was in good agreement with the measurements, whereas in the other case it under-predicted the ventilation rate. An improved model was proposed and validated against 29 experimental tests carried out in a purpose built enclosure. The experimental tests consisted of releases of simulated methane gas for a range of leak rates and ventilation rates. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 182p. Illus. 26 ref.
Report_RR630.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling airborne contaminants at work - A guide to local exhaust ventilation (LEV)
This booklet describes the principles and good practices of selecting, designing, commissioning, maintaining and testing cost-effective local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems. It is aimed at suppliers of LEV, employers and managers in medium sized businesses, and trade union and employee safety representatives.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. iv, 80p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: GBP 12.95.
Rapp R., Henry F., Fontaine J.R.
Air diffusion in sorting rooms at domestic waste treatment centres - Study of the ventilation characteristics of four air input systems
Diffusion de l'air dans les salles de tri des centres de traitement des ordures ménagères - Etude des caractéristiques aérauliques de quatre dispositifs d'introduction de l'air [in French]
The INRS recommends that an overhead air supply island be placed above each workstation in domestic waste sorting premises. In this study, the aerological performance of various types of air supply islands were evaluated based on measured air velocities at the exit of the unit and at the breathing level of potential operators. It was found that a system comprised of a simple casing with a single perforated grill (perforation ratio above 45%) is insufficient to ensure a properly- directed flow. Acceptable performance can be obtained with two grills (perforation ratio below 32%) or with a casing fitted with a filter.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.15-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Wilson S.C., Palmatier R.N., Andriychuk L.A., Martin J.M., Jumper C.A., Holder H.W., Straus D.C.
Mold contamination and air handling units
An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to identify common mold species found on these equipments, to determine whether some locations featured mould growth sites more frequently than others, to ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mould contamination, and to provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. Samples were collected from the blower fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins and ductwork from 25 AHUs. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly found in the blower fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were also found on cooling coil fins and insulation. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2007, Vol.4, No.7, p.483-491. Illus. 20 ref.
Welding safety: Ventilation is a breath of fresh air
Airborne particles are categorized into three main types: large particles greater than 100μ in diameter which can cause irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, but are not fine enough to reach the lungs; medium particles between one and 100μ in diameter which include pollen, large bacteria and coal dust, as well as dust produced during industrial processes including welding and grinding; they pose the greatest health risk, because they are able to penetrate the lungs where they settle; small particles of less than one micron in diameter which also pose serious health risks; they include viruses, small bacteria, metallic fumes and pigments. Given that there are an estimated 400,000 welders in the United States, it is important to understand the potential health consequences of particle inhalation and to choose the proper ventilation, filtration and protection systems for protecting welders from airborne particles.
Occupational Hazards, Dec. 2007, p.33-34. Illus.
Wood: How to avoid dust inhalation
Bois: comment éviter l'inhalation de poussières [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the risks related to the inhalation of wood dust in woodworking shops (conjunctivitis, rhinitis, asthma, respiratory syndrome, pulmonary fibrosis, eczema, ethmoid and facial sinus cancer); medical supervision of exposure to wood dust; collection of dust at the source by means of local exhaust ventilation; experience of a woodworking shop having recently installed a local exhaust ventilation system.
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2007, No.94, p.38-47. Illus.
Charreton M., Lacoste M., Millet M.
