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Gastrointestinal diseases - 143 entries found

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  • Gastrointestinal diseases

2011

CIS 11-0347 Nixon A.E., Mazzola J.J., Bauer J., Krueger J.R., Spector P.E.
Can work make you sick? A meta-analysis of the relationships between job stressors and physical symptoms
A meta-analysis of 79 studies reporting cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between physical symptoms and various occupational stressors was conducted. Stressors were organizational constraints, interpersonal conflict, role conflict, role ambiguity, workload, work hours, and lack of control. The relationships between stressors and eight physical symptoms were quantitatively summarized and contrasted, for both individual symptoms and composite symptom scales. All of the occupational stressors were significantly related to physical symptoms in cross-sectional analyses, and the effect sizes of these relationships varied both by the stressor and the individual symptom examined. The longitudinal relationships were similar to the cross-sectional results, and provided some evidence of temporal consistency of the occupational stressor/physical symptom relationship. Organizational constraints and interpersonal conflict had the strongest relationships with symptoms in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Gastrointestinal problems and sleep disturbances were significantly related to more stressors than other symptoms examined. These findings show that it is important to examine physical symptoms, as they are related to a wide range of job stressors and these relationships prevail over time. Potential underlying mechanisms, including the immediacy of physiological reactions to stressors, participants' attributions concerning stressor/physical symptom relationships, and the possible multidimensional nature of symptoms, are proposed and discussed.
Work and Stress, 2011, Vol.25, No.1, p.1-22. 75 ref.

2010

CIS 10-0511 van Mark A., Spallek M., Groneberg D.A., Kessel R., Weiler S.W.
Correlates shift work with increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints or frequency of gastritis or peptic ulcer in H.pylori-infected shift workers?
There is an ongoing discussion as to whether shift work gives rise to an increased risk of gastrointestinal complaints, gastritis or peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-infected shift workers. This study analyzed 615 workers divided between shift and day workers. Upper gastrointestinal diseases, medication or operation, unspecific gastrointestinal complaints, smoking habits, subjective job strain and private stress factors were monitored. The Hp status was analyzed using IgA and IgG antibody concentration in blood and qualitative ELISA for faeces. It was observed that 27.6% of all workers, 34.6% of the shift workers and 16% of daytime workers were Hp positive. However, it could not be confirmed that there was a causal connection between shift work and upper or unspecific gastrointestinal complaints or gastritis or peptic ulcer as a function of Hp status.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2010, Vol.83, No.4, p.423-431. 56 ref.

CIS 10-0436 Lowden A., Moreno C., Holmbäck U., Lennernäs M., Tucker P.
Eating and shift work - Effects on habits, metabolism and performance
Compared to day workers, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels and metabolic syndrome. At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating; however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. This literature survey examined studies on food and nutrition among shift workers. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. Dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers are proposed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 96 ref.

CIS 10-0353 Knutsson A., Bøggild H.
Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers
The aim of this study was to review literature on the association between shift work and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. A systematic review of the literature published from 1966 to 2009 was conducted, reporting GI symptoms and diseases among shift workers. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Four of six studies showed a significant association between shift work and GI symptoms, and five of six studies reported an association between shift work and peptic ulcer disease. Two of three studies showed an association between shift work and functional GI disease. Only a few studies have examined gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases or GI cancers in relation to shift work. It is concluded that shift workers appear to have increased risk of GI symptoms and peptic ulcer disease. However, control for potential confounders (e.g. smoking, age, socioeconomic status and other risk factors) was often lacking or insufficient in many of the examined studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.85-95. 50 ref.

2008

CIS 09-1214 Santibañez M., Vioque J., Alguacil J., Barber X., García de la Hera M., Kauppinen T.
Occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type: A case-control study in eastern Spain
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between occupations and specific occupational exposures and oesophageal cancer by histological type. A case-control study was conducted in the hospitals of two Mediterranean provinces of Spain. Occupational, socio-demographic and lifestyle information were collected from 185 newly diagnosed male oesophageal cancer patients and 285 matched controls. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed by the FINJEM job exposure matrix. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, alcohol intake and cigarette smoking. Findings show that some occupational exposures may increase the specific risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, while other exposures such as asbestos may increase the overall risk of oesophageal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.774-781. 40 ref.

