ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Nanotechnology and nanoparticles - 102 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Nanotechnology and nanoparticles

2011

CIS 12-0232 Murashov V., Schulte P., Geraci C., Howard J.
Regulatory approaches to worker protection in nanotechnology industry in the USA and European Union
A number of reports have been published regarding the applicability of existing regulatory frameworks to protect consumers and the environment from potentially adverse effects related to introduction of nanomaterials into commerce in the United States and the European Union. However, a detailed comparison of the regulatory approaches to worker safety and health in the USA and in the EU is lacking. This report aims to fill this gap by reviewing regulatory frameworks designed to protect workers and their possible application to nanotechnology.
Industrial Health, May 2011, Vol.49, No.3, p.280-296. 110 ref.
Regulatory_approaches_to_worker_protection_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0231 Binet S., Drais E., Chazelet S., Fontaine J.R., Radauceanu A., Reynier M., Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials
Risques liés aux nanoparticules et nanomatériaux [in French]
Report on a conference on the hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials held in Nancy, France, 5-7 April 2011. The 56 presentations were grouped under the following sessions: evaluation of the health effects of nanoparticles; production and properties of nanoparticles; instrumentation and exposure evaluation; reducing emissions and personal protective equipment; hazard evaluation and management.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.29-41. 56 ref.
Risques_liés_aux_nanoparticules_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0221 Soria O.
The nanotechnology legal framework
L'environnement juridique des nanotechnologies [in French]
Topics addressed in this article on the French nanotechnology legal framework: European standards; REACH regulations; French legal provisions (precautionary, prevention and polluter-pays principles).
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2011, No.117, p.47-52. Illus. 19 ref.
L'environnement_juridique_des_nanotechnologies_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0018 Foresight of new and emerging risks to occupational safety and health associated with new technologies in green jobs by 2020
This report describes the work carried out in the first phase of a project aimed at identifying key contextual drivers of change that could contribute to creating new and emerging risks associated with new technologies in green jobs within ten years. The report serves as an interim report to the whole project, which has several phases.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2011. 55p. Illus. 21 ref.
Foresight_of_new_and_emerging_risks_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0756 Ferreira Jensen T., Gracias Vieira Filho A.
Nanotechnologies: Wonders and uncertainties in the universe of chemistry
Nanotecnologías: maravilhas y incertidumbres en el universo de la química [in Portuguese]
This booklet explains nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the form of a comic strip. It discusses the possible hazards of this new technology to health and the environment by introducing three characters working in a chemical products transport and delivery enterprise who visit a nanotechnology trade fair and a chemical company where various aspects of nanotechnology are explained in simple language. See also ISN 112118.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011, 24p. Illus.
Nanotecnologías:_maravilhas.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 11-0755 Custódio Pinto A., Gracias Vieira A.
Nanotechnology - Transport to a new universe
Nanotecnología - Transporte a un nuevo universo [in Spanish]
Presented in the form of a comic strip involving three characters working in a chemical products transport and delivery enterprise, this booklet introduces nanotechnology and discusses existing questions concerning the possible risks from nanomaterials to health and the environment. See also ISN 112119.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011. 20p. Illus.
Nanotechnology.pdf [in English]
Nanotecnología.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0535 Murashov V., Schulte P., Geraci C., Howard J.
Regulatory approaches to worker protection in nanotechnology industry in the USA and European Union
A number of reports have been published regarding the applicability of existing regulatory frameworks to protect consumers and the environment from potentially adverse effects related to introduction of nanomaterials into commerce in the United States and the European Union. However, a detailed comparison of the regulatory approaches to worker safety and health in the USA and in the EU is lacking. This report aims to fill this gap by reviewing regulatory frameworks designed to protect workers and their possible application to nanotechnology.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.280-296. 110 ref.
Regulatory_approaches.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0087 Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Rupf S., Wennemuth G., Pospiech P., Hanning M., Buchter A.
Exposure to nanoparticles and new materials in dentistry
Exposition gegenüber Nanopartikeln und neuen Materialien in der Zahnheilkunde [in German]
Dentists and dental technicians are subjected to a wide variety of occupational exposures, including aerosols and airborne fine particles and nanoparticles having potential health effects. This study involved measuring the concentrations of ultrafine particles at a university dental clinic in Germany, using a handheld condensation particle counter. High concentrations of over 400,000 pt/cm3 were found when working with polymethacrylates in dental prostheses, which were however reduced by a factor of 20 by local suction. High levels of ultrafine particles were also observed when drilling zirconium oxide ceramics. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 2011, Vol.61, No.2, p.40-53. Illus. 35 ref.
Exposition_gegenüber_Nanopartikeln.pdf [in German]