Ventilation installation records
Le dossier d'installation de ventilation [in French]
French labour law on the ventilation and purification of work premises requires that employers to keep, and maintain current, records on the installation of each item of the ventilation system. One of the objectives of these regulations is to ensure that employers are familiar with the ventilation equipment from the time of its design, through the regular maintenance and inspection activities. Preparing the various parts of the installation records can sometimes be complex, which is why this guide has set out to transpose the legal requirements into practical terms. A true example of the compilation of an installation record is presented. The records are to be made available on demand to labour inspectors, to the competent social security agencies and to members of the hygiene, safety and working conditions committee of the enterprise.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2007. 20p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 5.20. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/6672F6056AED0334C12572C900380323/$File/ed6008.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Ventilation of kitchens in catering establishments
This information note provides guidance on ventilation requirements for kitchens. Contents: objectives of an adequate ventilation system; compliance with gas safety regulations; features of an effective kitchen ventilation system; installation of new ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 98-916.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed., 2007. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cais10.pdf [in English]
APSAD Rule R17: Natural smoke-removal systems
La règle APSAD R17: systèmes de désenfumage naturel [in French]
This information note comments on the APSAD (French plenary assembly of damage insurance providers) rule R17, which applies to the installation and maintenance of natural smoke-removing systems, which involve the installation of systems allowing the natural evacuation of smoke and heat.
Face au risque, Oct. 2006, No.426, p.55-56. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Metall- und Oberflächenbehandlung" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Protective measures for spray coating work - lacquer aerosols
Schutzmaßnahmenkonzept für Spritzlackierarbeiten - Lackaerosole [in German]
This code of practice applies to all spray coating work that is performed with spray guns. It does not address the manual application of lacquers and paints. It specifies the requirements to protect workers from the inhalation of lacquer aerosols by installation of a suitable exhaust ventilation system or by the supply of respirators. It provides criteria for deciding which of the two methods of protection is needed in each case.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2006. 15p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.40.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bgz/entwicklung/pdf_bild/bgvr03_pdf/bgr_231.pdf [in German]
Roberge B., Ménard L., Turcotte A., Beadet Y., Lazure L.
Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fuelled lift truck maintenance
Evaluation d'un système d'évacuation des gaz d'échappement lors de l'entretien des chariots élévateurs au propane [in French]
Propane-fuelled lift truck tuning activities produce carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the workers' breathing zone that may exceed threshold limit values. Mechanics often tune and maintain these vehicles in open area shops, which in many cases do not meet minimum ventilation requirements. During the initial site studies carried out within the scope of this project, it was noted that a mobile system of CO collection system might solve this problem. The efficiency of such a system, consisting of a collection hose used alone or coupled with a portable fan connected to a vehicle's exhaust pipe, was demonstrated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 37p. Illus. 7 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-458.pdf [in French]
Sanders C.J., Ivings M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Natural ventilation of offshore modules
Natural ventilation is a common method for mitigating the hazard posed by gas and vapour leaks on offshore platforms. Openings in wind walls and doors allow the wind to blow through a module and hence the ventilation is not generally dependent on the operation of any devices such as mechanical fans. This report investigates the effectiveness of natural ventilation of offshore platforms, focusing on the non-uniformity of the ventilation within a module and its dependence on the wind conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 82p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr402.pdf [in English]
Gagnon C., Fytas H.
Development of a ventilation friction factor database for Quebec mines
Développement d'une banque de données de facteurs de friction de ventilation pour les mines québécoises [in French]
During the design of an underground ventilation network, several parameters need to be estimated, the most important being the friction factor K, namely the quantification of the resistance of the walls of underground openings to the passage of air. In this project, a factor K database was developed and appended to mining ventilation software. The database allows for the rapid estimation of friction factors, thus facilitating ventilation network simulation. Fans or regulators can also be chosen more easily.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. v, 70p. Illus. 54 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. Report is also available on CD-ROM (included).
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-432.pdf [in French]
Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I., Gagnaire F., Héry M., Massin N.