2007

CIS 08-1129 Burdorf A., Järvholm B., Siesling S.
Asbestos exposure and differences in occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma between men and women across countries
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of asbestos exposure in the aetiology of peritoneal mesothelioma and differences in the incidence of peritoneal mesothelioma among women and men in Sweden and the Netherlands. All cases of peritoneal mesothelioma from the national cancer registers of both countries for the period 1989-2003 were selected. Linear regression analysis was used to analyse trends over time. Among men, the incidence rate of peritoneal mesothelioma in the Netherlands was consistently higher than in Sweden. No trends over time were observed in either country, which may reflect the limited role of exposure to asbestos in the aetiology of peritoneal mesothelioma as compared to pleural mesothelioma. During the 15-year period in the Netherlands, the incidence rate among men was about 3.3-fold that of women. In Sweden, the incidence rate among women was slightly higher than of men up to 1999, and thereafter about threefold higher among men. This sudden shift was statistically significant and seemed mainly caused by changes in classification of peritoneal tumours.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.839-842. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-601 McGregor D.
Risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory system, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testes and skin in firemen
Risque de myélome multiple et de cancers des voies respiratoires, de l'œsophage, de l'estomac, du pancréas, de la prostate, des testicules et de la peau chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory tract, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testicles and skin. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not indicate that the cancers examined in this analysis can be assumed to occur in firefighters as a result of their occupation. This conclusion is based on the absence of a significant increase in risk in most of the studies and the minimal increase in risk in the cases where it is present. See also CIS 08-598/600.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 37p. 79 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-522.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-521.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-598 McGregor D.
Risk of cancer of the colon and rectum in firemen
Risques de cancer du côlon et du rectum chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of colorectal cancer. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not provide sufficient proof about the etiological role of the firefighting occupation regarding the incidence of colon or rectal cancer or the mortality due to these cancers. See also CIS 08-599/601.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. 26p. Illus. 91 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-516.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-515.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 08-76 Pietroiusti A., Forlini A., Magrini A., Galante A., Coppeta L., Gemma G., Romeo E., Bergamaschi A.
Shift work increases the frequency of duodenal ulcer in H. pylori infected workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether shift work is associated with an increased rate of peptic ulcer in H. pylori infected workers. During a two year period, workers with persistent dyspeptic symptoms underwent non-invasive evaluation of H. pylori status. The workers testing positive were included in the study and divided into 247 day workers and 101 shift workers. In all workers, a gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and biopsy specimens were taken from the stomach. It was found that the prevalence of duodenal ulcer was significantly higher in shift workers than in day-time workers (odds ratio OR=3.92) and persisted after multivariate analysis, taking into account possible confounding factors (OR=3.96). It is concluded that shift work increases the ulcerogenic potential of H. pylori infection and should be considered a risk factor for duodenal ulcer in infected shift workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.63, No.11, p.773-775. 12 ref.

CIS 07-1082 Chang C.K., Astrakianakis G., Thomas D.B., Seixas N.S., Camp J.E., Ray R.M., Gao D.L., Wernli K.J., Li W., Fitzgibbons E.D., Vaughan T.L., Checkoway H.
Risks of biliary tract cancer and occupational exposures among Shanghai women textile workers: A case-cohort study
The associations between occupational exposures to textile dusts and chemicals and biliary tract cancer (BTC) were investigated in a cohort of 267,400 women textile workers in Shanghai, China. A nested case-cohort analysis of 162 BTC cases diagnosed during 1989-1998 was conducted with a reference subcohort of 3,188 workers. Exposures to workplace dusts and chemicals were reconstructed by linking complete work history data with a job-exposure matrix. Hazard ratios (HR) and dose-response trends were estimated by Cox proportional hazards modelling modified for case-cohort design. An elevated risk for employment of one year or more in maintenance jobs (HR 2.92) with a significant trend by duration was observed. Excess risk was also found for more than 20 years exposure to metals (HR 2.50).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.690-698. 42 ref.

CIS 07-381 Ineichen F.
Asbestos and retroperitoneal fibrosis
Asbest und Retroperitonealfibrose [in German]
Amiante et fibrose rétropéritonéale [in French]
This article discusses one of the diseases caused by asbestos, namely retroperitoneal fibrosis, recently recognized as an occupational disease in Switzerland. Contents: description of a case; description of the disease (symptoms, clinical presentation); earlier studies (case description, case-control study); reasons leading to the disease being recognized as an occupational disease.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2006, No.77, p.90-94. Illus. 7 ref.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-77-f.pdf [in French]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-77-d.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-1353 Barruyer C.
Discal hernias: Avoiding certain movements, reinforcing certain muscles
Hernie discale: des gestes à éviter, des muscles à renforcer [in French]
Discal hernias are frequent in the building and construction sector, particularly among workers who frequently carry out manual handling tasks. While recourse to surgery is sometimes unavoidable, medical treatment includes painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy and wearing an orthopaedic corset. This article discusses the diagnosis and medical treatment of discal hernias and describes work postures to be adopted or avoided to reduce the risk.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2006, No.84, p.52-54. Illus.

