Endocrine diseases - 92 entries found
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Report on endocrine disruptors, time for precaution
Rapport sur les perturbateurs endocriniens, le temps de la précaution [in French]
The increased incidence of certain hormone-dependant cancers (breast, prostate) and concerns with respect to human fertility are the subject of wide debate. Substances designated as being endocrine disruptors are strongly suspected of playing an important role. This report addresses the impact of these disruptors on the environment and on human health, as well as the means of managing these risks, both at the French and European levels, based on available scientific data.
Direction de l'information législative et administrative (DILA), Edition La Documentation française, 29 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France, July 2011, Internet document.
Perturbateurs_endocriniens.pdf [in French]
Nassar N., Abeywardana P., Barker A., Bower C.
Parental occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and risk of hypospadias in infants
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between both maternal and paternal occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and hypospadias. This registry-based case-control study considered 1202 cases of hypospadias in children born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2000 and 2583 male controls randomly selected from birth records for whom information regarding parental occupation was available. Occupational exposures to seven groups of potential EDCs were independently coded by two researchers according to a validated job-exposure matrix. Multivariable analysis showed a strong association with potential maternal occupational exposure to heavy metals with an over twofold increased risk of hypospadias (odds ratio OR 2.6), and women exposed to phthalates were more likely to have an affected son (OR 1.2). Compared with mild or isolated cases, the risks of moderate-severe hypospadias or multiple defects were increased up to two- and fivefold, respectively, with maternal exposure to most types of EDCs. Paternal occupational exposures to polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.3) and bi-phenolic compounds (OR 1.6) were also possible risk factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.67, No.9, p.585-589. 37 ref.
Puttonen S., Härmä M., Hublin C.
Shift work and cardiovascular disease - Pathways from circadian stress to morbidity
In order to establish a causal relation between shift work and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathways from the former to the latter need to be verified. This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms between shift work and CVD. Shift work can increase the risk of CVD by several interrelated psychosocial, behavioural, and physiological mechanisms. The psychosocial mechanisms relate to difficulties in controlling working hours, decreased work-life balance and poor recovery following work. The most probable behavioural changes are weight gain and smoking. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changed lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. The data provide evidence for possible disease mechanisms between shift work and CVD, but compelling evidence on any specific mechanism is missing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.96-108. Illus. 129 ref.
Shift_work_and_cardiovascular_disease.pdf [in English]
Jhun H.J., Lee S.Y., Yim S.H., Kim M.J., Park K.K., Cho S.I.
Metabolic syndrome in carbon disulfide-poisoned subjects in Korea: Does chemical poisoning induce metabolic syndrome?
Mass carbon disulfide (CS2) poisoning was reported at a viscose rayon factory in Korea. This study evaluated the association between CS2 poisoning and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The 170 CS2-poisoned subjects participated in a health examination conducted at a hospital. The 170 controls were selected randomly from the participants of a Korean national health survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as simultaneously having at least three of following metabolic abnormalities: abdominal obesity; elevated triglyceride; reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; elevated blood pressure; elevated fasting glucose levels. After adjusting for age, gender, education, marital status, alcohol consumption and smoking, CS2-poisoned subjects had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (prevalence ratio 1.57).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.827-832. 26 ref.
Romeo L., Catalani S., Pasini F., Bergonzi R., Perbellini L., Apostoli P.
Xenobiotic action on steroid hormone synthesis and sulfonation - The example of lead and polychlorinated biphenyls
This study investigated the metabolism of steroid hormones to determine whether and how xenobiotics such as lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interfere with steroid hormone biotransformation in humans. Three groups of subjects were tested for urinary steroids: 14 workers exposed to lead, 15 workers exposed to PCBs and an unexposed control group of 25 subjects. Findings suggest PCBs and Pb act on steroid hormone metabolism with different effects and only partially using the same hormone pathways.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.557-564. Illus. 31 ref.
Risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory system, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testes and skin in firemen
Risque de myélome multiple et de cancers des voies respiratoires, de l'œsophage, de l'estomac, du pancréas, de la prostate, des testicules et de la peau chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory tract, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testicles and skin. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not indicate that the cancers examined in this analysis can be assumed to occur in firefighters as a result of their occupation. This conclusion is based on the absence of a significant increase in risk in most of the studies and the minimal increase in risk in the cases where it is present. See also CIS 08-598/600.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 37p. 79 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-522.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-521.pdf [in French]
Li W., Ray R.M., Gao D.L., Fitzgibbons E.D., Seixas N.S., Camp J.E., Wernli K.J., Astrakianakis G., Feng Z., Thomas D.B., Checkoway H.
Occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer among female textile workers in Shanghai, China
The objective of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposures to dusts and chemicals in the textile industry are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. A case-control study nested in a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China, was conducted among 180 incident pancreatic cancer cases and an age-stratified randomly-selected comparison subcohort of 3188 women. A complete occupational history of work in the textile industry was obtained for each woman and was linked to a job exposure matrix to estimate cumulative exposures to specific dusts, chemicals and endotoxins. After adjusting for smoking status, a, trend of decreasing risk of pancreatic cancer was observed for increasing cumulative exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin with a lag of 20 years. There was little evidence that exposures to other textile dusts and chemicals were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.63, No.12, p.788-793. 38 ref.
Occupational determinants of pancreatic cancer
This study investigated the occupational determinants of pancreatic cancer. In a case-control study, 595 incident cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in Finland between 1984 and 1987 were analysed. A meta-analysis of occupational risk factors was also carried out based on 1,903 studies and 23 chemical agents. Results suggest that heavy occupational exposure to organic solvents, especially aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (but not chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents), may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Additional excess was found for exposure to ionizing radiation.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2006. 158p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 20.00.
http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/kansa/vk/ojajarvi/occupati.pdf [in English]
Ji J., Hemminki K.
Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer: A cohort study in Sweden
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between socio-economic and occupational factors and pancreatic cancer. The Swedish Family Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios for different social classes and occupational groups. Lung cancer risks were also determined. The reference group was all the economically active population of Sweden. It was found that farmers were at a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. A slightly increased risk of pancreatic cancer, independent of lung cancer risk, was observed for male professionals and managers. In addition to smoking, contributory factors may include physical inactivity and obesity. Among women, increased risks were observed for cooks, as well as glass, ceramic and tile workers. Results show that socio-economic and occupational factors play a small role in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.48, No.3, p.283-288. 29 ref.
Zhang Y., Cantor K.P., Lynch C.F., Zhu Y., Zheng T.
Occupation and risk of pancreatic cancer: A population-based case-control study in Iowa
Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently linked various occupations and industries to pancreatic cancer risk. This study analysed data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa involving 376 pancreatic cancer cases and 2434 control subjects. A significantly increased risk was observed among men who worked in the following industries: chemical and allied products; transportation; elementary and secondary schools. Increased risks also were observed in men who were employed as truck drivers, railroad signal and switch operators; purchasing agents and buyers; teachers; insurance agents; and retail supervisors. Among women, a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for persons employed in furniture and home furnishing stores, and a borderline increased risk among textile sewing machine operators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.392-398. 48 ref.
Li G.J., Zhang L.L., Lu L., Wu P., Zheng W.
Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: Alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and lead in body fluids and the oxidative stress status
Welders in this study were selected from a vehicle manufacturing plant; control subjects were from a nearby food factory. Airborne manganese levels in the breathing zones of welders and controls were 1.45±1.08mg/m3 and 0.11±0.07 mg/m3 respectively. Serum levels of manganese and iron in welders were 4.3 fold and 1.9 fold respectively higher than those of controls. Blood lead concentrations in welders increased 2.5 fold, whereas serum zinc levels decreased 1.2 fold, in comparison with controls. Linear regression revealed the lack of associations between blood levels of five metals and welder's age. Furthermore, welders had erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and serum malondialdehyde levels 24% less and 78% higher, respectively, than those of controls. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to welding fumes among welders disturbs the homeostasis of trace elements in systemic circulation and induces oxidative stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.241-248. Illus. 52 ref.
Guével E., Madani R., Conso F., Causse E., Choudat D.
Thyroidal dysfunction and occupational overexposure to iodine
Dysfonctionnement thyroïdien et surcharge iodée professionnelle [in French]
Two cases of work-related thyroid dysfunction are presented. Two workers involved in the machining and polishing of sodium and caesium iodide crystals employed at the same enterprise showed thyroid function disorders and high levels of 24h urinary iodine excretion. Following the report of these two cases of thyroid dysfunction and the elevated urinary excretion of iodine found among other exposed workers in the course of a biological monitoring programme implemented within the enterprise, preventive measures and medical surveillance based on action levels of this biological exposure index were proposed. The prevention of iodine exposure is primarily based on collective measures (process confinement and local exhaust), personal protective equipment and strict adherence to hygienic measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.438-441. Illus. 9 ref.
Clary T., Ritz B.
Pancreatic cancer mortality and organochlorine pesticide exposure in California, 1989-1996
Earlier studies have suggested a possible link between organochlorine pesticides and the occurrence of pancreatic cancers. California maintains a death file and a pesticide reporting system that allows examination of this relationship in residents of high-use areas. Mortality odds ratios were used to compare deaths from pancreatic cancer from 1989 to 1996 with a random sample of non-cancer deaths. Using pesticide data for three agricultural counties, 102 postal codes were classified for pesticide usage from 1972 to 1989. The effect of pesticide applications were estimated by logistic regression for each postal code after controlling for possible confounders. Among long-term residents, pancreatic cancer mortality was elevated for those living in postal codes with the highest use of 1,3-dichloropropene, captafol, pentachloronitrobenzene and dieldrin. No dose-response relationship was observed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.306-313. Illus. 29 ref.