Reduction of worker exposure to nitrogen trichloride through process-related action in two activity sectors
Réduction de l'exposition des travailleurs au trichlorure d'azote par action sur les procédés dans deux secteurs d'activité [in French]
Activity sectors as varied as indoor swimming pools and the ready-to-use fresh vegetable industry are faced with high employee exposures to nitrogen trichloride. The INRS has conducted numerous studies aimed at both characterizing the chemical risk to which workers in these sectors are exposed and proposing technical solutions for reducing pollution and controlling work atmosphere quality. Besides the analytical, toxicological and epidemiological aspects, this document describes technical prevention solutions that have been developed and adapted to activities that involve exposure to nitrogen trichloride. Based on the principle of nitrogen trichloride stripping, two pilot installations have been installed in an indoor swimming pool and in a ready-to-use fresh vegetable-processing plant. Measurements have been carried out to confirm the efficiency of these installations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.9-18. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/2B129BEE07F32AD9412570D8004C4F3C/$FILE/nd2236.pdf [in French]
Harris M.K., Ewing W.M., Longo W., DePasquale C., Mount M.D., Hatfield R., Stapleton R.
Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space
This study evaluated the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fumes when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. Results indicated that 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) general dilution ventilation may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.375-382. Illus. 24 ref.
Iwasaki T., Fujishiro Y., Kubota Y., Ojima J., Shibata N.
Some engineering countermeasures to reduce exposure to welding fumes and gases avoiding occurrence of blow holes in welded material
Open-type push-pull ventilation systems are increasingly being adopted as effective substitutes for conventional local exhaust ventilation systems at many welding workshops in Japan. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the compliance of these systems with Japanese regulations and to establish design requirements and flow rate limitations necessary for avoiding welding defects.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.2, p.351-357. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-2-13.pdf [in English]
Callet F., Leroy D., Marteau E., Monneuse J.Y., Dessagne J.M., Régnier R.
Ventilated cabins for stone dressing work
Cabines ventilées pour le travail de la pierre [in French]
This guide proposes a general approach for the selection and installation of open ventilated cabins for stone dressing work. Ventilated cabins should ensure proper containment so as to protect the other workers present in the workshop, to offer protection to the operator and to remove pollutants. However, current cabin designs do not always fulfil these requirements. Contents: understanding the hazards; specifying the needs; existing solutions; selection of the most suitable solution; guidance on installation and initial operation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2005. 9p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 2.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/43C916F7A85E86F2C1257076002A87DA/$FILE/ed947.pdf [in French]
Bullman S., Chan N.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a ventilator test procedure to take account of external wind conditions
This project investigated the viability of enhancing an existing ventilator test procedure to account for the presence of a wind. Test results showed considerable variation in vent performance when vents were subjected to crosswind flows across a range of face angles. Many designs exhibited strong variation with face angle, while some exhibited significant effective area reductions when the crosswind was introduced. The present findings indicate that the maximum bulk wind speed required for an assessment of vent performance is 21 m/s. Measurements should be taken at five face angles of -90°, -45°, 0°, 45° and 90°. In conclusion, the test procedure described here should form the basis for the characterization of vent units with cowls that are currently available and those that seek BSI approval in the future.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 105p. Illus. Price: GBP 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr288.pdf [in English]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Galvanizing plants - Exhaust ventilation in galvanizing plants
Revista do trabalhador: Galvânicas - Ventilaçâo exautoras em galvânicas [in Portuguese]
The first of these two videotapes examines the hazards of galvanizing plants and describes measures for their control. The second focuses on the need for local exhaust ventilation to reduce workers' exposure to toxic gases.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 16min and 12min.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Local exhaust ventilation systems
Revista do trabalhador: Sistema de ventilação local exaustora [in Portuguese]
This video tape shows how the installation of a local exhaust ventilation system can help to reduce workers' exposure to harmful substances in the air.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 14min.
Stathopoulos T., Lazure L., Saathoff P., Gupta A.