2005

CIS 06-1107 Roberts S.E.
Work related mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and alcohol among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1939 to 2002
This study investigated work-related mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and from alcohol among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1939 to 2002. Among a population of 7.29 million seafarer-years at risk, there were 864 deaths from gastro-intestinal diseases and 72 from alcoholism. Overall mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases fell from 18.4 per 100,000 in 1939-49 to 9.3 in 1970-79 and 0.3 in 1990-2002. Mortality from alcoholism and from alcohol-related diseases such as liver cirrhosis and diseases of the pancreas increased up to the 1960s or 1970s, but fell thereafter. Sharp reductions in mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and from alcoholism since the 1970s contrasts with increases among the general British population, and are largely because of the reductions in the British deep sea ship fleet in favour of flags of convenience, with consequent reductions in long voyages, as well as reductions in alcohol consumption among seafarers at work. Largely because of the healthy worker effect, seafarers were usually only at increased risks from particularly acute diseases.
International Maritime Health, 2005, Vol.56, No.1/4, p.29-47. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 06-904 Bardin J.A., Gore R.J., Wegman D.H., Kriebel D., Woskie S.R., Eisen E.A.
Registry-based case-control studies of liver cancer and cancers of the biliary tract nested in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids
This study on hepatobiliary cancer (liver and biliary tract) was conducted in the form of a registry-based case-control study nested in a cohort of workers from three automobile manufacturing plants with potential exposure to metalworking fluids. 63 cases of hepatobiliary cancer were identified from the cohort by the Michigan cancer registries. Each case was matched to 10 controls. Odds ratios were estimated in conditional logistic regression models for lifetime exposure to straight mineral oils, and to soluble and synthetic metalworking fluids and fluid components. Overall, hepatobiliary cancer was not associated with exposure to metalworking fluids. However, there is limited evidence that exposure to straight metalworking fluids is associated with biliary tract cancer. Findings need to be examined further in other exposed populations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2005, Vol.31, No.3, p.205-211. 34 ref.

CIS 06-558 Welch L.S., Acherman Y.I.Z., Haile E., Sokas R.K., Sugarbaker P.H.
Asbestos and peritoneal mesothelioma among college-educated men
The proportion of peritoneal mesotheliomas among all mesotheliomas has been decreasing, leading some to suggest that peritoneal mesothelioma occurs only after high levels of exposure to asbestos. To investigate the relationship between asbestos exposure and the development of peritoneal mesothelioma, a case-control study examined 40 cases of primary peritoneal mesothelioma and 40 controls with appendiceal cancer treated at the same cancer institute. This series differed from previous reports in that 75% of the cases and controls had attended college. Results show an odds ratio of 6.6 for asbestos exposure among this group of primary peritoneal mesothelioma cases, even though their exposure to asbestos was probably low.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.254-258. 23 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Welch.pdf [in English]

2004

CIS 06-206 Dahl E.
Dealing with gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship - Part 1: Description of sanitation measures. Part 2: An isolation study
Reports of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness (GI) during 17 cruises of a ship with an average of 590 passengers and 611 crew per day were reviewed. During a 250-day period, there were 78 reportable GI cases among the passengers and 49 among the crew; a total of 207 people were isolated. Sanitation measures are described, including the isolation of GI cases and their asymptomatic contacts. It was concluded that a detailed operational directive concerning all aspects of sanitation should be made available for the prevention and control of GI outbreaks on ships.
International Maritime Health, 2004, Vol.55, No.1/4. p.19-29. 6 ref.

CIS 05-723 Ott M.G., Zober A., Messerer P., Riemann J.F., Schilling D.
Illness experience before and after an initiative to identify, treat and prevent Helicobacter pylori-related diseases at the workplace
This study used aggregate medical claims data to evaluate the illness experience of 5160 employees at a chemical plant in Germany during the two years after and the two years before an intervention to identify, treat, and prevent Helicobacter pylori-related illnesses. Across all participants, a 2.1 fold reduction in ulcer-related illness episodes and a 1.1 fold reduction in episodes due to other stomach and duodenal diseases were achieved. Improvement in claims experience was most notable among 250 employees with ulcer findings on the screening examination. The H. pylori health initiative appears to have contributed to a cost-effective reduction in subsequent illness episodes due to ulcer and possibly due to other stomach and duodenal diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.227-233. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 04-475 Pitsopoulos C.N., Greenwood K.M.
Shift-dependent differences in self-reporting of health symptoms among shiftworkers
This study examined self-reports of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms among shiftworkers in Australia. Modified versions of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) health measures were administered to a sample of 28 rotating shiftworkers. Self-reports of night shift symptoms were greater than those of the day shift. General, non-shift-specific reports represented an approximate average of these reports. Furthermore, self-reports of symptoms varied depending on when in the shift-cycle they were reported. No differences were detected between retrospective reports of shift-dependent symptoms and reports made immediately following completion of a set of shifts. The implications of the findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2004, Vol.34, No.3, p.187-193. 10 ref.

2003

CIS 06-139 Weiderpass I., Vainio H., Kauppinen T., Vasama-Neuvonen K., Partanen T., Pukkala E.
Occupational exposures and gastrointestinal cancers among Finnish women
Incident cases of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract from 1971 to 1995 were explored in a cohort of 413,877 female workers born in Finland between 1906 and 1945. Job titles in census records were converted to exposures to 31 occupational agents through a job-exposure matrix. For each agent, exposure probabilities were subdivided into three categories: zero, low and medium to high. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for each agent, after adjustment for alcohol consumption and smoking. Colon cancer risk (2009 cases) was positively associated with sedentary work (RR 1.3) and negatively associated with perceived workload. For stomach cancer (1881 cases), associations with exposure to electromagnetic fields (RR 1.44) and man-made vitreous fibres were observed. Rectal cancer (1323 cases) showed an association with chromium (RR 1.9) and oil mist (RR 2.0). For pancreatic cancer (1302 cases), associations were found with exposure to chromium (RR 1.8), electromagnetic fields (RR 1.8) and sedentary work (RR 1.3).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.45, No.3, p.305-315. 25 ref.

