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Air pollution - 353 entries found

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CIS 12-0025 Eickmann U., Falcy M., Fokuhl I., Rüegger M., Bloch M.
Surgical smoke: Hazards and preventive measures
Fumées chirurgicales. Risques et mesures de prévention [in French]
Surgery techniques that use heat or ultrasonics expose operators to pyrolysis products. These fumes contain mixtures of various substances which may include biologically-active substances, carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic. Acute poisoning symptoms include migraine, weakness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and respiratory system. There is a lack of epidemiological studies on the risks of surgical smoke to operator health. Preventive measures rely on collective protection (smoke aspiration, mechanical ventilation of the work environment), organization (information and training of personnel) and, where required, the use of personal protective equipment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.383-395. 61 ref.
Fumées_chirurgicales_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 11-0842 Oury B.
A screening tool for identifying volatile organic compounds in a workplace atmosphere
Le "screening", un outil pour l'identification des composés organiques volatils dans une atmosphère de travail [in French]
This article presents a method for identifying chemicals in workplace atmospheres. The proposed technique consists of air sampling through a tube containing successive layers of adsorbents known for their capacity to capture specific classes of chemicals. The behaviour of three commercial multi-layer tubes was studied using substances having various properties, in presence of humidity and for various volumes and sampling throughputs. The technique was validated in 23 enterprises. Sampling enabled the identification of volatile organic compounds in workplace air and more specific evaluations conducted jointly confirmed the findings.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.19-27. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 11-0214 Lemarié J.
Bronze and lighting ornaments - Chiselling away safely
Lustrerie-bronze - Ciseler en toute sécurité [in French]
Clocks, candelabras, andirons, chandeliers and other objects in bronze, brass or cast iron from French ministries and embassies are renovated in the Paris workshop of the National furniture service. This article describes the tasks carried out in this workshop, together with the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.42-44. Illus.
Lustrerie-bronze.pdf [in French]


CIS 11-0812 Madrigano J., Baccarelli A., Wright R.O., Suh H., Sparrow D., Vokonas P.S., Schwartz J.
Air pollution, obesity, genes and cellular adhesion molecules
This study examined the association between particulate matter and cell adhesion molecules, together with the modifying effect of genotype and phenotype variation to gain insight into the relevant biological pathways for this association. Mixed regression models were used to examine the association of PM2.5 and black carbon with serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), markers of endothelial function and inflammation, in a longitudinal study of 809 participants in the Normative Ageing Study (1819 total observations). Whether this association was modified by genotype, obesity or diabetes status was also examined. Genes selected for analyses were related to oxidative stress, endothelial function, lipid metabolism or metal processing. Black carbon during the two days prior to blood draw was significantly associated with increased sVCAM-1 (4.5% increase per 1 μg/m3). Neither pollutant was associated with sICAM-1. Larger effects of black carbon on sVCAM were seen in subjects with obesity and who were GSTM1 null. It is concluded that black carbon is associated with markers of endothelial function and inflammation. Genes related to oxidative defence may modify this association.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.312-317. Illus. 37 ref.
Air_pollution.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0527 Dolk H., Armstrong B., Lachowycz K., Vrijheid M., Rankin J., Abramsky L., Boyd P.A., Wellesley D.
Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies in England, 1991-1999
The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between risk of congenital anomaly and exposure to air pollution in England during the 1990s. A geographical study was conducted across four regions of England using population-based congenital anomaly registers, 1991-1999. Exposure was measured as 1996 annual mean background sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations. Poisson regression, controlling for maternal age, area socioeconomic deprivation and hospital catchment area was used to estimate relative risk for an increase in pollution from the 10th to the 90th centile. For non-chromosomal anomalies combined, relative risks were 0.99 for SO2, 0.97 for NO2 and 0.89 for PM10. For chromosomal anomalies, relative risks were 1.06 for SO2, 1.11 for NO2 and 1.18 for PM10. Raised risks were found for tetralogy of Fallot and SO2 (RR 1.38), NO2 (RR 1.44) and PM10 (RR 1.48), which is of interest in light of previously reported associations between this cardiac anomaly and other air pollutants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.223-227. 27 ref.
Ambient_air_pollution.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0525 Strak M., Boogaard H., Meliefste K., Oldenwening M., Zuurbier M., Brunekreef B., Hoek G.
Respiratory health effects of ultrafine and fine particle exposure in cyclists
Monitoring studies have shown that commuters are exposed to high air pollution concentrations, but there is limited evidence of associated health effects. This study was carried out to investigate the acute respiratory health effects of air pollution related to commuting by bicycle. Twelve healthy adults cycled a low- and a high-traffic intensity route during morning rush hour in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was characterised by measurements of PM10, soot and particle number. Before, directly after and 6 h after cycling we measured lung function (FEV1, FVC, PEF), exhaled nitrous oxide (NO) and respiratory symptoms. The association between post- minus pre-exposure difference in health effects and exposure during cycling was evaluated with linear regression models. The average particle number concentration was 59% higher, while the average soot concentration was 39% higher on the high-traffic route than on the low-traffic route. There was no difference for PM10. Contrary to expectations, associations between air pollution during cycling and lung function changes immediately after cycling were mostly positive. Six hours after cycling, associations between air pollution exposure and health were mostly negative for lung function changes and positive for changes in exhaled NO, although non-significant. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.118-124. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0227 Yorifuji T., Kashima S., Tsuda T., Takao S., Suzuki E., Doi H., Sugiyama M., Ishikawa-Takata K., Ohta T.
Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality in Shizuoka, Japan
The number of studies investigating the health effects of long-term exposure to air pollution is increasing; however, most studies have been conducted in Western countries. The health status of Asian populations may be different to that of Western populations and may, therefore, respond differently to air pollution exposure. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Shizuoka, Japan. Individual data were extracted from participants of an ongoing cohort study. A total of 14,001 older residents, who were randomly chosen from all 74 municipalities of Shizuoka, completed questionnaires and were followed from December 1999 to March 2006. Individual nitrogen dioxide exposure data, as an index for traffic-related exposure, were modelled using a land use regression model. Participants were assigned an estimated concentration of nitrogen dioxide exposure during 2000-2006. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a 10 μg/m3 increase in exposure to nitrogen dioxide for all-cause or cause-specific mortality was then estimated. The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 1.02. Regarding cause-specific mortality, the adjusted HR for cardiopulmonary mortality was 1.16; in particular the adjusted HR was 1.27 for ischaemic heart disease mortality and 1.19 for pulmonary disease mortality. Furthermore, among non-smokers, a 10 μg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was associated with a higher risk for lung cancer mortality (HR 1.30). Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution, indexed by nitrogen dioxide concentration, increases the risk of cardiopulmonary mortality, even in a population with a relatively low body mass index and increases the risk of lung cancer mortality in non-smokers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.67, No.2, p.111-117. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 11-0107 Bémer D., Subra I., Depay J.P., Lauzier F.
Diesel emissions - Performance of particle-absorbing filters for off-road vehicles
Emission diesel - Performances des filtres à particules pour engins non routiers [in French]
Exposure to diesel fumes and exhaust gases is considered the most frequent form of workplace exposure in France. These emissions are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) by the IARC. Diesel emission is the source of chemically complex pollution comprising gases and fine carbon particles, onto which complex organic compounds are adsorbed. At present, only the use of a particle filter ensures sufficient reduction in mobile machinery emissions. Multiple technologies have been developed to collect efficiently these particles at the surface of the filter medium and, above all, allow their elimination and thereby regenerate the filter pressure drop. This article presents a study aimed at testing filters fitted to off-road on construction sites to confirm their initial performance and especially their conservation over time. Findings show that certain filter technologies (CRT-type catalyzed passive regeneration) do not appear to be suitable for off-road vehicles. Only active regeneration filters with a complementary additive, which have been widely tested in some countries, appear suitable at present insofar as they ensure significant reduction of soot microparticle emissions and guarantee performance characteristic conservation in time.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.35-43. Illus. 23 ref.
ND 2323-218-10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0837 Stathopoulos T., Hajra B., Bahloul A.
Analytical evaluation of the dispersion of roof stack emissions on buildings
Evaluation analytique de la dispersion des émissions de cheminées de toit sur les bâtiments [in French]
The occasional introduction of polluting emissions into buildings by fresh air intakes is one of the main causes of the poor air quality in some workplaces, which can have harmful effects on people's health, particularly those who work in laboratories or hospitals. Computer models are commonly used to determine whether existing or expected industrial installations comply or will comply with the American National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) or the standards of other countries. These models also promote the development of effective control strategies for reducing emissions of harmful atmospheric pollutants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of various atmospheric dispersion models approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to model the dispersion of stack effluents in order to determine their concentration at various locations on the roofs where they originate. The results were compared to those obtained in a wind tunnel and in the field. The report concludes with an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the studied dispersion models according to each configuration, and suggests the one best suited to each situation.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. x, 79p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-643.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0315 Gómez M.E., Sanchez J.F., Cardona A.M., Pioquinto J.F., Torres P., Sanchez D., Camargo L.M., Castañeda R.A., Villamizar R.H., Cremades L.V.
Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia)
A study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia) was conducted. Working conditions of the 177 most exposed workers were examined, and exposure to wood dust and noise, as well as lighting, were measured. The state of health was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire. Results show that personal protection was not used appropriately and that some were inadequate, that half of workshops had below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux) required, and that the noise level exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA) in all the workshops.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.222-230. Illus. 39 ref.
Health_and_working_conditions.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0256 Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.

CIS 10-0286 Ishihama K., Sumioka S., Sakurada K., Kogo M.
Floating aerial blood mists in the operating room
High-speed surgical instruments and electric coagulator devices produce contaminated particles and aerosols. This study aimed to investigate the presence of blood-contaminated aerosol in an operating room environment. Test filters were fitted to the extract ducts of a standard central air conditioning system, and were left in place for one, two or four weeks. In a separate experiment to analyze contributing factors, the test filters were changed following every operation. Green dots showing a reaction with leucomalachite green method were counted. In the accumulation experiment, the number of positive dots tended to increase over time (26, 60, and 143 dots after one, two and four weeks, respectively). Surgical procedures performed with these devices produce aerosolized blood in the operating room. Implications are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.1179-1181. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 11-0844 Salonen H.J., Lappalainen S.K., Riuttala H.M., Tossavainen A.P., Pasanen P.O., Reijula K.E.