The effect of stack height, stack location and rooftop structures on air intake contamination - A laboratory and full-scale study
Influence de la hauteur et de l'emplacement des cheminées et des édicules sur la contamination des prises d'air neuf - Etude en laboratoire et in situ [in French]
The position of air intakes on the roof of a building is a determining factor for indoor air quality owing to the possible reintroduction of contamination from the neighbouring exhaust stacks. Ventilation system designers currently use tools such as mathematical models and wind tunnel simulations to estimate the dilution between the source and the air intake. Using field tests and boundary layer wind tunnel modelling, this study investigated the dilution phenomenon and impact of certain parameters (wind direction, stack height and location, roof irregularities, turbulence, air exhaust velocity) to refine the models used. This project resulted in the development of guidelines intended for ventilation engineers. The results are also of interest to professional associations and standardization organizations.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. xii, 125p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-392.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-391.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Maintenance, examination and testing of local exhaust ventilation
This booklet provides guidance on the maintenance, examination and testing of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) commonly used to limit the release of hazardous airborne substances in work environments. It is aimed at employers and all persons involved in the operations and maintenance of LEV systems. Contents: legal requirements; selection and protection of personnel; procedures (initial appraisal, maintenance, examination and testing, making a judgement); instruments and techniques; records, reporting and required actions. Appendices include: information required of an LEV system; measurement of plant performance; measurement of static and dynamic pressures; air velocity measurement; use of flow visualization techniques; equations used in LEV testing. Replaces CIS 90-1996.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Jan. 2004. iv, 36p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Régnier R., Subra I., Bémer D., Lecler M.T., Dessagne J.M.
Open cabins for stone-cutting - Comparison of vertical and "oblique" airflow efficiencies
Cabines ouvertes pour la taille de la pierre - Efficacité comparée du flux vertical et du flux "oblique" [in French]
A recent study of ventilated open cabin efficiency highlighted the superiority of vertical airflow over horizontal airflow in many configurations. However, the placement of these cabins can sometimes prove difficult. This constraint has led manufacturers to offer a solution in which the main airflow is not vertical, but directed obliquely. A stonecutting sector evaluation of three cabins, one vertical and two "oblique" airflow units shows that on average, vertical airflow is more efficient than "oblique" airflow in a large number of tested situations. The two "oblique" airflow cabins gave different results: in some situations, one cabin's performance characteristics approached those of vertical airflow cabins, whilst the other gave very scattered results, with lower efficiencies than those of the other two cabins in many situations. It appears "oblique" airflow is more sensitive to the stonecutters' position and machining methods than vertical airflow.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.196, p.31-42. Illus. 5 ref.
Gobeau N., Zhou X.X.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of CFD to predict smoke movement in complex enclosed spaces - Application to three real scenarios: An underground station, an offshore accommodation module and a building under construction
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly used as a predictive tool to demonstrate the effectiveness of modern building designs and emergency ventilation systems to control the movement of smoke in the event of a fire. The objective of this study was to investigate the capabilities and limitations of CFD for predicting the transport of smoke in complex enclosed spaces. Calculations relating to three examples of enclosed spaces were carried out: an underground station, an accommodation module on an offshore platform and a high-rise building under construction. It is concluded that while CFD modelling provides some insight as to smoke generation in the event of a fire, further work focusing on high-sensitivity parameters is still necessary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xii, 48p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr255.pdf [in English]
Lefèvre A., L'Huillier J.C., Muller J.P.
Device for collecting dust from radial saws - CASIR - Technical report
Dispositif de captage de poussières pour scie radiale - CASIR - Dossier technique [in French]
Woodworking or the machining of wood-based composite materials generates dust which is dispersed in the workplace air and which may be inhaled by the workers. Radial saws in particular can be very polluting if not equipped with an efficient local exhaust system. Consequently, the improvement of working conditions often requires changing the existing exhaust systems. This technical report describes an improved dust exhaust system which prevents the dispersion of dust, and presents the results of workplace airborne dust measurements with radial saws equipped with either standard exhaust systems or with the improved system. It also includes all technical details and drawings needed to install such a system.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Jan. 2004. 30p. Illus.