2002

CIS 02-1655 Kaerlev L., Teglbjaerg P.S., Sabroe S., Kolstad H.A., Ahrens W., Eriksson M., Guénel P., Hardell L., Cyr D., Ballard T., Zambon P., Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., Stang A., Olsen J.
Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: A European population-based case-control study
Small bowel carcinoid tumour (SBC) is a rare disease of possible occupational origin. In a population-based case-control study conducted from 1995 through 1997, 84 incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age and 2070 population controls were identified and interviewed in five European countries. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio (OR)) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, the wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2) and among men, manufacturing of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2), footwear (OR, 3.9) and metal structures (OR, 3.3). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters and welders. The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0. Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead is another potential risk factor (OR, 9.1).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.516-522. 24 ref.

CIS 02-659 Aragonés N., Pollán M., Gustavsson P.
Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971-89
This cohort study was carried out to examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among persons employed in 1970 in Sweden between 1971 and 1989 and to evaluate a possible excess of incidence of gastric cancer among the sub-cohort of persons reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks were computed by occupation and adjusted for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area. Among men, those with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat industry workers, dock workers, freight handlers, laundry workers and dry cleaners. Among women, excess risks were found for nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry workers, and housekeeping and cleaning workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.59, No.5, p.329-337. 59 ref.

2001

CIS 03-223 Burnett C.A., Lalich N.R., MacDonald L., Alterman T.
A NIOSH look at data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics - Worker health by industry and occupation
This report presents comprehensive descriptive information on the most common occupational diseases in the United States, namely: musculoskeletal disorders of the back; upper and lower extremities; hernia; dermatitis; anxiety, stress and neurotic disorders. The data are drawn from the annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on the total number of cases, incidence rate per 10,000 workers and median days away from work are provided by code of activity according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Other results include cases by sex, race, age and length of service.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2001. iii, 104p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/2001-120.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-1252 Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.

CIS 02-171 Goldberg M.S., Parent M.E., Siemiatycki J., Désy M., Nadon L., Richardson L., Lakhani R., Latreille B, Valois M.F.
A case-control study of the relationship between the risk of colon cancer in men and exposures to occupational agents
A population-based case-control study was conducted to explore associations between occupational circumstances and several cancer sites, including the colon. 497 male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer, 1514 controls with cancers at other sites, and 533 population-based controls were interviewed. Detailed job histories and relevant potential confounding variables were obtained, and the job histories were translated by a team of chemists and industrial hygienists into a history of occupational exposures. There was reasonable evidence of an association between colon cancer and occupation for men employed in nine industry groups (adjusted odds ranging from 1.1 to 1.6 per 10-year increase in duration of employment), and in 12 job groups (OR varying from 1.1 to 1.7). In addition, evidence of increased risks by increasing level of exposures to 21 occupational agents was found, the most significant being polystyrene, polyurethanes, coke dust, mineral oils and polyacrylates.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.531-546. 99 ref.

CIS 01-829 Tsuda T., Mino Y., Babazono A., Shigemi J., Otsu T., Yamamoto E.
A case-control study of the relationships among silica exposure, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer
The effect of silica exposure on gastric and oesophageal cancer mortality was investigated in a case-control study restricted to male subjects drawn from death certificates in the Tobi area of Japan. The control group was selected from a series of deaths due to colon cancer, and cancers of other organs. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR) were estimated after adjustment for age and smoking habits. For gastric cancer, adjusted ORs were 1.22 for brick and quarry work, and 1.36 among silicosis patients. For oesophageal cancer, adjusted ORs were 1.53 for the brick and quarry work, and 2.33 among silicosis patients. The results suggest that gastric and oesophageal cancer were related to silica exposure and silicosis in the study area.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.52-57. 24 ref.

2000

CIS 02-1648 Ascoli V., Fantini F., Carnovale-Scalzo C., Blasetti F., Bruno C., Di Domenicantonio R., Lo Presti E., Pasetto R., Nardi F., Comba P.
Malignant mesothelioma in the industrial area of Colleferro
Mesotelioma maligno nel comprensorio industriale di Colleferro [in Italian]
The occurrence of pleural and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma among workers in a large chemical plant near Rome in Italy is analysed. The plant produces organic chemicals, acid mixtures, insecticides and explosives. It is also involved in the manufacturing of rail rolling stock. Asbestos was extensively used in the past. Hospital records reveal 18 cases of malignant mesothelioma (pleural/peritoneal ratio of 2.75:1) among workers and/or residents. In the area surrounding the same chemical plant the incidence of confirmed mesothelioma per 100,000 is 10.1 among men and 4.1 among women, which are the highest rates reported so far in Italy. Besides confirming the risk of mesothelioma in railroad rolling stock manufacturing and asbestos-insulated pipe maintenance workers, a cluster of malignant mesothelioma is also identified in explosives production workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.547-564. 32 ref.