Man-made vitreous fibers in office buildings in the Helsinki area
In this study of 258 office buildings, the occurrence and density of settled man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) on surfaces were measured by two sampling methods. Altogether, 1113 samples of settled dust were collected from surfaces with plastic bags and gelatine tape and were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and a stereomicroscope, respectively. Tape samples from 68 buildings were collected from 162 frequently-cleaned and 57 seldom-cleaned room surfaces in 56 and 29 offices, respectively, and from 24 supply air ducts in 10 offices. MMVFs longer than 20 μm were counted with a stereomicroscope. Irritation symptoms were recorded with a questionnaire. More than 60% of the surface dust and almost 90% of the samples collected from supply air ducts contained MMVFs. The density of MMVFs longer than 20 μm ranged from < 0.1 to 5 fibre/cm2. The mean density of the MMVFs was about two times higher on the seldom cleaned surfaces than on the frequently cleaned surfaces. The density was usually under 0.2 MMVF/cm2 in surface dust of offices without emission sources of MMVFs. The measurements combined with qualitative analysis of settled dust can help to localize relevant sources of fibre emissions. Altogether, in 40% of the buildings, several occupants had repeated irritation symptoms that were verified by occupational health care personnel.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.624-631. Illus. 41 ref.
Man-made.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0775 Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
This article develops framework for identifying how climate change could affect occupational safety and health based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature, air pollution, ultraviolet exposure, extreme weather, vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0548 Fullerton D.G., Semple S., Kalambo F., Suseno A., Malamba R., Henderson G., Ayres J.G., Gordon S.B.
Biomass fuel use and indoor air pollution in homes in Malawi
Air pollution from biomass fuels in Africa is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity both in adults and children. This study describes the nature and quantity of smoke exposure from biomass fuel in Malawian homes. Markers of indoor air quality were measured in 62 homes (31 rural and 31 urban) over a typical 24h period by means of a gravimetric device, two photometric devices and a carbon monoxide monitor. Gravimetric samples were analysed for transition metal content. Data on cooking and lighting fuel type together with information on indicators of socioeconomic status were collected by questionnaire. Respirable dust levels in both the urban and rural environment were high with the mean 24h average levels being 226 μg/m3. Data from real-time instruments indicated respirable dust concentrations were >250 μg/m3 for >1h per day in 52% of rural homes and 17% of urban homes. Average carbon monoxide levels were significantly higher in urban compared with rural homes (6.14 ppm vs 1.87 ppm). The transition metal content of the smoke was low, with no significant difference found between urban and rural homes. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.777-783. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 11-0518 Panasevich S., Leander K., Rosenlund M., Ljungman P., Bellander T., de Faire U., Pershagen G., Nyberg F.
Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance. The objective of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory and coagulation markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology. The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO2 and heating-related SO2 emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1,5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling. Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with a 64.5% increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 μg/m3 and 30-year exposure to heating- SO2 with a 67.6% increase per 39.4 μg/m3. The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. Short-term exposure to O3 was associated with increased, and SO2 with decreased, fibrinogen levels. These results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.747-753. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0514 Pujades-Rodríguez M., Lewis S., Mckeever T., Britton J., Venn A.
Effect of living close to a main road on asthma, allergy, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of asthma is increased among those living in close proximity to major roads. However, the evidence is inconsistent, and effects on asthma and related respiratory and allergic conditions using objective measures such as lung function and allergic sensitisation have not been widely investigated. In 1995, 1996 and 2001 data on respiratory and allergic disease, along with demographic and lifestyle factors, were collected in 59,285 children (aged 2-16 years) and adults as part of the annual Health Survey for England. Geographical Information System software enables mapping the location of each participant's home and computing the distance to the nearest major road. The effect of distance on self-reported wheezing in the past year, asthma, eczema, hay fever, one-second forced expiratory volume, immunoglobulin E and spirometry defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Living within 150m from a major road was not significantly associated with an increased risk of any of the outcome variables in any age group. Furthermore there was little evidence that risk increased with increasing proximity across the 0-150m range where contrasts in traffic-related pollutant concentrations are greatest.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.679-684. 36 ref.

CIS 11-0274 Marchand G., Cloutier Y., Pépin C., Drolet D.
Validation of a method for the exploratory analysis of the mycological population by using spore traps
Validation d'une méthode d'analyse exploratoire de la population mycologique par utilisation de trappes à spores [in French]
The method most commonly used to document the presence of mould in the air of an environment consists of cultivating the sampled microorganisms in the laboratory, which requires extensive expertise and a lot of time due to the incubation period. The processes used for analyzing an environment's cultivable mycological flora do not determine the non-cultivable flora, which can also have impacts on health. The spore trap method, despite being limited to mould analysis, is a rapid exploratory technique. This study was able to explore the method's limits of detection and quantification, and to verify its scope and precision. Finally, the IRSST now disposes of an exploratory method for analyzing total mycological contamination.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. i, 16p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: CAD 5.25. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-605.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0241 Withinshaw D., de Vries E., Karnavos N., Leotoing F., Martinez Conesa P., N. Ribeiro N., Smithers B., Roberts P.