TLD-Europe - A paint spray booth that combines safety and flexibility
TLD-Europe - Une cabine de peinture qui allie sécurité et flexibilité [in French]
This article describes a newly-installed paint spray booth in an enterprise manufacturing large aircraft tractors. It consists of a vertically-ventilated closed booth. Because occupational asthma is particularly frequent among spray painters exposed to isocyanate-containing polyurethane paints, the importance of having adequate ventilation and wearing respirators is stressed.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2004, No.637, p.39-43. Illus. 3 ref.
Cavallé Oller N., Bernal Domínguez F.
Routine checking of local exhaust systems using static pressure measurements
Medición de la presión estática para la comprobación rutinaria de sistemas de extracción localizada [in Spanish]
This information note describes the method for measuring static pressure at the intake of local exhaust ventilation systems for the purpose of estimating the flow of circulating air. Contents: advantages, disadvantages and scope of application of the various types of flow measurements for local exhaust systems; experimental measurements of static pressure; calculation of the air flow based on the hood intake static pressure; evaluation of the exhaust system; practical example of interpretation of the results of static pressure measurements of a system.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 5p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_615.htm [in Spanish]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Workplace ventilation - Air circulation techniques [Germany]
Arbeitsplatzlüftung - Lufttechnische Maßnahmen [in German]
This technical rule instructs employers on how to provide appropriate workplace air for their workers in order to protect their health and well-being. Contents: requirements for air in the workplace; principal protection measures (prevention of harmful emissions, aspiration, ventilation, personal protection); requirements for aspiration; aeration techniques; organizational measures within the enterprise. In annex: air capture equipment; separation for particles and gases; use of heat in ventilation equipment; list of relevant regulations, rules and standards. Formerly known as ZH 1/140.
Carl Heymanns Verlag, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 2004. 55p. Illus.
http://www.bau-bg.de/arge_infopool_live/internet/zh/Z140/Titel.htm [in German]
Health and Safety Executive
Handling cytotoxic drugs in isolators in NHS pharmacies
This information note gives advice on factors to consider when selecting either negative or positive pressure isolators for handling cytotoxic drugs in NHS pharmacies. Topics covered: functions of an isolator; characteristics of negative and positive pressure isolators; routes of operator exposure; combined risk of operator exposure and product contamination; decision table for the selection of either a negative or a positive pressure isolator.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan 2003. 6p. 5 ref.
Jankowska E., Jankowski T., Kondej D.
Investigation of ventilated and unventilated work premises
Badanie obszarów wentylowanych i niewentylowanych w pomieszczeniu pracy [in Polish]
This article presents the results of a complex investigation of ventilated and unventilated spaces using anemometric, tracer gas and visualization methods. The results of investigations conducted in a welding shop are discussed.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 2003, No.1, p.17-19. Illus.
Rapp R., Danet J.P., Dubernet F., Magniez G., Aussel H., Rolin A.