Collins J.J., Esmen N.A., Hall T.A.
A review and meta-analysis of formaldehyde exposure and pancreatic cancer
A meta-analysis of the literature concerning 14 epidemiological studies of workers exposed to formaldehyde has revealed a small increase of pancreatic cancer risk in embalmers, pathologists and anatomists. There may, however, be a diagnostic bias or occupational exposures other than formaldehyde in the mentioned professions. No increased risk was found among industrial workers, even in those with higher formaldehyde exposures than in the medical professions mentioned above.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.336-345. Illus. 70 ref.
Karlsson B., Knutsson A., Lindahl B.
Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people
The association between shift work and cardiovascular disease was analysed in a population of 27,485 working persons. Obesity was more prevalent among shift workers in all age strata of women, but only in two out of four age groups in men. Increased triglycerides were more common among two age groups of shift working women but not among men. Low concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol were present in the youngest age group of shift workers in both men and women. Impaired glucose tolerance was more often found among 60-year-old women shift workers. Obesity and high triglycerides persisted as risk factors in shift working men and women after adjusting for age and socioeconomic factors, with an OR of 1.4 for obesity and 1.1 for high triglyceride concentrations. The relative risks for women working shifts versus days with one, two, and three metabolic variables were 1.06, 1.20, and 1.71, respectively. The corresponding relative risks for men were 0.99, 1.30, and 1.63, respectively. In conclusion, there appears to be an association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.58, No.11, p.747-752. Illus. 26 ref.
Ji B.T., Silverman D.T., Stewart P.A., Blair A., Swanson G.M., Baris D., Greenberg R.S., Hayes R.B., Brown L.M., Lillemoe K.D., Schoenberg J.B., Pottern L.M., Schwartz A.G., Hoover R.N.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and pancreatic cancer
To investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer and exposure to pesticides, a case-control study was conducted in three separate areas of the United States, involving 484 cases aged 30-79 diagnosed in 1986-1989 and 2,095 controls drawn from a random sample of the general population. A job-exposure matrix (JEM) approach was used to estimate the level of occupational exposure to pesticides. A significant trend in risk with increasing exposure level of pesticides was observed, with odds ratios (OR) of 1.3 and 1.4 for low and moderate-high exposure levels, respectively. Excess risks were found for occupational exposure to fungicides (OR = 1.5) and herbicides (OR = 1.6) in the moderate-high level after adjustment for potential confounding factors. An increased risk for insecticide exposure was no longer significant after adjustment for fungicide and herbicide exposures. Results suggest that pesticides may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, and highlight the need for further research to evaluate the risk of exposure to specific chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.92-99. 45 ref.
Alguacil J., Kauppinen T., Porta M., Partanen T., Malats N., Kogevinas M., Benavides F.G., Obiols J., Bernal F., Rifa J., Carrato A.
Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain
Cases of pancreatic cancer and controls among hospital patients free of pancreatic cancer were identified during their stay in hospital. Occupational history was obtained by direct interviews with the patients. Occupational exposures to 22 suspected carcinogens associated with pancreatic cancer in previous studies were evaluated. Increased odds ratios (OR) were apparent in all pesticide groups, highest for arsenical pesticides (OR = 3.4) and "other pesticides" (OR = 3.17). ORs were also higher for high-intensity exposure to aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments. ORs above 3 were observed for pesticides, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, volatile sulfur compounds, and sedentary work. Results lend support to the hypothesis of an association between exposure to some pesticides and pancreatic cancer. Suggestive increases in risk from aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments, and benzo(a)pyrene also deserve further study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.391-403. 72 ref.
Ojajärvi I.A., Partanen T.J., Kauppinen T.P., Ahlbom A., Wesseling C.H., Weiderpass E., Boffetta P., Vainio H.U., Hakulinen T., Jourenkova N., Kogevinas M., Porta M.
Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis
Epidemiological studies on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures during 1969-98 were surveyed. Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a risk ratio of 1.4, and nickel and nickel compounds with a risk ratio of 1.9. Excesses were also found for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5), silica dust (1.4), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%. Further studies are warranted on the interactions between occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.316-324. Illus. 102 ref.
Kernan G.J., Ji B.T., Dosemeci M., Silverman D.T., Balcus J., Hoar Zahm S.
Occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer: A case-control study based on death certificates from 24 U.S. States
A population-based case-control study based on death certificates from 24 U.S. states was conducted to determine if occupations/industries or work-related exposures to solvents were associated with pancreatic cancer death. Industries associated with significantly increased risk included printing and paper manufacturing; chemical, petroleum and related processing; transport, communication and public service; wholesale and retail trades; and medical and other health-related services. Occupations associated with significantly increased risk included managerial, administrative and other professional occupations; technical occupations; and sales, clerical and other administrative support occupations. Potential exposures to formaldehyde and other solvents were assessed by using a job exposure matrix. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was associated with a moderately increased risk of pancreatic cancer, with ORs of 1.2, 1.2, 1.4 for subjects with low, medium, and high probabilities of exposure and 1.2, 1.2, and 1.1 for subjects with low, medium, and high intensity of exposure, respectively.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.260-270. 50 ref.