Air pollutant emission estimation methods for E-PRTR reporting by refineries
This report provides algorithms for developing emission estimates to be made by refineries to meet the reporting requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) regarding emissions to air of various pollutants.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, x, 102p. 51 ref.


CIS 12-0240 Improving indoor air quality
This information note lists the main steps to be taken to improve indoor air quality: ensuring a sufficient supply of fresh air; regularly cleaning air outlets and filets; using materials and furnishings that do not contain volatile organic compounds; regularly washing carpets and furniture fabrics; installing a central ventilation system; adopting a no-smoking policy; controlling temperature and humidity levels.
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2008. 2p. Illus.
Improving_indoor_air_quality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0083 Dowker K.P., Hardwick K.
Health and Safety Executive
Effect of tubing type on gas detector sampling systems
This study was designed to determine the effect of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and Tygon tubing on the response times of the detection systems used to monitor hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and toluene (C7H8). Findings are discussed. It is concluded that PTFE and FEP can be used with minimal effect when sampling H2S, NO and NO2. Tygon may be used when sampling H2S, NO and NO2 if PTFE and FEP are not available providing the delay time is not an issue, but the tube dimensions must be as small as practically possible without restricting the flow rate of the sampling instrument. Tygon is not suitable for use in sampling C7H8 but PTFE and FEP may be used providing the delay time is not an issue.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008, vi, 25p. Illus. 6 ref.
HSE_RR635.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0075 Tickle G.A., Carlisle J.E.
Health and Safety Executive
Extension of the dense gas dispersion model DRIFT to include buoyant lift-off and buoyant rise
This report concerns the specification of equations extending the dense gas dispersion model DRIFT to include buoyant lift-off and rise. The lift-off modelling is based on that for a free buoyant cloud. Added mass terms are included in the model's vertical momentum equation since they offer the prospect of suppressing lift-off for wide clouds. The elevated continuous plume model is chosen to be similar to other published elevated plume models. The elevated instantaneous model is based on the puff model of Turner. The proposed model smoothly evolves between grounded and elevated phases. Passive spreading of the elevated cloud is based on a relative diffusion model. DRIFT's atmospheric profiles have been extended to above the surface layer and to include profiles of temperature and humidity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 74p. Illus. 63 ref.
Report_RR629.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0687 Stathopoulos T., Bodhisatta H., Bahloul A.
Analytical evaluation of dispersion of exhaust from rooftop stacks on buildings
The occasional introduction of polluting emissions into buildings by fresh air intakes is one of the main causes of the poor air quality in some workplaces, which can have harmful effects on people's health, particularly those who work in laboratories or hospital establishments. Computer models are commonly used to determine whether existing or expected industrial installations comply or will comply with the American National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) or the standards of other countries. These models also promote the development of effective control strategies for reducing emissions of harmful atmospheric pollutants. This report evaluated the use of the various atmospheric dispersion models approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to model the dispersion of stack effluents in order to determine their concentration at various locations on the roofs where they originate. The results were compared to those obtained in a wind tunnel and in the field. An assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the dispersion models is provided, according to each configuration, and the one best adapted to each situation is proposed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. ix, 71p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Report_R-576.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0248 Ducos P., Berode M., Francin J.M., Arnoux C., Lefèvre C.
Biological monitoring of exposure to solvents using the chemical itself in urine: Application to toluene
Biomonitoring of solvents using the unchanged substance in urine as exposure indicator is still relatively scarce due to some discrepancies between the results reported in the literature. Based on the assessment of toluene exposure, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of some steps likely to bias the results and to measure urinary toluene in six volunteers experimentally exposed and in 29 rotogravure printing workers. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that provided certain experimental precautions are adopted, urinary toluene can be recommended as a biomarker of choice for toluene exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.273-284. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0247 Kawai T., Ukai H., Inoue O., Maejima Y., Fukui Y., Ohashi F., Okamoto S., Takada S., Sakurai H., Ikeda M.
Evaluation of biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene at low levels
The purpose of this study was to compare various biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene (Tol) at low levels. The focus was placed on the comparison of un-metabolized toluene in urine (Tol-U) and peripheral blood (Tol-B) with hippuric acid in urine (HA-U). The study was conducted at 16 workplaces with the participation of male solvent-exposed workers. Urine and peripheral blood samples were collected at the end of the shifts. Time-weighted average exposures were monitored by diffusive sampling for toluene and other four solvents. Blood samples were subjected to the analyses for Tol-B, whereas urine samples were analyzed for HA-U and Tol-U. Solvent exposures were low. The correlation analyses of the biomarkers in urine and blood with Tol exposure showed that Tol-U and Tol-B were more closely related than HA-U. Results of receiver operator characteristic analyses were in agreement with the correlation analysis results. Tol in the end-of-shift spot urine sample appears to be the marker of choice for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to Tol at low levels.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.253-262. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 09-633 Codron R., Alcouffe J., Rosenberg N., Andrieu F., Cretté A., Hess C., Le Boedec C., Montéléon P.Y.