CIS 10-0855 Yokel R.A., Macphail R.C.
Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention
The understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates that the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards, including fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness of some of these controls are also included. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2011, 6:7, 27p. Illus. 229 ref.
Engineered_nanomaterials.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0842 Cena L.G., Peters T.M.
Characterization and control of airborne particles emitted during production of epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites
The objective of this study was to characterize airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also involved the evaluation of the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2011, Vol.8, p.86-92. Illus. 24 ref.

2010

CIS 12-0243 Methner M., Hodson L., Dames A., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part B: Results from 12 field studies
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted field studies at 12 sites using the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT, see ISN 112474)) to characterize emissions during processes where engineered nanomaterials were produced or used. Field studies were conducted in research and development laboratories, pilot plants, and manufacturing facilities handling carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multi-walled), carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon nanopearls, metal oxides, electrospun nylon, and quantum dots. The results demonstrated that the NEAT was useful in evaluating emissions and that readily available engineering controls can be applied to minimize nanomaterial emissions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, p.163-176. Illus. 18 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_assessment_technique_Part-B_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0242 Methner M., Hodson L., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part A
There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus standards on measurement techniques for nanomaterials in the workplace. However, facilities engaged in the production and use of engineered nanomaterials have expressed an interest in learning whether the potential for worker exposure exists. Some of the existing techniques lack specificity and field portability, and are difficult to use and expensive when applied to routine exposure assessment. This article describes the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that handle or produce engineered nanomaterials. It uses portable direct-reading instrumentation supplemented by a pair of filter-based air samples (source-specific and personal breathing zone). The use of the filter-based samples are crucial for identification purposes because particle counters are generally insensitive to particle source or composition and make it difficult to differentiate between incidental and process-related nanomaterials using number concentration alone. Results from using the NEAT at 12 facilities are presented in the companion article (see ISN 112475).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, p.127-132. Illus. 15 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_assessment_technique_Part-A_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0849 Methner M., Hodson L., Dames A., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part B: Results from 12 field studies
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted field studies at 12 sites using the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT) to characterize emissions during processes where engineered nanomaterials were produced or used. A description of the NEAT appears in an earlier article (see ISN 112187). Field studies were conducted in research and development laboratories, pilot plants, and manufacturing facilities handling carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multi-walled), carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon nanopearls, metal oxides, electrospun nylon and quantum dots. The results demonstrated that the NEAT was useful in evaluating emissions and that readily available engineering controls can be applied to minimize nanomaterial emissions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, No.3, p.163-176. Illus. 18 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_B.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0847 Methner M., Hodson L., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part A
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established a nanotechnology field research team whose primary goal was to visit facilities and evaluate the potential for release of nanomaterials and worker exposure. The team identified numerous techniques to measure airborne nanomaterials with respect to particle size, mass, surface area, number concentration and composition. However, some of these techniques lack specificity and field portability and are difficult to use and expensive when applied to routine exposure assessment. This article describes the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that handle or produce engineered nanomaterials. The NEAT utilizes portable direct-reading instrumentation supplemented by a pair of filter-based air samples (source-specific and personal breathing zone). The use of the filter-based samples are crucial for identification purposes because particle counters are generally insensitive to particle source or composition and make it difficult to differentiate between incidental and process-related nanomaterials using number concentration alone. Results from using the NEAT at 12 facilities are presented in the companion article (Part B) in this issue (see ISN 112189).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, No.3, p.127-132. Illus. 15 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_A.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0836 Schmid K., Danuser B., Riediker M.
Nanoparticle usage and protection measures in the manufacturing industry - A representative survey
The objective of this study was to evaluate the current level of nanoparticle usage in Swiss industry as well as health, safety, and environmental measures, and the number of potentially exposed workers. A representative, stratified mail survey was conducted among 1626 clients of the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA), which insures 80,000 manufacturing firms, representing 84% of all Swiss manufacturing companies (response rate 58.3%). The extrapolation to all Swiss manufacturing companies shows that 1309 workers are potentially exposed to nanoparticles in 586 companies. This corresponds to 0.08% of workers and 0.6% of companies. The industrial chemistry sector showed the highest percentage of companies using nanoparticles (21.2%). Other important sectors also reported nanoparticles. Personal protection equipment was the predominant protection strategy. Only a few applied specific environmental protection measures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.224-232. Illus. 18 ref.
Nanoparticle_usage.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0519 Phillips J.I., Green F.Y., Davies J.C., Murray J.