Asbestos site airflow - Study and analysis of ventilation airflow in personnel airlocks using the EOL3D numerical simulation method
Aéraulique des chantiers d'amiante - Etude et analyse des écoulements de ventilation, par simulation numérique avec EOL3D, du sas d'accès du personnel [in French]
In asbestos removal operations, access to the confined working area is ensured by a ventilated entry lock (tunnel). An assessment of the performance of various tunnel ventilation configurations was carried out by means of numerical simulation using EOL3D, a predictive ventilation software developed by INRS. Cleaning times, the age distribution of fresh air and the distribution and average of air velocities were the main indicators used to assess the configurations. Separated ventilation systems (from that of the confined area) were the most efficient in terms of air decontamination. In contrast, the flow rates required are high (>4,000m3/h). A good alternative consists of using a lock equipped with openings laid out alternately (top/bottom) and subject to the negative pressure of the confined area. The surface area of the opening must allow the passage of air at a flow rate of about 1,000m3/h to obtain a decontamination time of less than one minute. Tunnels, which favour an air flow located only at the top or bottom, such as tunnels equipped with flexible screens, should be avoided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.190, p.13-22. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/9A8189B0C36820AFC1256D4E0031A302/$FILE/nd2185.pdf [in French]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Optimization of local exhaust systems - Enhanced insights on the thermally- influenced spread of pollutants
Optimierung von Einrichtungen zur Stofferfassung - Erweiterung der Erkenntnisse zur Stoffausbreitung durch Thermik [in German]
This report presents a methodology for designing local exhaust ventilation systems. Experimental and numerical methods for characterizing the interactions between the captured air volume flow, the spread of contaminants and unwanted air movements are reviewed. An exhaust test rig was developed, on which the numerical calculations were verified experimentally. The parameters studied included the velocity of the cross flow, the distance and vertical misalignment between exhaust system and contaminant source, the source intensity and the dimensions of the heat source. Overall eight heat and contaminant sources were investigated using up to six exhaust designs. Based on these tests, new design approaches are proposed. A practical example showing the application of this methodology is included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 158p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Device for collecting dust from narrow-band sanding machines - CAPEA - Technical report
Dispositif de captage de poussières pour ponceuse à bande étroite - CAPEA - Dossier technique [in French]
Woodworking generates dust which is dispersed in the workplace air and which may be inhaled by the workers. Narrow-band sanding machines in particular can be very polluting if not equipped with an efficient local exhaust system. This technical report describes an improved dust exhaust system which prevents the dispersion of dust, and presents the results of workplace airborne dust measurements on a sanding machine equipped with this system.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2003. 15p. Illus.
Westbury P., Roche L., Pierce B., Smith J.
Health and Safety Executive
The effect of adjacent buildings and topographical features on the wind pressure field around buildings
This work has been carried out to help develop guidance on siting open flue terminals for natural draught domestic gas boilers. The effects of adjacent structures and topographical features on wind pressure fields around dwellings were investigated, and scenarios with high likelihood of flue flow reversal were identified. A combination of wind tunnel testing and computational modelling has been used. Vent pressures on isolated dwellings have also been investigated. Compared to isolated dwellings, the maximum pressure experienced by a flue terminal above a 45° pitch roof was found to be up to 60% higher when very tall or wide structures (e.g. embankments) were located downwind of the dwelling. The percentage increase was higher for the 30° pitch roof, although absolute pressures for the 45° pitch roof were greater.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 91p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr157.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
LEV: Dust capture at fixed drum and disc sanding machines
This information sheet provides guidance for the design of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) fitted to fixed drum and disc sanding machines, and is aimed at machine designers and users, as well as at designers, installers and users of LEV systems. Contents: appropriate LEVs for drum sanders and disc sanders.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2003. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis26.htm [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
LEV: Dust capture at sawing machines
This information sheet provides guidance for the design of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) fitted to sawing machines, and is aimed at machine designers and users, as well as at designers, installers and users of LEV systems. Contents: appropriate LEVs for circular bench saws, travelling cross-cut saws and band saws.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2003. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis24.pdf [in English]
Effectiveness of local exhaust systems
Skuteczność urządzeń wentylacji miejscowej wywiewnej [in Polish]
This article presents current standardization efforts for evaluating the parameters connected with the emission of airborne dust from machinery and devices and assessing the effectiveness of exhaust ventilation systems. It discusses methods used in Germany and Poland. The results of measurements of the emission of dust generated during machining using hand-held power tools and a bench grinder are presented, as well as results of testing the effectiveness of dust removal by local exhaust systems.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2003, No.6, p.24-28. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of legionella bacteria in water systems: Audit checklists
This document provides checklists designed to help the responsible person in an enterprise audit the arrangements in place to control legionella bacteria in water systems in the premises. Three checklists are presented: one for the auditing of the risk assessment process and two for the auditing of the system itself (cooling towers and hot and cold water services).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 19p. Price: GBP 4.25.