Exploratory survey on "atmospheric pollutants" in a water treatment and supply enterprise
Enquête exploratoire "polluants atmosphériques" dans une entreprise de traitement et de distribution de l'eau [in French]
The aim of this study was to compare clinical respiratory criteria among workers of a water treatment plant potentially exposed to hydrogen sulfide, gaseous chlorine, ozone or sulfur dioxide from bisulfites with those of workers considered to be occupationally unexposed. Data were collected by means of anonymous questionnaires and respiratory function tests. Among the 199 subjects, 29 reported having been accidentally exposed to hydrogen sulfide, 41 to gaseous chlorine, 15 to ozone and three to bisulfites; 34 declared one or two accidental exposures and 34 to more than two. No associations were found between potential exposures to the four atmospheric pollutants studied and clinical criteria and respiratory function, except for the sensation of burning nose. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.3, p.249-258. 10 ref.

CIS 09-308 González Domínguez M.E., Rueda Ygueravide M.D., Gutiérrez Fernández D., Gómez Gutiérrez J.M., León Jiménez A., Pérez Álvarez J.
Exposure to airborne pollutants and respiratory pathology
Exposición a contaminantes ambientales y patología respiratoria [in Spanish]
This investigation was carried out following an outbreak of five cases of respiratory symptoms among workers of an aerospace industry in Spain exposed to various chemicals. Measurements included airborne aluminium dust, trichloroethylene and ethylene glycol. Workers were subjected to skin tests, blood tests, chest radiography, spirometry, metacholine challenge tests and electrocardiography. The peak-flow measurement and the direct bronchial hyperactivity test using metacholine were negative. The allergic tests performed were also generally negative. These findings practically exclude work-related asthma. These cases may have been caused by a reactive airways dysfunction syndrome having occurred at a specific moment before the investigation was carried out. Further implications of these findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.41-46. 12 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 09-292 Carder M., McNamee R., Beverland I., Elton R., Van Tongeren M., Cohen G.R., Boyd J., MacNee W., Agius R.M.
Interacting effects of particulate pollution and cold temperature on cardiorespiratory mortality in Scotland
In this study Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between lagged black smoke concentration and daily mortality, and whether the effect of black smoke on cardiorespiratory mortality was modified by cold temperature for three Scottish cities from January 1981 to December 2001. For all-cause respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, there was a significant association between mortality and lagged black smoke concentration. Generally the maximum black smoke effect occurred at lag 0, although these estimates were not statistically significant. A 10µg/m3 increase in the daily mean black smoke concentration on any given day was associated with a 1.68% increase in all-cause mortality and a 0.43%, 5.36% and 2.13% increase in cardiovascular, respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, respectively, over the ensuing 30-day period. The results of this study suggest a greater effect of black smoke on mortality at low temperatures. Since extremes of cold and particulate pollution may coexist, for example during temperature inversion, these results may have important public health implications.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-137 Braconnier R., Chaineaux C., Triolet J., Fontaine J.R., Sallé B.
Measurement of volatile liquid evaporation rates in work environments
Mesures du flux d'évaporation de liquides volatils dans des ambiances de travail [in French]
This article presents results of an experimental study on volatile liquid evaporation from an open surface in contact with air. Measurements were taken under conditions similar to situations which can arise in workplaces. Mass flow rates were found to vary widely, depending on the type of volatile liquid, the surface air velocity and the temperature. Study results are compared with those provided by forecasting formulae available in the literature.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.61-71. Illus. 23 ref.$File/nd2296.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-136 Galland B., Carvalho V., Martin P.
Assessment of photoionization detectors integrated into portable multi-gas detectors
Evaluation des détecteurs à photo-ionisation embarqués dans les détecteurs de gaz portables multigaz [in French]
This article describes laboratory tests on photoionization detectors (PIDs) integrated into portable multi-gas detectors, the purpose being to demonstrate the usefulness of these instruments in occupational hygiene. The performance characteristics of these PIDs (sensitivity, linearity, response time, etc.) were determined using a polluted atmosphere generating system. The laboratory test results reveal that these detectors are particularly advantageous for preventing occupational risks, particularly for monitoring pollutant concentration levels and for developing a sampling strategy. However, they cannot perform all the functions normally fulfilled by more sophisticated PIDs, such as exposure profile plotting or installation gas leak detection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.19-28. Illus. 10 ref.$File/nd2293.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-135 Thaller E I., Petronella S.A., Hochman D., Howard S., Chhikara R.S., Brooks E.G.