Pulmonary and systemic toxicity following exposure to nickel nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are being used in ever increasing numbers in a range of industrial and medical products. Questions surrounding their potential to cause toxic effects in humans have been raised. Although animal experiments predict that nanoparticles are more toxic than their larger counterparts there are few descriptions in the literature of human exposure. A case described in 1994 has been re-examined from a pathology perspective. The subject, a 38-year-old previously healthy male, inhaled nanoparticles of nickel while spraying nickel using a metal arc process. He died 13 days after being exposed and the cause of death at autopsy was adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nickel particles <25 nm in diameter were identified in lung macrophages using transmission electron microscopy. High levels of nickel were measured in his urine and his kidneys showing evidence of acute tubular necrosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.763-767. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0544 Tanarro Gozalo C.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to nanoparticles by means of simplified methodologies
Evaluación del riesgo por exposición a nanopartículas mediante el uso de metodologías simplificadas [in Spanish]
Although the use of nanotechnology is increasingly common, there is little data on its human toxicity to humans and no established occupational exposure levels specifically applicable to nanoparticles, making it difficult to conduct quantitative assessments. This technical note proposes a simplified method for assessing hazards (control banding), similar to that used for the hazard evaluation of chemical agents.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.
NTP_877.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0389 Schmoll L.H., Peters T.M., O'Shaughnessy P.T.
Use of a condensation particle counter and an optical particle counter to assess the number concentration of engineered nanoparticles
There is a need to evaluate nanoparticle (< 100 nm) exposures in occupational settings. However, portable instruments do not size segregate particles in that size range. A proxy method for determining nanoparticle count concentrations involves subtracting counts made with a condensation particle counter (CPC) from those of an optical particle counter (OPC), resulting in an estimation of "very fine" particles < 300 nm, where 300 nm is the OPC lower detection limit. However, to determine size distributions from which particles < 100 nm may be estimated, the resulting count of particles < 300 nm can be used as an additional channel of count data in addition to those obtained from the OPC. To test these methods, the very fine number concentrations determined using a CPC and OPC were compared with those from Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements and were used to verify the accuracy of a very fine particle number concentration determined by an OPC and CPC. Various engineered nanoparticles were used to create test aerosols, including titanium dioxide (TiO2), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and iron oxide (Fe2O3). These materials were chosen because of their different refractive indices and therefore may be measured differently by the OPC. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.535-545. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 11-0071 Oberle B., Jordi B., Bader P., Mühlberger de Preux C., Baumgartner H., Poldervaart P., Meuli K., Fitze U., Rey L.
Nanotechnologies are among us
Les nanotechnologies sont là [in French]
Topics addressed in the collection of articles on nanotechnology: solar energy; water purification; potential environmental hazards; potential health hazards; occupational safety and health; waste management; Switzerland and international cooperation; ethical aspects of nanomedicine.
Magazine "environnement", Office fédéral de l'environnement, Mühlestrasse 2, 3063 Ittigen, Switzerland, 2010, No.3, p.3-38. Illus.
Les_nanotechnologies.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0070 Tanarro Gozalo C.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to nanoparticles by means of a simplified method
Evaluación del riesgo por exposición a nanopartículas mediante el uso de metodologías simplificadas [in Spanish]
Considering the important gaps in knowledge for many variables related to nanoparticles such as toxicological properties, benchmarks or methods of assessing environmental concentrations, conducting a complete risk assessment is not an easy task. This article proposes a simplified, practical and affordable method of evaluation, using qualitative methods such as control banding.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2010, No.58, p.22-27. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 11-0069 Gálvez Pérez V., Tanarro Gozalo C.
Toxicology of nanoparticles
Toxicología de las nanopartículas [in Spanish]
This article discusses the toxicology of nanoparticles and examines what are or could be the main factors influencing their toxicity, i.e. the exposure-dependent factors, factors related to the exposed subjects and factors affecting the intrinsic toxicity, including chemical composition and solubility of nanoparticles as well as their size, surface, shape, structure and state of agglomeration. The main routes of entry are presented, as well as the mechanisms of transport within the body and of elimination. A schematic of the biokinetics of nanometric-sized particles is also presented.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2010, No.56, p.6-12. Illus. 10 ref.
Toxicología_de_las_nanopartículas.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0144 Arzuffi A., Ciambotti G.P., De Bellis G., Ponce del Castillo A.M., Clerici R., Cutolo C., Tramontano T.
Nanotechnologies, nanomaterials, nanoparticles
Nanotechnologie, nanomateriali, nanoparticelle [in Italian]
This issue of the journal is primarily devoted to nanotechnology, nanomaterials and nanoparticles. Topics addressed: opportunities and threats of nanotechnologies; responsible and sustainable research and development; whether invisible hazards exist; efforts undertaken to limit the exposure of workers in Norway.
2087, Casa editrice Edit Coop, Via dei Frentani 4/A, 00185 Rome, Italy, Mar. 2010, Vol. XII, No.3, p.1-31 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 10-0751 Ferreira Jensen T., Gracias Vieira Filho A.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Nanotechnology: Wonders and uncertainties in the world of chemistry
Nanotecnologias - Maravilhas e incertezas no universo da química [in Portuguese]
This booklet discusses the impact of nanotechnology on health and the environment in the form of a comic. It shows three employees of a carrier who visit a petrochemical plant where they are told what the nanotechnologies are and their potential risks.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2010. 20p. Illus.
Nanotecnologias.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 10-0824 Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Pföhler C., Bücker A., Wilkens H., Arzt E., Schmitt K.P., Wennemuth G., Hannig M., Buchter A.
Exposure to nano particles and new materials - Clinical and diagnostic findings
Klinische und diagnostische Befunde bei Exposition gegenüber Nanopartikeln und neuen Materialien [in German]
Ten individuals whose work involved long-term exposure to certain specific nanoparticles underwent detailed clinical examinations aimed at assessing individual factors and possible interactions caused by exposure to nanomaterials. Half the group showed a relevant obstructive ventilation disorder through particle inhalation before the introduction of protective measures. In three cases, computed tomography showed lung emphysema changes. Half the group showed a positive reaction to zirconium oxide. Analysis of biomarkers showed no evidence of respiratory tract inflammation. Implications of these and other findings are discussed. See also ISN 111203.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.10. p.328-348. Illus. 41 ref.
Klinische_und_diagnostische_Befunde.pdf [in German]