CIS 02-170 Kaerlev L., Teglbjaerg P.S., Sabroe S., Kolstad H.A., Ahrens W., Eriksson M., Llopis González A., Guénel P., Hardell L., Launoy G., Merler E., Merletti F., Maorales Suárez-Varela M.M., Stang A.
Occupation and small bowel adenocarcinoma: A European case-control study
To study the aetiology of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a European multi-centre case-control study was conducted in 1995-7. Cases aged 35-69 years with SBA were recruited. After histological examination, 107 cases and 3915 controls were accepted, of which 79 cases, 579 colon cancer controls, and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The strongest industrial risk factors for SBA taking account of an exposure lag of 10 years were dry cleaning, manufacturing of workwear, mixed farming (women), and manufacturing of motor vehicles (men). A significantly increased risk of SBA (odds ratio (OR)) was found among men employed as building caretakers (OR 6.7), and women employed as housekeepers (OR 2.2); general farm labourers (OR 4.7); dockers (OR 2.9); dry cleaners or launderers (OR 4.1) and textile workers (sewers or embroiders, OR 2.6). Among welders, people performing semi-automatic arc welding were identified as a high risk group (OR 5.0).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.760-766. 30 ref.

CIS 02-189 Li K., Yu S.
Oesophageal cancer and occupational exposure to rubber: A nested case-control study
In this study, the data of nine cases of oesophageal cancer deaths among workers at a rubber plant during 1973-1995 and 36 controls matched for sex and age were analysed. Oesophageal cancer risks for exposure to rubber were assessed, unadjusted and adjusted for non-occupational factors by conditional logistic regression. In grouped analysis, odds ratios (ORs) for oesophageal cancer were found to be 2.67 for compounding workers and 1.40 for assembly workers. No excess risks were found in the remaining three departments. The results indicate that a one-year change in the compounding department was associated with a 4% increment in the OR. When adjusted for serum cholesterol level, a 6% increase (OR) was observed. Significant associations between risk for oesophageal cancer and specific exposures or processes within the rubber plant were not found. The slight excess risk for oesophageal cancer in the rubber plant may be related to exposure to dusts and solvents.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.355-359. 16 ref

CIS 01-419 Parent M.E., Siemiatycki J., Fritschi L.
Workplace exposures and oesophageal cancer
In a population-based case-control study, 99 histologically confirmed cases of cancer of the oesophagus, 63 of which were squamous cell carcinomas, were analysed. Controls included 533 population controls and 533 patients with other types of cancer. Detailed job histories were obtained from all subjects and were assessed for exposure to occupational agents. Results indicate that sulfuric acid and carbon black showed the strongest evidence of an association with oesophageal cancer, particularly squamous ceil carcinoma. Other substances also showed excess risks, but the evidence was more equivocal, namely chrysotile asbestos, alumina, mineral spirits, toluene, synthetic adhesives, ether paints and varnishes, iron compounds and mild steel dust. Although none of the occupations showed a clear excess risk, the strongest hints were for warehouse workers, food service workers, and workers from the miscellaneous food industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.325-334. 74 ref.

1999

CIS 00-122 Schäcke G., Kirchhoff R.
Inclusion of gastrointestinal diseases in the evaluation of occupational diseases
Die Umsetzung gastrointestinaler Erkrankungen in die Begutachtung von Berufskrankheiten [in German]
In occupational medicine, recognition of gastrointestinal diseases appears uncertain. However, numerous factors associated with workplaces can be related to gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes. Work at height can cause nausea and vomiting. Work at high temperatures can affect the liver. Inhalation of fluorine may injure the mucous membranes in the pharynx, oesophagus and stomach. Yet it is generally difficult to prove the connections, because few studies on the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and hazards existing at workplaces are available. The absence of non-invasive diagnostic tools also makes early diagnosis difficult.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Sep. 1999, Vol.49, No.9, p.342-347. 17 ref.

CIS 00-252 Ivens U.I., Breum N.O., Ebbehøj N., Nielsen B.H., Poulsen O.M., Würtz H.
Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure
The relationship between gastrointestinal problems and exposure to bioaerosols among waste collectors was investigated using a job-exposure matrix constructed from a combination of questionnaire data (concerning 1,747 waste collectors and 1,111 controls), and field measurements (189 personal samples measuring viable fungi, total count of of fungal spores, microorganisms and endotoxins). Results show that high exposure to endotoxins was associated with nausea, and the risk of reporting nausea decreased with decreasing exposure. High exposure to endotoxins was also associated with reports of diarrhoea, and the risk of reporting diarrhoea decreased with decreasing exposure. The same pattern existed for exposure to fungi, and reported diarrhoea.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.238-245. 40 ref.

CIS 00-118 Cocco P., Ward M.H., Dosemeci M.
Risk of stomach cancer associated with 12 workplace hazards: Analysis of death certificates from 24 states of the United States with the aid of job exposure matrices
To investigate the risk of gastric cancer associated with workplace exposures suspected as aetiological agents, a case-control study was conducted based on death certificates in the United States for 1984-96. Each occupation and industry was classified for exposure to asbestos, inorganic dust, metals, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides, nitrosamines, sulphuric acid, fertilisers, herbicides, other pesticides and wood dust. Risk of stomach cancer showed a modest association with exposure to inorganic dust. Exposure to nitrosamines also showed a modest excess risk, but this was even smaller after adjusting for inorganic dust exposure. Risk of gastric cancer was not associated with any of the other workplace exposures. Non-differential misclassification of exposure may have caused negative findings in this study, and inorganic dust may be a partial surrogate for exposure to other unknown risk factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.56, No.11, p.781-787. 20 ref.

