Major hazards - 599 entries found
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Inventory of industrial accidents that occurred in France up to 2011
Inventaire 2011 des accidents technologiques [in French]
This collection of articles analyses the 20,620 industrial accidents which occurred in France between 1992 and 2010, and more specifically the 914 accidents that occurred during 2010, featured in the ARIA database. Data are presented by type of event, sector of activity, consequences, circumstances and main causes. Trends in accidents having causes injuries or fatalities are also presented. The situation of various high-risk sectors is briefly reviewed: hydraulic dams; mines and quarries; road and rail transport; piped transport. Data on all accidents having occurred in France and other countries from 1992 can be accessed from the ARIA database.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2011, No.117, p.14-29. Illus.
Inventaire_2011_des_accidents_technologiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Inventaire_2012_des_accidents_technologiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Kalatpoor O., Goshtasp K., Khavaji S.
Health, safety and environmental risk of a gas pipeline in an oil exploring area of Gachsaran
The purpose of this study was to assess the health, safety and environmental risks of a 16 km gas pipeline located in an oil-producing region of Iran, using a modified version of the Kent's pipeline risk assessment method. Assessment parameters included: interested party's injuries, corrosion, design factors, incorrect operation index and consequence scoring. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.209-214. 12 ref.
Health.pdf [in English]
Risk management and rule-compliance: Decision-making in hazardous industries
Risk-management and rule-compliance are inter-related strategies for promoting safety in hazardous industries. It is important that risk-management be translated into rule-compliance for end point decision-makers, where possible. This article demonstrates that this is what in fact happens for a wide range of operational decision-making, based on examples from several major accidents in oil refineries.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.49, No.2, p.110-120. 26 ref.
Verrhiest-Leblanc G., Chevallier A.
Earthquake risks and the safety of nuclear power plants - A look at the Cadarache centre
Risque sismique et sûreté des installations nucléaires - Regards sur le centre de Cadarache [in French]
The likelihood of an earthquake needs to be considered when analyzing the safety of nuclear facilities. In this article, two specialists present the measures taken in a French nuclear centre. Topics addressed: French national regulations applicable to nuclear facilities; determination of the seismic risk of the site; design of new facilities; reinforcement of existing facilities; advance planning of a seismic event; consultation and openness with respect to seismic risks.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2010, No.114, p.20-24. Illus.
Calixto E., Lébre Larouvere E.
The regional emergency plan requirement: Application of the best practices to the Brazilian case
Currently in Brazil, resources are not optimized in offshore emergency plans. It is up to individual companies to implement their own plans, without any coordination. Despite the existence of certain procedures, there are no national or regional frameworks to coordinate such emergency plans. The objective of this study was to define new requirements for a Brazilian regional emergency plan based on the best practices used in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Japan and Australia. The risk analysis methodologies and emergency frameworks used in these countries were taken into account and a critical analysis was carried out in order to customize and apply their best practices to the Brazilian context. In addition, other issues were examined, such as the number of accidents and environmental impact in some areas, related to environmental sensitivity in order to define the environmental reliability of the whole system within a specific area.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.991-999. Illus. 4 ref.
Bhargava A.;, Punde R.P, Pathak N.;, Dabadghao S, Desikan P.;, Jain A.;, Maudar K.K.;, Mishra P.K.
Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: A study after two decades
Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 were injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. This study aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. Participants were divided into three groups: age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones; age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal; age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal. The status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) in these three groups was analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin-induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-208. Illus. 32 ref.
Status_of_inflammatory_biomarkers.pdf [in English]
Risk indicators for major hazards on offshore installations
Major hazards risk indicators are proposed for offshore installations, based on what has been used by the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway for the Risk Level approach in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. Since 2002, leading indicators are also used, in the sense that indicators for barrier performance are included together with the lagging indicators. The purpose of this paper is to recommend how indicators may be used by individual companies and installations in an efficient manner, based on the extensive experience in the field of major hazard risk.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.770-787. Illus. 33 ref.
Lindhout P., Kingston-Howlett J.C., Ale B.J.M.
Controlled readability of Seveso II company safety documents, the design of a new KPI
Companies often use a substantial quantity of safety-related documents such as the front gate safety flyer, emergency evacuation instructions, work permits, safety procedures, work instructions and policy statements. In many cases the personnel magazines and message board notes also contain safety information. The authors and readers may not be in the same department, premises or cultural group. Previous research has found that Seveso II companies produce documents that are difficult for their workforce and visitors to understand. Authors do not write systematically to match the reader's skill level. So, without useful feedback, many authors cannot write sufficiently readable documents; to overcome this threshold, they need a quick document readability assessment tool. With such a tool, readability can become a controlled property of safety documents. Large companies may use hundreds or thousands of documents containing safety information. This paper presents a practical approach for the transition to, and monitoring of, controlled readability for all documents related to safety. A new key performance indicator (KPI) design on readability is proposed.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.734-746. Illus. 42 ref.