CIS 10-0673 Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Woods C., Soucy B.
Engineered nanoparticles: Current knowledge about occupational safety and health risks and prevention measures - Second edition
Les nanoparticules de synthèse: Connaissances actuelles sur les risques et les mesures de prévention en SST - 2e édition [in French]
An initial review of the literature on nanoparticles (see CIS 07-852) prompted the IRSST to publish two reports on this subject early in 2006, namely on the health risks of nanotechnologies and on various aspects of industrial hygiene that involve them. This report consists of an update of the earlier reports, deemed necessary considering the rapid evolution in scientific knowledge in this area.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vi, 143p. Illus. Approx. 350 Price: CAD 15.75. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-656.pdf [in English]
Rapport_R-646.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0334 Pimbert S.
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0333 Pimbert S.
Studies and research 2009/2010
Etudes et recherche 2009/2010 [in French]
This bilingual French/English booklet presents the research efforts undertaken by the French national institute for research and safety (Institut national de recherche et sécurité, INRS) for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases during 2009 and 2010.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 104p. Illus.
Studies_and_research_2009/2010.pdf [in English]
Etudes_et_recherche_2009/2010.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0375 Savolainen K., Pylkkänen L., Norppa H., Falck G., Lindberg H., Tuomi T., Vippola M., Alenius H., Hämeri K., Koivisto J., Brouwer D., Mark D., Bard D., Berges M., Jankowska E., Posniak M., Farmer P., Singh R., Krombach F., Bihari P., Kasper G., Seipenbusch M.
Nanotechnologies, engineered nanomaterials and occupational health and safety - A review
The significance of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and nanotechnologies is growing rapidly. Nanotechnology applications may have a positive marked impact on many aspects of human every day life. Hundreds of consumer nano-based products are already on the market. However, very little is known of the risks of ENM to occupational safety and health, even though workers are likely to be at extra risk compared with other potentially exposed groups of people, because of the higher levels of exposure at workplaces than in other environments. However, knowledge of the exposure to, or effects of, ENM on human safety and health in occupational environments is limited and does not allow reliable assessment of risks of ENM on workers' health. This article discusses several issues related to ENM in the workplaces which require marked attention.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.957-963. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 10-0319 Koukoulaki T.
New trends in work environment - New effects on safety
Europe has been subject to tremendous changes in terms of flexibility of work and labour in response to macro trends such as globalization and the resulting fierce market competition. Such changes in the world of work can give rise to new safety risks. Although the effects of the changing work environment are fairly documented in terms of their psychosocial and ergonomic risks, the subsequent effects on occupational safety are less investigated. This article sets a general framework on the changing work environment, presenting prominent descriptions by various institutes. It reviews existing evidence on the effects of the changing work environment on safety and occupational accidents. It further suggests an underlying mechanism explaining these effects, based on organizational factors. Finally it discusses safety prevention challenges to policy makers. In conclusion, a sustainable work system is suggested as an alternative to intensive systems.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.936-942. 57 ref.