Ji B.T., Silverman D.T., Dosemeci M., Dai Q., Gao Y.T., Blair A.
Occupation and pancreatic cancer risk in Shanghai, China
A population-based case-control study was conducted to examine occupational risks of pancreatic cancer in Shanghai, China. Among men, an increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with employment as an electrician, and a positive trend in risk with increasing duration of employment was apparent. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) as measured by a job exposure matrix was also associated with an increased risk among electricians. Threefold risks were observed for men with the highest level of intensity and for those with the highest probability of EMF exposure, although women with heavy EMF exposure did not experience increased risk. Among men, elevated risks were also found for metal workers, toolmakers, plumbers, welders, glass manufacturers, potters, painters and construction workers. Among women, textile workers experienced an increased risk. Results suggest that occupations associated with exposures to metal and textile dusts or certain chemicals may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The elevated risk among electricians may warrant further study to evaluate the possible role of EMF or other exposures. Topics: cancer; case-control study; China; electromagnetic fields; metals; occupation disease relation; sex-linked differences; textile industry; tumour of the pancreas; work on electrical equipment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.76-81. 36 ref.
Weiderpass E., Partanen T., Kaaks R., Vainio H., Porta M., Kauppinen T., Ojajärvi A., Boffetta P., Malats N.
Occurrence, trends and environmental etiology of pancreatic cancer
This review summarizes data on the occurrence, the trends, and the life-style, environmental, occupational and genetic determinants of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiologic evidence implicates tobacco smoking as one cause. The evidence regarding alcohol consumption is inconsistent. Although both positive and inconclusive findings are encountered, the bulk of the evidence on coffee consumption is negative. Fat intake is linked with obesity and diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Fruit and vegetable consumption appears to be protective. No occupational or environmental agent has been confirmed to increase the risk, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Little is known about the role of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes in pancreas carcinogenesis, and evidence associating mutations with life-style factors is still scant and inconsistent.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1998, Vol.24, No.3, p.165-174. 215 ref.
Pelclová D., Picková J., Patzelová V.
Chromosomal aberrations, hormone levels and oxidative phenotype (P450 2D6) in low occupational lead exposure
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; chromosome changes; determination in blood; hormone secretion; metabolic disturbances.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.314-322. Bibl.ref.
Antonelli A., Silvano G., Gambuzza C., Bianchi F., Tana L., Baschieri L.
Is occupationally induced exposure to radiation a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation?
The prevalence of thyroid nodules was studied with ultrasonography in a group of 44 male hospital workers occupationally exposed to X-rays during 23.5 ± 6.4 years. The control group consisted of 88 non-exposed male workers. Thyroid nodules were detected in 18 (41%) of the exposed workers and 11 (13%) of controls. Thyroid function tests were performed in all subjects and found to be in the normal range. The younger subjects of the first group appeared to be at a particular high risk of nodule formation. The nodules were statistically more frequent in subjects occupationally exposed for more than 20 years, compared with those exposed for 10-19 years and with controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that long-term, low dose occupational exposure to radiation may be a risk factor for thyroid nodule formation.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1996, Vol.51, No.3, p.177-180. 9 ref.
Antonelli A., Silvano G., Bianchi F., Gambuzza C., Tana L., Salvioni G., Baldi V., Gasperini L., Baschieri L.
Risk of thyroid nodules in subjects occupationally exposed to radiation: A cross sectional study
Cross-sectional study to examine by ultrasonography the prevalence of thyroid nodules in medical workers occupationally exposed to X radiation at a hospital in Pisa, Italy. Fifty male medical workers exposed to radiation were randomly matched for age with 100 male workers not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation who lived in a slightly iodine deficient area (control group 1) and with 100 male workers not exposed to radiation who lived in Pisa (control group 2). Of the occupationally exposed subjects, thyroid nodules were detected in 19 (38%). Among controls, thyroid nodules were detected in 19 (19%) subjects of control group 1 and in 13 (13%) of control group 2. Comparison of exposed and control groups, stratified into 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 year old age subgroups, showed a higher significant relative risk for thyroid nodules in the exposed subjects. The results suggest that occupational exposure to radiation may be a risk factor for thyroid nodules.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.500-504. 18 ref.
Selenskas S., Teta M.J., Vitale J.N.
Pancreatic cancer among workers processing synthetic resins
An excess of pancreatic cancer identified at a plastics facility in New Jersey, USA was investigated. Workplace exposures were compared for 28 male pancreatic cancer cases and 140 controls. Workers assigned to a work area that processed vinyl resins and polyethylene were at increased risk. Men assigned more than 16 years to this department had a significantly increased risk; no excess was seen with shorter duration assignments. Average latency was 32 years. It is likely that the pancreatic cancer is associated with prolonged exposure to the products of vinyl processing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.385-398. Illus. 41 ref.