Georgiadou P.S.;, Papazoglou I.A.;, Kiranoudis C.T, Markatos N.C.
Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents
Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria such as health consequences, social disruption and economic cost are taken into consideration. This article presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm is used as the optimization tool. Case studies are presented demonstrating the application in hazardous materials installations, but the methodology is suitable for other situations such as nuclear facilities, transport of hazardous materials and land-use planning.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2010, Vol.178, No.1-3, p.792-803. Illus. 60 ref.
Karagiannis G.M, Piatyszek E, Flaus J.M.
Industrial emergency planning modeling: A first step toward a robustness analysis tool
This article presents a model-based approach to the analysis of the robustness of industrial emergency plans, established by the European Union SEVESO II Directive. Robustness is defined in terms of the capacity of the mechanism to respond to deteriorated conditions. The proposed methodology is based upon a systemic, hierarchical and generic model of an internal or external industrial emergency plan, using the fuzzy inference system (FIS) modeling approach. Potential failures are estimated through an a priori analysis of the plan model and an posteriori analysis of lessons learned from exercises and past accidents. Assessment of the plan's functions is carried out via assessment checklists, structured via the systemic model for each of the plan's process. This approach can be used as a toolbox both for the assessment of existing plans and the development of industrial emergency plans.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.324-334. Illus. 29 ref.
Moore P., Wintle J.
Health and Safety Executive
Establishing the requirements for internal examination of high hazard process plant
The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for internal examination for high hazard process plants. A series of visits was made to United Kingdom companies to establish their approach to drawing up written schemes of examination. Discussions were held with three oil refineries, two sites manufacturing ethylene, a leading engineering consultancy, a large pharmaceutical company, and an engineering insurer that acts as a third party inspectorate for a wide range of companies not limited to petrochemicals and pressure plant. Findings are discussed and recommendations are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 35p. Illus. 21 ref.
Establishing_the_requirements_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Buncefield explosion mechanism phase 1 - Volumes 1 and 2
This report presents the findings of the group of experts from academia and industry investigating the causes of a major accident involving a string of explosions and resulting fires at a large petroleum products tank farm in the United Kingdom in December 2005. The accident caused important material damage, closures and transport disruptions, but no serious injuries or loss of life.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 31p. Illus. (vol. 1); iv, 178p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (vol.2).
Buncefield_explosion_mechanism_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Saw J.L., Wardman M., Wilday J., McGilliveray A., Balmforth H., McManus H., Reston S., Rushton A.
Societal risk: Initial briefing to Societal Risk Technical Advisory Group
The Societal Risk Technical Advisory Group is made up of academic, industry and government specialists who have been asked to advise HSE and departments on policies to address societal risk around onshore non-nuclear major hazard installations. This report captures some of the technical matters relating to societal risk methodology and presents the technical issues which need to be resolved prior to the development and implementation of any system for explicit attention to societal risk in the application of the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH, see CIS 06-515) and land-use planning.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 63p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Societal_risk_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Inventory of industrial accidents that occurred in France up to 2009
Inventaire 2009 des accidents technologiques [in French]
This collection of articles analyses the 18,469 industrial accidents which occurred in France between 1992 and 2008, and more specifically the 1073 accidents that occurred during 2008, featured in the ARIA database. Data are presented by type of event, sector of activity, substances involved, primary cause of accident and consequences. Trends in fatal accidents as well as an accident severity scale are also presented. An interview with a senior official of the French Ministry of Ecology is included, together with boxes offering short descriptions of representative accidents. Data on all accidents having occurred in France and other countries from 1992 can be accessed at the following URL: www.aria.ecologie.gouv.fr.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2009, No.105, p.7-21. Illus.
Fire protection in steel constructions
Brandschutz im Stahlbau [in German]
La protection incendie par intumescence dans la construction métallique [in French]
This article presents the advantages of intumescent fire protection systems compared to other systems in steel structures, as well as the disadvantages and limits of this method.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2009, No.3, p.44-45. Illus.
Wattigney W.A., Rice N., Cooper D.L., Drew J.M., Orr M.F.
State programs to reduce uncontrolled ammonia releases and associated injury using the hazardous substances emergency events surveillance system
This article describes how the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) programme identifies leading causes of uncontrolled ammonia releases and targets activities aimed at reducing the frequency of these incidents. HSEES data is used to identify determinants of chemical incidents and their outcomes and to help guide strategies to reduce such occurrences. Surveillance of chemical incidents elucidates the causes and consequences of these events, helps identify problems and measures the effectiveness of prevention programs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.356-363. Illus. 29 ref.
Zhang X.M., Chen G.H.