CIS 00-112 Kang S.K., Burnett C.A., Freund E., Sestito J.
Hernia: Is it a work-related condition?
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the possible work-relatedness of inguinal hernias by determining hernia incidence according to occupation with the Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1994. Hernia incidence rates (per 10,000 workers) for industry and occupation categories were calculated with the estimates of the number of hernias in males and the employed male workers from the Current Population Survey. In 1994, an estimated 30,791 work-related hernias in males were reported by US private establishments. The occupation groups with the highest relative risk were labourers and handlers, machine operators and mechanics and repairers. This provides support for the hypothesis that the hernias are work-related, especially in work involving strenuous, heavy manual labour.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.36, No.6, p.638-644. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 99-1255 Pan G., Takahashi K., Feng Y., Liu L., Liu T., Zhang S., Liu N., Okubo T., Goldsmith D.F.
Nested case-control study of esophageal cancer in relation to occupational exposure to silica and other dusts
In a nested case-control study of a cohort of industrial workers, 125 oesophageal cancer cases and 250 controls were identified from the death registry file. History of occupational exposure to various dusts was estimated. Occupational exposure to silica dust was the most important risk factor among all the variables investigated, with a 2.8-fold risk and a clear dose-response by length of exposure. Ingestion of silica particles after lung clearance may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer among workers exposed to silica. Topics: alcoholism; case-control study; coal dust; diet; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; mortality; oesophageal carcinoma; respirable dust; silica; steelworks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.272-280. 33 ref.

1998

CIS 00-1604 Gustavsson P., Jakobsson R., Johansson H., Lewin F., Norell S., Rutkvist L.E.
Occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and oesophagus: A case-control study in Sweden
This community-based case-referent study was initiated to investigate aetiological factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The study was based on all Swedish men aged 40-79 living in two regions of Sweden during 1988-90. Exposure to asbestos was associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, and a dose-response relation was present. The RR was 1.8 in the highest exposure group. More than eight years of exposure to welding fumes was associated with an increased risk of pharyngeal cancer (RR=2.3 (1.1 to 4.7)), and laryngeal cancer (RR=2.0). There were indications of a dose-response for duration of exposure. Associations were also found for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oesophageal cancer (RR=1.9). Exposure to wood dust was associated with a decreased risk of cancer at the studied sites. The study indicates that welding may cause an increased risk of pharyngeal as well as laryngeal cancer. The findings corroborate an association between exposure to PAHs and oesophageal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.393-400. 27 ref.

CIS 99-1885 Cherry N.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational factors in oesophageal cancer
The literature was searched for reports investigating a relation between oesophageal cancer and employment. Studies of non-occupational factors were also considered insofar as they provided data on important confounders. As few studies of occupation distinguished between cell type, squamous and adenocarcinomas were considered together in this review. It was concluded that there was little evidence of increased risk for work involving exposure to wood dust or, except in areas producing alcohol, with farming. Consistent increases in risk in bar and brewery workers were thought more likely due to personal consumption of alcohol and cigarettes than to occupational exposures. A possibility of a true increase in risk in painters, dry cleaners, printers, rubber workers and meat handlers could not be ruled out, and a risk in some textile trades also remained a possibility. Topics: agriculture; breweries; dry cleaning; epidemiologic study; literature survey; meat industry; occupation disease relation; oesophageal carcinoma; painting; printing industry; risk factors; rubber industry; smoking; textile industry; waiters, waitresses and bartenders; woodworking industry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. iv, 57p. 62 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 99-1180 Cocco P., Ward M.H., Dosemeci M.
Occupational risk factors for cancer of the gastric cardia
The risk of gastric cardia cancer was evaluated by occupation and industry using death certificate data for 24 US states. Among white men, occupations with elevated risk included financial managers, janitors and cleaners, production inspectors and truck drivers. Industries with elevated risk included pulp and paper mills, newspaper publishing and printing, industrial and miscellaneous chemicals, water supply and irrigation. A consistent pattern of risk increase by level and probability of exposure was observed only for sulfuric acid mists. A significant increase in risk was observed for subjects exposed to lead, although crosstabulation of gastric cardia cancer risk by probability and level of exposure did not show consistent trends. Asbestos exposure showed an overall 50% increase but no consistent trends among white men. None of the 12 occupational hazards showed an association with risk for black men. Topics: aetiology; carcinogens; asbestos; lead; sulfuric acid; case-control study; occupation disease relation; oesophageal carcinoma; race-linked differences; risk factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.855-861. 17 ref.