McNamee R., Braganza J.M., Hogg J., Leck I., Rose P., Cherry N.M.
Occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and chronic pancreatitis - A case-referent study
The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that hydrocarbon exposure is a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. 102 cases of chronic pancreatitis and 204 age- and sex-matched referents were interviewed about their occupational histories, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and diet. Results support the original hypothesis but further studies are necessary to identify responsible hydrocarbons.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.51, No.9, p.631-637. Illus. 17 ref.
Stein T.P., Schluter M.D., Boden G.
Development of insulin resistance by astronauts during spaceflight
Dietary intake and urine output were monitored continuously for four crewmembers of a Space Shuttle mission from 11 days before launch to 7 days after landing (total 27 days). The urinary C-peptide excretion rate was used as a marker for insulin secretion. Mean inflight C-peptide excretion rates were significantly lower than either the pre- or postflight rates. The progressively increasing C-peptide excretion during 9 days of spaceflight is indicative of the development of insulin resistance in astronauts.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.65, No.12, p.1091-1096. Illus. 25 ref.
Partanen T., Kauppinen T., Degerth R., Moneta G., Mearelli I., Ojajärvi A., Hernberg S., Koskinen H., Pukkala E.
Pancreatic cancer in industrial branches and occupations in Finland
An examination of the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with occupation, by industrial branch and job title was undertaken in a nationwide case-referent study in Finland. The source of the cases and referents was the Finish Cancer Registry. Increases in risk of pancreatic cancer were suggested for a small number of industrial branches and job titles, including stone mining, cement and building materials, pharmacists and sales associates in pharmacies, male wood machinists, male gardeners, female textile workers and male transport inspectors and supervisors. The exposures potentially implicated are discussed. In agreement with the overall results of epidemiologic studies conducted elsewhere, direct occupational determinants probably do not account for a substantial share of the aetiology of pancreatic cancer, at least in conditions resembling Finnish working environments some 15-40 years ago.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1994, Vol.25, No.6, p.851-866. 76 ref.
Benson L.O., Teta M.J.
Mortality due to pancreatic and lymphopoietic cancers in chlorohydrin production workers
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.50, No.8, p.710-716. Illus. 22 ref. ###
Barsano C.P., Thomas J.A.
Endocrine disorders of occupational and environmental origin
The mechanisms of various industrial toxins in causing disease of the thyroid, testes, ovary and pancreas are reviewed. Toxins include: polyhalogenated biphenyls, polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxyphenols and hydroxy pyridines, phthalates, lithium, iodine and radiation. The importance of medical surveillance in the workplace is emphasized in the light of the increasing numbers of women in industry and the associated potential reproductive risks.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.479-502. 258 ref.
Garabrant D.H., Held J., Langholz B., Peters J.M., Mack T.M.
DDT and related compounds and risk of pancreatic cancer
To identify risk factors for pancreatic cancer, a nested case-control study of chemical manufacturing workers was conducted using 28 verified cases of pancreatic cancer and 112 matched controls. DDT was associated with pancreatic cancer (risk ratio (RR) for ever exposed compared with never exposed = 4.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.3-17.6). Among subjects who had a mean exposure to DDT of 47 months, the risk was 7.4 times that among subjects with no exposure. Two DDT derivatives, Ethylan and DDD, were additionally associated with pancreatic cancer (RR = 5.0 and 4.3, respectively). Smoking was identified as an independent risk factor, but controlling for it (and other potential confounders) in the analyses did not appreciably alter the risks seen for DDT, DDD, or Ethylan. These results may indicate that DDT can cause pancreatic cancer in humans under circumstances of heavy and prolonged exposure.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 20 May 1992, Vol.84, No.10, p.764-771. 44 ref.
Del Guerra P., Caraccio N., Simoncini M., Monzani F.
Occupational thyroid disease
A case of thyrotoxicosis due to occupational exposure to cosmetics in a 35-year-old beautician is reported. The hormonal pattern was consistent with exogenous thyroid hormone administration, but not with iodine hyperthyroidism. The patient denied she was using thyroid hormones; also, she lacked the typical features of patients with thyrotoxicosis factitia. Her occupational history was carefully reviewed: a heavy exposure of the unprotected skin to cosmetic creams containing iodine, thyroid hormones, and thyroid extracts had occurred in the previous months. The patient was advised to refrain from the exposure, and a persistent remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed thereafter. This case suggests that percutaneous absorption of thyromimetic substances, though never described before, may occur in an occupational setting. We advise that such cosmetics be handled with care, not only by patients with thyroid disease but by euthyroid subjects as well; close medical surveillance over the use of such preparations seems appropriate.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.63, No.6, p.373-375. 7 ref.
Prescott E., Netterstrøm B., Faber J., Hegedüs L., Suadicani P., Christensen J.M.
Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters
The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17µg.mmol-1 versus 0.13µg.mmol-1, p<0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (p=0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively) unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (p=0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.101-104. 17 ref.
Pietri F., Clavel F., Auquier A., Flamant R.
Occupational risk factors for cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study
The role of the occupational environment in the occurrence of cancer of the pancreas was analysed in a case-control study of 171 cases of pancreatic cancer and 317 controls matched for age at interview, sex, hospital, and interviewer. The study was conducted in France between 1982 and 1985 and covered 15 important industries and various other occupations. The results are given for the whole population, a subgroup of manual workers (46 cases and 108 controls), and a subgroup of French nationals (114 cases and 253 controls). After adjustment for cigarette smoking, and coffee and alcohol consumption, workers in the food industry (OR = 1.86) and the leather industry (OR = 1.63) showed higher risks than those in other industries. In the sub-group of French nationals only the risk associated with the textile industry was significantly higher than unity (OR = 2.30). No significant increase in risk was associated with work in any of the other branches studied; printing showed a moderate increase in risk (OR = 1.54). The subgroup of manual workers showed an increase in risk for cancer of the pancreas among those working in the building materials and building trades classification (OR = 2.16) and transportation (OR = 1.57).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1990, Vol.47, No.6, p.425-428. 26 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 89. Thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 89. Tiuramer och Dimetylditiokarbamater [in Swedish]
A critical survey of the literature relevant for the discussion of an occupational exposure limit is given. Disulfiram: The critical target of the toxic effects is the thyroid gland. Ferbam: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram may also affect spermatogenesis. Ziram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. The present occupational exposure limit values for thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates are mainly based on their sensitising properties and effects on skin. There is a need to conduct short- and long-term inhalation exposure studies to clarify dose-effect relationships between effects and exposure to thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates in thyroids and gonads.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 35p. Illus. 183 ref.
Paradowski M., Roczek E., Tkacz B., Dworniak D.
Increase in antipyrine clearance in workers exposed to phenol and toluene in the petrochemical industry
In 90 workers of the petrochemical industry occupationally exposed to a mixture of petroleum derivatives, including 60 persons exposed mainly to phenol and 30 to toluene, the metabolic activity of the liver was examined using the antipyrine test. In both groups of subjects, an increase of antipyrine clearance in saliva was observed. Occupational exposure to lipophylic derivatives of petroleum seems to induce the function of liver microsomal enzymes.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.2, No.3, p.229-237. Illus. 10 ref.
Kuz'mina L.P., Bezrukavnikova L.M.
Biochemical disturbances in workers engaged in the manufacture of technical asbestos products
Biohimičeskie izmenenija u rabočih proizvodstva asbestotehničeskih izdelij [in Russian]
Medical examination of two groups of workers (19 and 15 males) engaged in the manufacture of technical asbestos products and exposed to different levels of asbestos dust (equal to MACs and exceeding MACs by 2-4 times, respectively) showed biochemical disturbances of lipid metabolism with an inflammatory-allergic component in the 1st group, and signs of irritation and destruction of the hepatobiliary system with elevated levels of chemoluminescence in the blood serum in the second.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1987, No.10, p.32-34. Illus. 8 ref.
Bezrukavnikova L.M., Gladkova E.V.
State of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection systems in workers engaged in manufacturing graphic products
Sostojanie sistem perekisnogo okislenija lipidov i antioksidantnoj zaščity u rabočih proizvodstva grafitovyh izdelij [in Russian]
Medical examination of workers exposed to coke and graphite dusts with adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon showed activation of the systems of lipid peroxidation, with an increased content of lipid peroxides and intense chemiluminescence in their blood. These changes were observed in workers without pulmonary disorders and with bronchitis of stages I and II. There was no decrease of serum tocopherol level in either group; a compensatory increase was observed in patients with stage I bronchitis and in workers without bronchopulmonary pathology. Under more intense impact of occupational factors as well as in later stages of the disease, exhaustion of the lipid antioxidant system was observed. Such studies can be used to detect workers at risk of developing chronic bronchitis and tumours of the bronchopulmonary system.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.33-36. Illus. 13 ref.
Mirabelli D., Ciccarelli E., Merletti F.
Pituitary adenomas in a cosmetics factory
Report on 3 cases of acromegalic patients (aged 27, 35 and 55 with length of exposure 10, 19 and 9 years, respectively) with growth-hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (PA), who worked in a cosmetics plant. Allowing for a 10% turnover of the workforce a year, the person-years of observation accumulated between 1958 and 1985 were 28,000. There was no proper incidence data on PA in the Italian province in which the factory is located. There have been no case reports until now on PA in industrial settings and none of the substances used in the cosmetics factory have been linked to PA either in animals or in man.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.845. 3 ref.
Arfini G., Mutti A., Vescovi P., Ferroni C., Ferrari M., Giaroli C., Passeri M., Franchini I.