Moderate increases in ambient PM2.5 and ozone are associated with lung function decreases in beach lifeguards
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to pollutants would adversely affect the lung function of healthy athletes. Pulmonary function was recorded on beach lifeguards at three different times during the day. Daily and average peak pollutant levels were also measured. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Afternoon forced vital capacity (FVC) and one-second forced expired volume (FEV1) decreased significantly compared with morning values and decreased with increasing fine particulates (PM2.5). The FEV1/FVC ratio decreased with increasing ozone (O3) levels. The deleterious effect of PM2.5 and O3 were transient and occurred at pollutant levels far below national standards. At low levels of exposure, PM2.5 was associated with reduced lung volumes, while increasing O3 levels were associated with airway obstruction.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.202-211. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-147 Brook R.D., Jerrett M., Brook J.R., Bard R.L., Finkelstein M.M.
The relationship between diabetes mellitus and traffic-related air pollution
Air pollution is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Several of the biological pathways involved could also promote diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated the association between DM prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, NO2). Study participants were patients who attended two respiratory clinics in Canada. Those among them with DM were identified by linkage to the database of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Geographic information systems methodology was used to assign individual estimates of NO2 based on a network of samplers in each city. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relations between NO2 exposures and the odds of DM. After adjusting for age, body mass index and neighborhood income, there were weak positive effects in women (odds ratio 1.04) but not among men.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.32-38. Illus. 45 ref.


CIS 10-0246 Iavicoli I., Bocca B., Carelli G., Caroli S., Caimi S., Alimonti A., Fontana L.
Biomonitoring of tram drivers exposed to airborne platinum, rhodium and palladium
The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary levels of platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and palladium (Pd) in occupationally exposed subjects. A total of 122 healthy male subjects were studied, including municipal tram drivers and 58 control subjects. There were statistically significant differences between urinary Pt and Rh levels among exposed subjects and controls, while no difference in Pd levels was observed. Urinary concentrations of Pt and Rh, though still low, could be of some concern among workers heavily exposed to urban car traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.109-114. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-146 Chuang K.J., Chan C.C., Su T.C., Lin L.Y., Lee C.T.
Associations between particulate sulfate and organic carbon exposures and heart rate variability in patients with or at risk of cardiovascular diseases
To determine whether specific components in fine particles are associated with heart rate variability (HRV), 46 patients with or at risk of cardiovascular diseases were recruited to measure 24-hour HRV by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Fixed-site air-monitoring stations were used to represent participants' exposures to particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10µm (PM10) and 2.5µm (PM2.5), and particulate components of sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon and elemental carbon, and gaseous pollutants. It was found that HRV reduction was associated with sulfate, organic carbon and PM2.5, but not with the other pollutants in single-pollutant models. Sulfate was found to remain in significant association with HRV reduction adjusting for organic carbon and PM2.5 in three-pollutant models.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.49, No.6, p.610-617. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 08-1209 Cyprowski M., Piotrowska M., Żakowska Z., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Microbial and endotoxin contamination of water-soluble metalworking fluids
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of microbial contamination of metalworking fluids as a potential source of harmful biological agents in three metalworking plants in Poland. Ten samples of fluids, including four fresh fluids, were analyzed. The analysis showed total bacterial counts ranging from 1.0x101 to 3.2x107 CFU/mL, 60% to 100% of which were Gram-negative bacteria capable of producing endotoxins. The predominant species of bacteria was Shewanella putrefaciens present in 60% of the samples. As for moulds, the predominant species was Acremonium butyric. The average concentration of bacterial endotoxins was 773 EU/mL in used fluids and 285 EU/mL in fresh fluids. A correlation was found between endotoxin concentration and the number of Gram-negative bacteria detected in the fluids. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.365-371. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-757 Ettel S., Winkler M., Zellner R.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Emissions of selected hydrocarbons from uses of liquid fuels for combustion engines and heating in Germany
Emmissionen ausgewählter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Anwendungen flüssiger Kraft- und Brennstoffe im Verkehrswesen, im Off-Road-Bereich und in der Wärmeerzeugung in Deutschland [in German]
This criteria document investigates the emissions of selected hydrocarbons through spillage and evaporation losses, and in exhaust gases as the result of incomplete combustion from liquid fuels in road, railroad, inland waterways and aircraft traffic, in other types of off-road engines and in heating. The analysis covered the period between 1990 and 2010 in Germany. The selected compounds are: buta-1,3-diene, pentane, cyclohexane, 2,4,4-trimethypent-1-ene, 2,4,4-trimethypent-2-ene, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, styrene, cumene, mesitylene, tert-butyl benzene, tetrahydronaphthalene, naphthalene, 2-methyl naphthalene, 1-methyl naphthalene and 2,6-dimethyl naphthalene.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xix, 196p. (German); 139+38p. (English). 78 ref. Price: EUR 60.00.

CIS 08-897 Concawe Review 16:2
Topics addressed in this review of CONCAWE activities: future demand and composition of fuels for road transport, including biofuels; software tool to assist enterprises comply with the information dissemination requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation (E-PRTR); challenges in accurate measurements of particulate matter (PM10) in diesel emissions; assessing the environmental sensitivity of petrol stations across Europe with respect to leaks and groundwater protection.
CONCAWE Review, 2007, Vol.16, No.2. p.1-21 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 07-1385 Baverstock S., Gennart J.P., King D., Money C., Phillips R., Taalman R., Urbanus J.