CIS 99-194 Sauni R., Oksa P., Järvenpää R., Parker J.E., Roto P.
Asbestos exposure: A potential cause of retroperitoneal fibrosis
Topics: asbestos; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; fibrosis; peritoneal diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.33, No.4, p.418-421. 16 ref.

CIS 98-1356 Sullivan P.A., Eisen E.A., Woskie S.R., Kriebel D., Wegman D.H., Hallock M.F., Hammond S.K., Tolbert P.E., Smith T.J., Monson R.R.
Mortality studies of metalworking fluid exposure in the automobile industry: VI. A case-control study of esophageal cancer
Topics: biocides; case-control study; cutting fluids; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; latency; length of exposure; lubricants; machining; mortality; motor vehicle industry; nitroso amines; oesophageal carcinoma; risk factors; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1998, Vol.34, No.1, p.36-48. 61 ref.

1997

CIS 98-739 Kang S.K., Burnett C.A., Freund E., Walker J., Lalich N., Sestito J.
Gastrointestinal cancer mortality of workers in occupations with high asbestos exposures
Topics: asbestos; cohort study; gastrointestinal cancer; mesothelioma; mortality; occupation disease relation; respirable dust; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1997, Vol.31, No.6, p.713-718. 34 ref.

1996

CIS 97-1880 Cocco P., Ward M.H., Buiatti E.
Occupational risk factors for gastric cancer: An overview
Epidemiologic evidence concerning the role of occupational exposures in gastric cancer aetiology is reviewed. Workplace exposures studied include asbestos, coal dust, nitrogen oxides, mineral and metal dusts, wood dust, ionizing radiation, agricultural exposures (pesticides, fertilizers), nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ethylene oxide. The review does not suggest a strong role for any specific gastric carcinogen; various carcinogenic exposures which also affect other organs may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. Occupational exposures most likely act together with numerous non-occupational risk factors at various stages of gastric cancer development.
Epidemiologic Reviews, 1996, Vol.18, No.2, p.218-234. 231 ref.

CIS 97-2028 Guénel P., et al.
Exposure to 50-Hz electric field and incidence of leukemia, brain tumors, and other cancers among French electric utility workers
The association between cancer and exposure to electric fields was investigated in a case-control study nested within a cohort of 170,000 workers employed at the French electric utility company Electricité de France (EDF) between 1978 and 1989. Exposure was assessed by personal monitoring of 850 EDF workers for a full work week. The analysis did not show any increased risk for leukaemia. For brain tumours (69 cases) there was some indication of a dose-response relation, although the risk did not increase uniformly with exposure. An unexpected association was also observed for colon cancer, but not for any other type of cancer. This study indicates that electric fields may have a specific effect on the risk of brain tumour.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.144, No.12, p.1107-1121. 41 ref.

CIS 97-1354 Schmid K., Weber A.
Hazard of infection with Helicobacter pylori in the health services
Berufliche Infektionsgefährdung durch Helicobacter pylori im Gesundheitsdienst [in German]
Helicobacter pylori are pathogenic bacteria which can cause gastritis, ulceration of the mucous membrane of the stomach and stomach carcinoma. This literature survey reveals that personnel in gastroenterological clinics and nursing personnel may face a higher infection risk with Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopes, gastric secretion and faeces appear to be the main sources of infection. Because present results of epidemiologic studies are contradictory and inconclusive, inclusion of Helicobacter pylori infections in the list of occupational diseases is considered premature. Further studies are recommended.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, May 1996, Vol.31, No.5, p.203-209. 44 ref.

CIS 97-540 Kishimoto T., Fujioka H., Oke M., Onoshi T.
Case of calcified pleural plaque induced by asbestos exposure complicated with gastric cancer, asbestos pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma
Sekimen bakuro ni yoru sekkai ka kyōmaku purāku keika kansatsu chū ni igan, sekimen kyōsui, akusei kyōmaku chūhishu wo gappei shita ichi shōrei [in Japanese]
A 84-year-old male had a history of asbestos exposure for 35 years as a electrician in shipyard beginning in 1929. Calcified pleural plaque was detected in chest X-rays in 1991. In 1992, he had early gastric cancer 62 years from the first exposure of asbestos; asbestos-induced pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma occurred after 64 years. The gastric cancer was successfully treated by operation and the malignant mesothelioma by radiation. There should be careful follow-up of cases with pleural plaque in chest X-rays, because malignancy can appear for these cases 60 years after first exposure to asbestos.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, 10 Jan. 1996, Vol.44, No.7, p.464-468. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 97-508 Chow W.H., Ji B.T., Dosemeci M., McLaughlin J.K., Gao Y.T., Fraumeni J.F
Biliary tract cancers among textile and other workers in Shanghai, China
Using occupational data for more than 500 patients with cancers of the biliary tract (CBT) diagnosed between 1980 and 1984 in Shanghai, China, and employment information from the 1982 census for the Shanghai population, the associations between CBT and occupational categories were examined by standardized incidence ratios. Compared to the general population, risk was increased by nearly 40% among textile workers, consistent with other investigations linking CBT to textile work. Increased risk was also observed among waiters and waitresses, male sanitation personnel and a category including plumbers, welders and sheet-metal workers. Although causal inferences cannot be firmly drawn, the findings add to the limited evidence linking CBT to occupational exposures, especially in the textile industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.36-40. 28 ref.