Impaired dopaminergic modulation of pituitary secretion in workers occupationally exposed to styrene: Further evidence from PRL response to TRH stimulation
The prolactin (PRL) response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) was measured in 16 female workers exposed to styrene and in 16 sex- and age-matched controls with the aim of evaluating whether tubero-infundibular dopaminergic activity is impaired by styrene exposure. Only 1 exposed worker compared with 15 controls showed a normal response to TRH. In styrene workers, the median values of PRL in serum samples taken 10, 20, 30 and 45min after TRH administration were higher than the upper reference limit showing a threshold increase compared with the control values. The peak PRL level correlated with the urinary excretion of styrene metabolites. In 2 women who had changed work, the PRL response to TRH was normal after they had been removed from exposure for 2 months. These findings suggest that styrene exposure impairs the dopaminergic modulation of pituitary secretion. Such an effect might explain subjective symptoms and behavioural disturbances that are often recorded among styrene exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.826-830. Illus. 19 ref.
Claude J., Frentzel-Beyme R.
Mortality of workers in a German rock-wool factory - A second look with extended follow-up
A cohort of 2,092 workers employed in a German rock-wool factory was followed until the end of 1982, and the mortality experience was compared with the national mortality rates and the rates of an internal reference cohort. This mortality analysis revealed a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 110 for overall mortality. Significantly more malignant neoplasms occurred than were expected (SMR 127). The increase in risk for lung cancer (SMR 121), which was not statistically significant, was also not related to time since first exposure or length of employment. The occurrence of an unusually high SMR of 336 for benign and unspecified neoplasms could not be clarified. Most of the excess from other specific causes of death, such as stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and alcoholism, appear to be unrelated to the rock-wool production since they occurred either among workers employed for very short periods (less than 1yr) or as frequently among workers in the reference cohort.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1., p.53-60. 16 ref.
Norell S., Ahlbom A., Olin R., Erwald R., Jacobson G., Lindberg-Navier I., Wiechel K.L.
Occupational factors and pancreatic cancer
A retrospective cohort study of pancreatic cancer victims in Sweden revealed a significant association between work in petrol stations and pancreatic cancer, and associations (not necessarily significant at the 90% confidence level) between the incidence of the disease and certain occupations (petroleum refineries, paint and varnish factories, floor polishing and window cleaning). A case-control study of the same disease revealed a significant relationship between its occurrence and exposure to paint thinners, detergents and floor cleaning agents and refuse.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1986, Vol.43, No.11, p.775-778. 12 ref.
Kan G.S., Kuprijanov V.A., Malinovskaja O.O.
Dependence of changes in some indicators of lipid metabolism on their initial levels in air traffic controllers on duty
Zavisimost' izmenenij nekotoryh pokazatelej lipidnogo obmena ot ih ishodnogo urovnja u aviadispetčerov v period professional'noj dejatel'nosti [in Russian]
Catecholamine excretion and serum concentrations of lipids were measured in air traffic controllers on and off duty. Correlations were seen between the measured volume and the state of health of the subjects. Hypertensive subjects showed high lipid levels, and the levels varied less between periods on and off duty than was the case with healthy subjects. Persons categorised as having "intellectual-emotional" personalities showed higher rates of hypertension and of abnormal lipid metabolism. The observed hyperlipidemia is probably due to elevated adrenal and sympathetic nervous activity in the hypertensives.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1985, No.10, p.70-73. 15 ref.
Beloskurskaja G.I., Sabyrbaeva H.S., Berdyhodžin M.G.
Biochemical parameters of redox processes and energy charge in phosphorus production workers
Sostojanie biohimičeskih pokazatelej okislitel'no-vosstanovitel'nyh processov i ėnergetičeskogo potenciala u rabotajuščih v fosfornom proizvodstve [in Russian]
Three groups of workers in a yellow phosphorus plant were compared with a control group of construction and assembly workers. The phosphorus workers were classified as essentially healthy, suspected of suffering from phosphorus intoxication, and clearly suffering from phosphorus intoxication. Even the apparently healthy group had reduced blood levels of nicotinamide coenzymes, as did the other 2 groups of phosphorus-plant workers. This and other changes in blood composition showed that excess phosphorus in the body increases the energy yield of glycolysis in erythrocytes to produce higher levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its precursors. High levels of ATP and inorganic phosphorus produce secondary disturbances of nicotinamide coenzyme and glutathione metabolism.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1985, No.2, p.16-19. 6 ref.
Kanamaru M., Suzuki H., Katoh M., Nishikawa T., Ohyama Y., Noda H.