Report of a workshop on environment and health: Air quality research needs in the EU 7th Framework Programme of Research, 15-16 January 2007
Report on a conference on air quality research needs held in Brussels, Belgium, on 15-16 January 2007, organized with the collaboration of the European Commission's Directorate General Research. The aims were to foster a multidisciplinary approach to identifying research needs, serve as a forum for international exchange and provide the opportunity for participants to reveal gaps in order to identify areas for future studies. Topics addressed included studies of the mortality and morbidity in the European population, the impact of traffic emissions on public health, elucidating the mechanisms of toxic action, development of toxicity screening tests and impact of particulate matter metrics on human health. The complete proceedings and conference materials are included in the accompanying CD-ROM in PDF format.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Brussels, Belgium, May 2007. iv, 28p. + CD-ROM [in English]


CIS 12-0233 Acaíno Lara J., Solís Vega R., Quintanilla Barros P.
Study of exposure to silica - Chile 2004-2005
Estudio de la exposición a sílice - Chile 2004-2005 [in Spanish]
The Public Health Institute of Chile carried out an evaluation of the level of exposure of workers to silica in the country. 132 companies involved in various fields of industry were assessed, from which a total of 394 air samples were analyzed. It was found that 35% of the samples exceeded the weighted average permissible limits . The percentage of workers with a high probability of exposure to silica (working more than 30h per week in the presence of silica) was estimated using a job-exposure matrix developed by industrial hygiene experts. It is concluded that 5.4% of the employed workforce has a high risk of exposure to silica. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2006, 94p. Illus. 32 ref.
Estudio_de_la_exposición_a_sílice_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 08-847 Ferguson E., Cassaday H.J., Ward J., Weyman A.
Health and Safety Executive
Triggers for non-specific symptoms in the workplace: Individual differences, stress and environmental (odour and sound) factors
Non-specific symptoms are not related to any given disease and include fatigue, weakness, sleep difficulties, headache and muscle aches. They have a high reported incidence and result in high rates of sickness absenteeism. The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the work environment, characteristics of individual workers, external factors and physiological factors that contribute to reporting non-specific symptoms. It was carried out in the form of a survey of a cross-sectional sample of 711 volunteer participants, who answered questionnaires on their symptoms and work environment. A sub-group of volunteers furthermore submitted daily diary entries and saliva samples, which were analysed for cortisol and immunoglobulin-A secretion. Key findings are that non-specific symptoms are related to odour perceptions, the time of day, individual differences, particularly with respect to anxiety, perceived stress and job demand/control imbalance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 110p. Illus. Approx 120 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-579 Ghasemkhani M., Kumashiro M., Rezaei M., Anvari A.R., Mazloumi A., Sadeghipour H.R.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in industries of South Tehran, Iran
The aim this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms resulting from occupational lung hazards among workers in industries of South Tehran, Iran. Data on demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, occupational history and respiratory symptoms were collected from workers through multistage sampling. Among the 880 workers studied, 252 were smokers. Also, it was observed that workers were exposed to pollutants such as dust, gas and fume pollutants. The prevalent respiratory symptoms were cough (20.7%), phlegm (41.6%), dyspnoea (41.7%), chest tightness (27.4%) and nose irritation (23.5%). It is concluded that occupational exposures among workers in industries of South Tehran may cause respiratory symptoms and disorders. Various engineering controls and industrial hygiene measures are recommended.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.218-224. 27 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-618 Tovalin H., Valverde M., Morandi M.T., Blanco S., Whitehead L., Rojas E.
DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants
Health concerns about exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in cities of developing countries where air pollution levels are high. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter with mass mean diameter ≥2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone, and the severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. DNA damage (comet assay) and personal exposure were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from Mexico City and Puebla. Outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers. DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Workers with ≥60% of highly damaged cells had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone and certain volatile organic compounds, namely 1-ethyl-2-methyl benzene.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.63, No.4, p.230-236. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 07-179 Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Létourneau C., Godbout S., Lemay S., Belzile M., Lachance I., Pouliot F.
Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid manure separation system
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air dans les porcheries équipées d'un système de séparation liquide-solide des déjections [in French]
This project involved the evaluation of a system consisting of the separation of solid and liquid manure in a pig facility and its effects on odour, toxic gas emissions and bioaerosol formation. Air samples were collected twice a week during 16 weeks, and concentrations were measured for the following pollutants: bacteria, moulds, endotoxins, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide and nitrous oxide. Other data collected included ventilation throughputs and a subjective evaluation of smell. Findings are discussed. The separation had little effect except for ammonia emissions, that were reduced by half.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 35p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: CAD 5.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 06-1192 Constans Aubert A., Bultó Nubiola M.
Protection of the ozone layer: Legal aspects
Protección de la capa de ozono: aspectos legales [in Spanish]
This information note summarizes European and Spanish legislation concerning the production, use and disposal of substances that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, including chlorofluorocarbons, halons and bromofluorohydrocarbons.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-801 Andruchow J.E., Soskolne C.L., Racioppi F., Senthilselvan A., Makhmudov E., Asadov A.