CIS 10-0260 Brasseur G., Bondéelle A.
Technologies - The "Nano" revolution
Technologies - La révolution "Nano" [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on nanotechnologies and nanoparticles: OSH professionals having to cope with uncertainties; inventory of enterprises producing or using nanomaterials in a region of France; safety measures against exposure to nanomaterials implemented in a research laboratory, a producer of carbon nanotubes and an adhesives manufacturer; methodological approach to hazard evaluation; INRS research activities.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2010, No.708, p.20-37. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 10-0241 Mostofi R., Wang B., Haghighat F., Bahloul A., Jaime L.
Performance of mechanical filters and respirators for capturing nanoparticles - Limitations and future direction
There is an increasing concern about the health hazards posed to workers exposed to nanoparticles by inhalation, which is the most common route of exposure. Filtration is the simplest and most common method of aerosol control. It is widely used in mechanical ventilation and respiratory protection. However, concerns have been raised regarding the effectiveness of the filters for capturing nanoparticles. This article reviews the literature on the filtration performance of mechanical filters and respirators against nanoparticles. It discusses filtration mechanisms, theoretical models, affecting factors of the filtration efficiency and testing protocols for respirator and filter certification.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.296-304. 63 ref.

CIS 10-0096 Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Woods C., Soucy B.
Engineered Nanoparticles - Current knowledge about OHS risks and prevention measures - 2nd edition
Les nanoparticules de synthèse - Connaissances actuelles sur les risques et les mesures de prévention en SST - 2e édition [in French]
An initial literature survey on nanoparticles prompted the IRSST to publish two reports on this subject early in 2006 (see CIS 06-1148 and CIS 07-852), namely on the health risks of nanotechnologies and on various aspects of industrial hygiene involving nanoparticles. This report consists of an update of the earlier literature survey, rendered necessary by the rapid advances in scientific knowledge in this area.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2nd ed., 2010. vi, 149p. Illus. Approx. 350 ref. Price: CAD 15.75. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-646.pdf [in French]