Guidance for filtration and air-cleaning systems to protect building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks
This document proposes preventive measures that building owners and managers can implement to protect building air environments from an airborne chemical, biological or radiological (CBR) terrorist attack. Main topics covered: filtration and air-cleaning principles; recommendations regarding filter and sorbent selection, operations, upgrade and maintenance; economic considerations (initial, operation and replacement costs, cost data). In appendices: description of CBR threats; gas-phase air-cleaning principles.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2003. xv, 62p. Illus. 66 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-136/2003-136.html [in English]
Marzal F., González E., Miñana A., Baeza A.
Influence of push element geometry on the capture efficiency of push-pull ventilation systems in surface treatment tanks
A full-scale installation which simulates a surface treatment tank provided with a push-pull ventilation system was designed. This study examines the influence of the geometry of the push element on the capture efficiency of the system. Among the key findings: the capture efficiency increases with the number of holes because of the continuous curtain formed, the size of the holes having no significant effect within the range studied (5-20mm diameter); the push element is best supported on the tank wall so that no air from outside penetrates below the emitting jets because in this way the impact of the curtain on the tank occurs earlier and losses are less; the best results are obtained when the holes are directed downwards towards the tank surface at an angle of between 22 and 45°.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2002, vol.46, No.4, p.383-393. Illus. 17 ref.
Wirtanen G., Miettinen H., Pahkala S., Enbom S., Vanne L.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Clean air solutions in food processing
In the food industry, airflow may be a potential source of contamination because the airborne particles can introduce foreign matter, including microbial contaminants, into the products produced. This literature review deals with air handling in controlled environments. Main topics covered: bioaerosols; clean-room technology; air handling in clean rooms (air distribution, airflow, filtration, pressure difference, humidity and temperature, exhaust); personnel behaviour and clothing in clean rooms; limitation of risks; methods of air-quality assessment; airborne microbial contamination in various food processes (dairies, breweries and beverage production, bakeries, meat and poultry production); air disinfection methods in the food industry; clean-room applications in food and drink processes.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 95p. Illus. 142 ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/2002/P482.pdf [in English]
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Implementation and evaluation of air flow and heat transfer routines for building stimulation tools
The objective of this thesis was to study the implementation and evaluation of air flow and heat transfer routines, in order to allow a better understanding of thermal and ventilation performance in buildings. Simulation routines were developed, focusing on the methods of predicting air infiltration and ventilation processes and multi-mode heat transfer within and between different building structures. The simulation routines were implemented in a new building simulation tool entitled BUS++ and various tests were conducted to validate the air flow and heat transfer routines.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 45+52p. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/2002/P471.pdf [in English]
Contamination of ventilation systems by pigeons: An unrecognized hazard
La contamination des systèmes de ventilation par des pigeons: un risque méconnu [in French]
The presence of pigeons can lead to the contamination of ventilation systems and it favours the growth of microorganisms that can affect the health of persons inside the buildings. Indeed, the contamination of ventilation systems by pigeon droppings is an unrecognized hazard that needs to be addressed. This article describes the symptoms of various diseases caused by pigeons, as well as the measures that need to be taken when pigeons establish a nesting colony near a ventilation system (disinfection, removal of the droppings, decontamination of the premises, installation of physical obstacles).
Travail et santé, Dec. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.22-26. Illus. 11 réf.
Guidance for protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological or radiological attacks
This document provides guidance on preventive measures to be adopted by building owners and managers to protect air environments from a terrorist release of chemical, biological or radiological contaminants. These recommendations focus on short-term actions and are to be considered only as a first step of a process to develop more comprehensive guidance. Contents: scope; background; importance of understanding current building systems; specific recommendations (things not to be done; physical security; ventilation and filtration; maintenance; administration and training); decisions and measures.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, May 2002. vii, 28p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/bldvent/pdfs/2002-139.pdf [in English]
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