CIS 97-507 Xu Z., Morris Brown L., Pan G.W., Liu T.F., Gao G.S., Stone B.J., Cao R.M., Guan D.X., Sheng J.H., Yan Z.S., Dosemeci M., Fraumeni J.F., Blot W.J.
Cancer risks among iron and steel workers in Anshan, China, Part II: Case-control studies of lung and stomach cancer
Nested case-control interview studies of lung cancer, stomach cancer and controls were conducted to follow leads from a proportional mortality analysis of deaths among male workers in a large integrated iron-steel complex in Anshan, China (see CIS 97-506). After adjusting for non-occupational risk factors, the risk of lung cancer was significantly higher for those employed for 15 or more years in smelting and rolling, in the manufacturing of fire-resistant bricks, in general loading and as coke oven workers. The risk of stomach cancer was significantly higher for those employed for 15 or more years in ore sintering and transportation, in the manufacturing of fire-resistant bricks, in general loading, as boiler workers and cooks and as coke oven workers. For both lung and stomach cancers, significant dose-response gradients were observed for exposure to total dust and benzo(a)pyrene. Overall, long-term steel workers with exposure to workplace pollutants had a 40% increased risk of both lung and stomach cancers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.7-15. 32 ref.

CIS 97-110 Bøggild H., Tüchsen F., Ørhede E.
Occupation, employment status and chronic inflammatory bowel disease in Denmark
A study is reported on two large cohorts of Danish men and women, followed up for hospitalization due to chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Of 363 male and 213 female occupational groups, eight and five groups, respectively, had statistically significant increases in standardized hospitalization ratio. No consistent pattern of occupations at increased risk was found, except that there may be a significant association between sedentary work and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.25, No.3, p.630-637. Illus. 16 ref.

1995

CIS 97-1949 Svensson B.G., et al.
Mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish fishermen with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds
Two cohorts of Swedish fishermen were established to determine mortality and cancer incidence with different dietary intakes of persistent organochlorine compounds. The incidence of stomach and squamous cell skin cancers and mortality from multiple myelomas among Swedish east coast fishermen were elevated when compared with the general population of the region and with the west coast cohort, while that of colon cancer was lower. It is proposed that east coast fishermen, who are heavy consumers of fatty fish contaminated with organochlorine compounds, have an increased risk of developing stomach and skin cancer, though at the same time they have a decrease in mortality from ischaemic heart disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1995, Vol.21, No.2, p.106-115. 64 ref.

CIS 97-487 Swaen G.M.H., Meijers J.M.M., Slangen J.J.M.
Risk of gastric cancer in pneumoconiotic coal miners and the effect of respiratory impairment
This study was carried out to investigate the mortality patterns in a group of 3790 coal miners. The study population had abnormal chest X-ray films at a routine medical examination that was performed in the 1950's. The total group of 3790 coal miners was followed up for mortality up to 1 January 1992. Total mortality in this group of coal miners was significantly higher than expected, mainly a reflection of the increase in mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality from gastric cancer was also significantly increased. This risk of mortality from gastric cancer was confined to workers with no pneumoconiosis or only a mild from. Despite the strong relation to duration of employment and pneumoconiosis the group of workers with more severe manifestations of pneumoconiosis did not experience an excess in mortality from gastric cancer. This study confirms the earlier reported risk of gastric cancer in coal miners. Also it confirms the hypothesis that this risk of gastric cancer is limited to workers with a mild degree of pneumoconiosis or none. In workers with severe forms of pneumoconiosis the pulmonary clearance system is impaired in such a way that the inhaled coal dust does not reach the digestive tract.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.52, No.9, p.606-610. 15 ref.

CIS 96-600 Chow W.H., McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Linet M.S., Weiner J.A., Stone B.J.
Esophageal cancer and occupation in a cohort of Swedish men
Data from the Cancer Environment Registry of Sweden were analyzed for the period 1961 to 1979. A general reduction in oesophageal cancer incidence was found among agricultural and professional workers, whereas excess incidence was found among business, sales and some craftsmen and production jobs. Elevated incidence was associated with the food, beverage and tobacco industries, vulcanizing shops within the rubber industry, and certain automotive building industries. Incidence was also increased among brewery workers and butchers and some service sector workers. The possible role of lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol drinking) in some of the occupational associations is discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.749-757. 34 ref.

CIS 96-151 Burns P.B., Swanson G.M.
Stomach cancer risk among black and white men and women: The role of occupation and cigarette smoking
A telephone interview survey was carried out to determine occupational and tobacco-use histories for 739 stomach cancer cases and 3750 population controls. Cigarette smokers had a 50% increase in stomach cancer risk; risk increased with increasing levels of smoking. The majority of occupations with significant increases in stomach cancer risk were among white men and included agricultural workers, driver sales, assembly workers, mechanics and material movers. Black women assembly workers and white women food workers were also at increased risk. No association was found between dust exposure and stomach cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.37, No.10, p.1218-1223. 35 ref.

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