2009

CIS 11-0690 Murashov V., Engel S., Savolainen K., Fullam B., Lee M., Kearns P.
Occupational safety and health in nanotechnology and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.
Nanoparticle Research, 2009, Vol.11, p.1587-1591. 21 ref.
Occupational_safety_and_health.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0608 Dolez P.I., Vu-Khanh T.
Recent developments and needs in materials used for personal protective equipment and their testing
The field of personal protective equipment (PPE) has led to several high technology innovations. Indeed, improved protection against the various possible encountered risks is looked for, in particular at the workplace. This has generated the development of new materials and new manufacturing technologies, as well as the introduction of new applications for existing ones. However, the remaining challenges are numerous. This article reviews some of the new technologies introduced in the field of protective clothing against heat and flames, mechanical risks and chemical aggressors. It also describes new challenges that are currently worked on, in particular the effect of service aging and the need for testing methods that reproduce real-use conditions. Finally, it discusses various existing and potential applications of nanomaterials and smart textiles for PPE.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.4, p.347-362. Illus. 88 ref.
Recent_developments.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0409 Ricaud M.
Nanomaterials: Health hazards and preventive measures
Nanomatériaux. Risques pour la santé et mesures de prévention [in French]
Given the many unknowns concerning the potential health effects of nanomaterials, it is important to limit occupational exposures. This leaflet summarizes the appropriate technical and personal protective measures to be adopted in laboratories or enterprises handling nano-objects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2009. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 0.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6064.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0408 Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Nanomaterials. Definitions, toxicological risk, characterisation of occupational exposure and prevention measures
Les nanomatériaux. Définitions, risques toxicologiques, caractérisation de l'exposition professionnelle et mesures de prévention [in French]
That workers are occupationally exposed to nanomaterials is already an established fact. Considering the many unknowns surrounding these new chemicals, their potential health effects and the problems faced in attempting to characterize exposures, quantitative risk assessments remain difficult to carry out in most occupational settings. In all work situations involving exposure to nanomaterials, the most appropriate course of action is therefore to apply caution and introduce specific policies aimed at avoiding risks. Although it is still too early to provide definitive answers, this guide brings together current knowledge concerning the characteristics and applications of these materials, their toxicology, the tools available for evaluating occupational exposure and finally the means of prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2009. 27p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: EUR 4.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6050/EN.pdf [in English]
ED_6050/FR.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0105 Dolez P.I., Bodila N., Lara J., Truchon G.
Personal protective equipment against nanoparticles: What to choose?
Equipements de protection personnelle contre les nanoparticules: que choisir? [in French]
The number of workers in contact with nanoparticles is rapidly increasing in Quebec and elsewhere. Given the current lack of knowledge of their effects on health, this article argues in favour of using efficient personal protective equipment against nanoparticles. Contents: human exposures to nanoparticles; Canadian occupational safety and health regulations applicable to nanoparticles; selection of personal protective equipment; respiratory protection; skin protection; conclusions.
Travail et santé, June 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.44-49. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 10-0822 Toth E., Ponce del Castillo A.M., Grégoire D.
Nanotechnologies: Hopes and uncertainties around a new revolution
Nanotechnologies: espoirs et incertitudes autour d'une nouvelle révolution [in French]
Special feature on nanotechnologies, the hopes they generate, the uncertainties concerning their impact on health, and the legal and ethical issues they raise.
Autumn-Winter 2009, p.12-41. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 10-0825 Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Buchter A.
Occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme regarding exposure to nanomaterials and special or new materials
Arbeitsmedizinisches und präventivmedizinisches Untersuchungsprogramm bei Exposition mit Nanopartikeln und speziellen oder neuen Materialien [in German]
There is an urgent need to determine the health hazards from exposure to nanomaterials. These substances exhibit different physical, chemical and biological properties than the larger particle sized products with the same chemical composition and one should not automatically attribute the known same toxic effects of one to the other. According to present knowledge, the greatest risk arises from inhalation of insoluble or slightly soluble particles. Taking into consideration the various possible mechanisms of the interactions between nanomaterials and the human body, this article proposes an extensive occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme. See also ISN 111201.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov 2009, Vol.59, No.11. p.336-343. 50 ref.
Arbeitsmedizinisches_und_präventivmedizinisches_Untersuchungsprogramm.pdf [in German]