Effects of agricultural chemicals on rural inhabitants in Miye prefecture - A report on the findings of health examinations
From 1980 to 1982, health examinations were conducted on 1,164 pesticide sprayers in Miye Prefecture, Japan. Most of the pesticides in use were organophosphorus. Mercury residues in hair were also measured. The rate of detection of abnormalities was not particularly high in comparison with that in health check-ups of ordinary persons. In comparison with previous findings, the cases of abnormal lipid metabolism and anaemia were fewer, whereas the number of cases of abnormal cholinesterase activities and albuminuria increased in both sexes. The average level of mercury in hair was 5.35ppm in men and 2.97ppm in women, and >6.0ppm of mercury was detected in 23.1% of the men and 1.9% of the women.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, July 1984, Vol.33, No.2, p.159-166. Illus. 29 ref.
Merkur'eva R.V., Aulika B.V., Bazeljuk L.T., Jakimova E.R., Dolinskaja S.I., Konstantinova I.N., Astahova L.F.
Changes in alveolar and peritoneal macrophage function in rats exposed to quartz dust
Izmenenie funkcional'nogo sostojanija al'veoljarnyh i peritoneal'nyh makrofagov krys pri dejstvii kvarcevoj pyli [in Russian]
Intratracheal administration of 50mg of 1-2µm quartz dust (92.8% free silica) to rats produced morphological and metabolic changes in alveolar macrophages within 24h: lysosomal and cell membranes were labilised, and activities of metabolically important enzymes were altered; the changes became more marked 48 and 72h after treatment, and macrophage mortality increased. Intraperitoneal administration of 30mg of the same dust had similar effects on peritoneal macrophages, but effects took longer to develop. These observations may have diagnostic value.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1984, No.6, p.16-18. 15 ref.
Skvortcova R.I., Merkulov A.M., Voroncova N.L.
Study of the prophylactic action of a complex of vitamins C, B1, B2, P and PP during chronic phenol exposure
Izučenie profilaktičeskogo dejstvija kompleksa vitaminov C, B1, B2, P i PP pri hroničeskom vozdejstvii fenola [in Russian]
Workers engaged in the production and processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins had elevated blood and urine levels of pyruvic acid. These elevated levels probably reflected metabolic disturbances resulting from phenol exposure. Administration of the title vitamins in daily doses of 0.2 (riboflavin) to 400 (P group) milligrams for 1 month restored pyruvate levels to normal.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.34-37. 13 ref.
Gončarova L.N., Čirkov V.V., Rudakova L.E.
Effect of acrylonitrile production on the function of some endocrine glands
Vlijanie proizvodstva nitrila akrilovoj kisloty na funkciju nekotoryh želez vnutrennej sekrecii [in Russian]
The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system and the glucocorticoid function of the adrenals were determined in 123 workers with different lengths of exposure to acrylonitrile. Thyrotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and total and bound thyroxine were determined in the blood of the subjects, and the iodine-binding function of the thyroid was tested with the radioisotope iodine-131. Clinical examinations were also carried out. Acrylonitrile (and the prussic acid that is frequently present with it) apparently inhibits thyroid function, even at low levels. The effect increases with length of exposure. The reduced level of thyroid hormones stimulates the production of thyrotropin, which entails enlargement of the thyroid. Blood cortisol levels were highly variable, but tended to decrease with length of service.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1984, No.5, p.23-25. 7 ref.
Ishihara Y., Kitamura S., Takaku F.
Chronic effects of diesel-engine exhaust gas on metabolic functions in rat lungs
Rats were exposed to diesel-engine exhaust gas for periods of from 1 week to 6 months. Rats were classified into 3 groups, i.e. control group, filtered exhaust gas (FEG) group and exhaust gas (EG) group. The sensitivity to acetylcholine of tracheal strips of rats of FEG and EG groups showed a significant increase compared with that of the control group. Inactivation of serotonin, PGE2 and PGF2α in isolated perfused lung lobes in EG and FEG groups exposed for 6 months showed a decrease compared with that in the control group. Plasma level of histamine in EG and FEG groups showed a significant increase compared with that in the control group. The above mentioned results suggest that long-term exposure to diesel-engine exhaust gas may affect pulmonary metabolic functions.
Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, Mar. 1984, Vol.22, No.3, p.190-196. Illus. 11 ref.
Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers
Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a 3-year period on 8 process workers and 5 mixers working with ethylene thiourea, and on matched controls. The exposed mixers, but not the process workers, had significantly lower levels of total thyroxine than the controls. One mixer had a significantly raised level of thyroid stimulating hormone.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.362-366. Illus. 12 ref.
Bélová V., Barna K.
Liver metabolism response to the administration of Delor 103
Metabolická odpoved' pečene na podanie Deloru 103 [in Slovak]
Report on experiments with rats to determine the effects of a double intraperitoneal dose of Delor 103 - a polychlorinated biphenyl used in a number of industries - on glycaemia, liver glycogen concentration, hepatic glycogen-phosphorylase activity and lactate and pyruvate concentrations in liver homogenate. An increase in glycogen concentration and a slow-down in glycogen-phosphorylase activity were observed. Glycaemia and pyruvate levels were unchanged and the lactate concentration fell. The result was a fall in the lactate/pyruvate ratio.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1982, Vol.34, No.2, p.46-48. 24 ref.
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