Cancer incidence and mortality in the industrial city of Sumgayit, Azerbaijan
This study, the first environmental cancer study in Azerbaijan, addressed concerns that residents of the industrial city of Sumgayit have an increased cancer burden as a consequence of intense occupational and environmental pollution from industry. Vital statistics data were used to calculate annual crude cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers and regions in Azerbaijan for the years 1980-2000. Poisson regression analysis of age- and sex-specific data from 1995-2000 demonstrates an increased risk for selected cancers in Sumgayit relative to the rest of the country, as measured by adjusted rate ratios [aRR (95% CI)]: larynx 1.39 (1.04, 1.85), lung 1.67 (1.44, 1.92), bladder 2.49 (1.93, 3.22), and all sites 1.51 (1.43, 1.58). Sumgayit appears to suffer from an increased cancer burden; poor data quality and suspected underreporting, however, prevent accurate estimates of incidence or mortality rates. Construction of a modern cancer registry would be prerequisite to more detailed examinations of cancer rates in the country. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.234-241. Illus. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-909 Spiegel S.J., Savornin O., Shoko D., Veiga M.M.
Mercury reduction in Munhena, Mozambique: Homemade solutions and the social context for change
The health and environmental impacts of artisanal gold mining are of growing concern in Munhena, Mozambique, where more than 12,000 people are involved in such activities. Gold is extracted using mercury amalgamation, posing a considerable threat to human and environmental health. A pilot project ascertained the feasibility of reducing mercury use and emissions by promoting control measures utilizing local resources. Retorts were fabricated with local materials. Training workshops introduced the homemade retorts, and a portable mercury monitor revealed effective mercury reduction. Barriers to widespread technology adoption include poverty, lack of knowledge and trust, and the free supply of mercury from private gold buyers. Homemade retorts are inexpensive and effective, and miners could benefit by building community amalgamation centers. The government could play a greater role in gold purchasing to reduce mercury pollution. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.215-221. Illus. 18 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-1401 Winder C., van Netten C.
Aviation air quality
Special issue on air quality in aviation. Contents: review of papers presented at a conference on protection against contaminated air held in London in 2005; political aspects of aircraft safety and health in the United Kingdom; organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity; assessment of symptoms of aircrew exposed to fumes; lung injury following hydrocarbon inhalation among the aircrew; clinical evaluation of flight attendants after exposure to fumes in cabin air; aircraft air quality incidents; occupational health research in aviation; proposals for improvement.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2005, Vol.21, No.5, p.379-383, 397-477. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-657 Courtois B., Le Brech A., Diebold F., Lafon D.
Diesel engines and pollution in confined spaces
Moteurs diesel et pollution en espace confiné [in French]
Exhaust fume pollution from internal combustion engines powering heavy-duty mining, materials handling and earthmoving equipment may be important, depending on the site, traffic density and operating frequency. This paper reviews current knowledge in this field and proposes suitable means for limiting the toxic effects of various pollutants. In particular, it focuses on diesel engine-powered off-road vehicles, but also provides information on spark ignition engines on certain road vehicles. Other sections cover the prevention of exposure to both heavy lorry and light vehicle exhaust fumes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.45-62. Illus. 59 ref.$FILE/nd2239.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-102 Concawe Review 14:1
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: development of the European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC); automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; impact of the European framework directive for water quality on the downstream oil industry; safety of European cross-country pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Spring 2005, Vol.14, No.1, p.1-16. Illus.

CIS 05-641 Marsteau S.
Treatment of volatile organic compounds in the graphic arts sector
Traitement des composés organiques volatils dans le secteur des industries graphiques [in French]
This article describes the various processes used in the printing and graphic arts industries, provides an overview of the economic importance of the sector and considers the problem of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions with reference to both occupational health and environmental issues. Environmental regulations are examined and methods for reducing emissions during each printing process are described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.55-64. Illus. 17 ref.$FILE/nd2229.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-722 Lignell U., Meklin T., Putus T., Vepsäläinen A., Roponen M., Torvinen E., Reeslev M., Pennanen S., Hirvonen M.R., Kalliokoski P., Nevalainen A.
Microbial exposure, symptoms and inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid of kitchen and clerical personnel in schools
Microbial investigations were conducted in six moisture-damaged schools and two reference schools. The symptoms of kitchen personnel were investigated by questionnaire and by measurement of inflammatory responses in nasal lavage (NAL) fluid. Total concentrations of airborne microbes were lower in kitchens than in other facilities of the schools. However, the occurrence of moisture damage increased the airborne microbial concentrations both in kitchens and in other facilities. Bacterial concentrations were high on surfaces in the damaged kitchens. Symptoms were prevalent both among kitchen workers and clerical personnel in the moisture-damaged work environments. Median concentrations of inflammatory mediators were slightly higher in NAL samples of kitchen workers than among clerical personnel. It is concluded that kitchen facilities differ from other facilities of the school building and represent a specific type of environment that may affect the health status of the personnel.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.139-150. Illus. 51 ref.

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