CIS 10-0688 Ostiguy C., Roberge B., Ménard L., Endo C.A.
Best practices guide to synthetic nanoparticle risk management
This best practices guide on the risks related to synthetic nanoparticles proposes a prevention strategy applicable to workers and researchers producing, transforming or using nanoparticles. It is intended for enterprises, researchers and occupational safety and health professionals involved with nanotechnologies. It identifies health, safety and environmental hazards, proposes a procedure for risk evaluation and control, documents current practices worldwide and proposes the content of an enterprise or organization company prevention programme.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. iv, 59p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-599.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0535 Tanarro Gozalo C., Gálvez Pérez V.
Nanoparticles: A small hazard?
Nanopartículas: ¿un riesgo pequeño? [in Spanish]
The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to the emergence of a large number of consumer products containing nanoparticles thanks to the improved product properties resulting from their use. As a result, a growing number of workers are exposed to new materials about which little is known of their toxicological characteristics. This article gives an overview of nanoparticles, the sectors where they can be found, the associated hazards and the preventive measures that can be adopted.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.33-44. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1202 Vainio H., Sng J., Koh D., Lee S.M., Chia S.E., Kawakami T., Fedotov I., Tao L., Ikeda T., Joshi S.K., Sharma S.C., Shrestha S., Pääkkönen T., Lehtinen S.
New emerging risks
Collection of articles on emerging occupational safety and health hazards of relevance to countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Contents: nanotechnology; applying participatory approaches and good practices to emerging risks; health hazards related to precarious work; participatory approach for stress management in small enterprises in Japan; child labour in Nepal and associated hazards; brief account of a conference on occupational health of nanotechnology which took place in 2009 in Finland; brief account of a meeting of WHO collaborating centres which took place in Geneva in 2009.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2009, Vol.16, No.3, p.51-71 (whole issue). Illus. Bib.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/asian_pacific_newsletter/archives/Documents/asian_pacific_nl3_2009.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1295 Crosera M., Bovenzi M., Maina G., Adami G., Zanette C., Florio C., Filon Larese F.
Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity: A review of the literature
The article reviews the literature on the percutaneous absorption of nanoparticles and their effect on skin. It highlights the important knowledge gaps and research needs in areas including: health and environmental impact; life cycle of nanoparticles; exposure routes; behaviour of nanoparticles in the body; risk for workers. Data on titanium dioxide are inconsistent, data on carbon-based nanoparticles are limited and data on metal-based nanoparticles are rare.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1043-1055. 106 ref.

CIS 09-1292 Truchon G.
Nanotoxicology - Where do we stand?
Nanotoxicologie - Où en sommes-nous? [in French]
Nanoparticles can be absorbed by inhalation, ingestion and through the skin. Some nanoparticles agglutinate rapidly, which can influence their properties and their effects on the body. Despite numerous articles published on the toxicity of nanoparticles, there remains a pressing need for in vivo studies to inform dose-response relationships in animals and humans.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.10-11. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 09-1291 Strebel D.
A terrible microscopic danger
Die Zeitbombe jetzt entschärfen [in German]
Disinnescare subito la bomba [in Italian]
Un terrible danger microscopique [in French]
This article on nanomaterials argues in favour of precautions when handling or eliminating products containing nanomaterials, given the fact that their risks to humans remain largely unknown. It includes several safety recommendations.
Beobachter - Arbeit/Travail/Lavoro, 2009, No.24, p.26-29. Illus.

CIS 09-1090 Peters T.M., Elzey S., Johnson R., Park H., Grassian V.H., Maher T., O'Shaughnessy P.
Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety
This article compares two methods used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at seven locations. The second method used two hand-held direct-reading instruments to measure total and respirable airborne particles. Findings of both methods were consistent in showing that airborne nanoparticles in this facility were dominated by "incidental" sources (e.g., welding or grinding), and that the airborne "engineered" product was predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometres.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2009, Vol.6, No.2, p.73-81. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1093 Jolly H.
Nanomaterials: what health hazards?
Nanomatériaux: quels risques sanitaires? [in French]
Nanotechnologies are already widely used in the construction industry and some enterprises have ambitious plans to develop nanoparticle-based paints and varnishes or to incorporate carbon nanotubes into concrete mixes. Given the uncertainties surrounding their toxicity, nanoparticles should be considered as potentially dangerous and the precautionary principle should apply. The working group of the French Agency for sanitary health of the work environment (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l'environnement et du travail - Afsset) has published "nanosafety" recommendations which emphasize substitution, followed by collective protection and finally personal protection.
Prévention BTP, Sep. 2009, No.121, p.40-42. Illus.

CIS 09-1091 Schulte P.A., Schubauer-Berigan M.K., Mayweather C., Geraci C.L., Zumwalde R., McKernan J.L.
Issues in the development of epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to engineered nanoparticles
Until the hazards and risks of engineered nanoparticles are determined, the technological advances of nanotechnology may be impeded by the societal concerns. Although animal data provide the necessary first step in hazard and risk assessment, epidemiological studies involving exposed workers will also be required. It may be too soon to conduct epidemiological studies but not too soon to identify issues and prepare strategies to address them. Twelve important issues were identified from published scientific literature, the most critical pertaining to particle heterogeneity, temporal factors, exposure characterization, disease endpoints and identification of the study population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.323-335. Illus. 103 ref.

CIS 09-621 Noël A., Truchon G.
In vitro pulmonary toxicity induced by ultrafine particles: Literature review and summary of potential mechanisms
Mécanismes de toxicité pulmonaire in vitro des particules ultrafines: synthèse et revue de la littérature [in French]
This literature survey summarizes the various assumptions that exist regarding the mechanisms of in vitro pulmonary toxicity induced by ultrafine particles (UFP). Fifty-odd articles from the years 1988 to 2007 were selected. The analysis of physical and chemical characteristics that are distinctive to the UFP allowed the identification of decisive properties playing a key role in the pulmonary toxicodynamics of these particles, when compared to their fine counterpart. The crucial properties of UFP for in vitro pulmonary toxicity seem to be particle size, surface morphology and chemical composition. Hence, an interaction follows between the UFP and biological materials that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular oxidative stress. These have an impact on macrophages cytoskeleton generating a malfunctioning cell, on organelles, such as mitochondria, the heart of intracellular redox activity and on calcium intracellular concentrations, a key component of signalling leading to inflammation. All these effects are the basis of in vitro studies dealing with the mechanistic paradigm of oxidative stress and inflammation. Overall, literature data indicate that the UFP may act on different target cells to generate the production of ROS. Taken together, these results show that the summation of UFP interactions with the cell causes substantial oxidative stress, playing a key role in the pulmonary toxicity induced by the UFP.
Travail et santé, Mar. 2009, Vol.25, No.1, p.25-31. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 09-384 Noonan J.
Shrinking certainty
In face of uncertainty concerning the toxicological hazards of carbon nanotubes which could potentially be similar to those of asbestos, this article argues that organizations that work with these substances keep track of developments in toxicological research and testing of nanomaterials.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 2009, Vol.27, No.1, p.46-48. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 08-1371 Kosk-Bienko J.
Workplace exposure to nanoparticles
This literature survey presents the latest knowledge concerning the risks of workplace exposure to nanoparticles. With the growing importance and more widespread use of nanoparticles in the economy, it is essential that as much be learned about their potentially harmful effects (and how to prevent them) as possible. In-vivo studies have shown inflammation, fibrosis and tumours induced by several granular nanomaterials in the lungs after respiratory exposure. Currently the mechanism of tumour formation is not fully understood and scientific uncertainties remain. No harmful effects of skin exposure have been shown so far. Protective measures that are typically used to protect against insoluble materials, like dusts, are usually recommended for nanomaterials as well. The effectiveness of current methods of respiratory protection is still to be investigated.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 89p. Illus. 341 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/literature_reviews/workplace_exposure_to_nanoparticles [in English]

1, 2, 3 | next >