The analysis of domino effect impact probability triggered by fragments
Explosion fragments are the main cause of the domino effect in accidents in the chemical and process industries. This work focused on the development of a new model for the impact probability of domino effect triggered by fragments. Firstly, an expression for the initial projection velocity of fragments was founded by taking the explosion moment as a polytropic process and solving energy transformation equation. Next, the flight trajectory and velocity were represented by equations taking into account gravity and air friction. Based on these equations, the uncertainties were analyzed through sampling of the random variables. Finally, a new systemic model for the impact probability of the domino effect is proposed.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.1026-1032. Illus. 14 ref.
Safety is the antonym of risk for some perspectives of risk
Safety is closely related to risk, but does it extend beyond the realm of risk? Is safety just the antonym of risk, or the same as acceptable risk? This issue has been given due attention in the literature and in this paper explores how different perspectives of risk affect the relationship between safety and risk. If risk is defined as an expected value or as a measure of the probability and severity of adverse effects, the conclusions would be different than if the essential component of risk is uncertainty. For risk understood as uncertainty about and severity of the consequences of an activity, it is argued that safe means acceptable risk. Three dimensions of safety are discussed; events and their consequences, probability and uncertainty.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.925-930. 31 ref.
Wong D.K.Y., Pitfield D.E., Caves R.E., Appleyard A.J.
The development of a more risk-sensitive and flexible airport safety area strategy
This two-part paper presents the development of an improved airport risk assessment methodology aimed at assessing risks related to aircraft accidents at and in the vicinity of airports and managing airport safety areas as a risk mitigation measure. The methodology is more quantitative, risk-sensitive, flexible and transparent than standard risk assessment approaches. A first part of the paper presents the methodological advances made in the development of accident frequency models, while second part presents the analysis of accident locations, including the plotting of Complementary Cumulative Probability Distributions for the relevant accident types. The improved risk assessment technique and management strategy was also demonstrated in two case studies based on two airports in the United States.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.903-912. Illus. 35 ref. (Part 1); p.913-924. Illus. 5 ref. (Part 2).
Kjellén U., Motet G., Hale A.
Resolving multiple criteria in decision-making involving risk of accidental loss
The case studies and industries reviewed in this collection of articles on safety engineering include: road safety; traffic safety; oil and gas exploration in the Arctic Sea; chemical production; computer software; steel plant maintenance; pathogens in biotechnological research.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.795-901. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Olsen O.E., Lindøe P.H.
Risk on the ramble: The international transfer of risk and vulnerability
With reference to data from the Norwegian petroleum industry, this article discusses how the transfer of technology implies the risk of new failures, misuse, accidents and unhealthy workplaces. Production technologies are often transformed through a steady stream of incremental changes appropriate to their social context. In a transfer process, technological risks may arise due to incomplete transfer of mastering capacity, mismatch between transferred technology and the environment, transfer of latent conditions for failure and the transformation of latent conditions or known risks when the technology is installed in a new environment.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.743-755. Illus. 61 ref.
Far from the madding crowd
This article reviews some of the latest ideas in the field of mass emergency psychology, and how they can be applied to good practices in crowd management. Contrary to many perceptions, emergencies tend to prompt social and responsible behaviour rather than selfish, panic and irrational behaviour. It has also been pointed out that more deaths occur in emergencies such as fires not because of panic, but because the emergency was not taken seriously enough. Based on these observations, a model of crowd management is proposed based on six ingredients: preparation; information; trust; wording of warnings; enhancing cohesion; accommodating the urge to help.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 2009, Vol.27, No.4, p.34-36. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.shponline.co.uk/article.asp?pagename=archive&article_id=8637 [in English]
Papadakis G.A., Chalkidou A.A.
The exposure-damage approach in the quantification of occupational risk in workplaces involving dangerous substances
This study proposes a new approach for the quantification of occupational risk, overcoming the limitations of the common qualitative methodologies widely used by industry and authorities. The proposed methodological approach is based on the principles of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances. The index of individual occupational risk is introduced as a probability function of four variables, normalized over actual working time: the frequency of an active hazard, the probability of an employee being present at a work-place, the extent of distinct consequence zones and the employee vulnerability. The methodology was applied to several industrial environments and has verified its potentiality to provide documented support on important decisions on occupationa lsafety and health measures related to process safety conditions, job management, protective systems, consequence mitigation measures and personal protective measures.
Safety Science, 2008, Vol.46, p.972-991. Illus. 24 ref.
The_exposure-damage_approach.pdf [in English]
Smith G., Fairburn J.
Updating and improving the National Population Database to National Population Database 2
In 2004, Staffordshire University delivered the National Population Database (NPD) for use in estimating populations at risk under the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH, see CIS 06-515). In 2006 an assessment was presented to HSE concerning the updating and potential improvements to the NPD. In 2008, the implementation of the feasibility report led to the creation of National Population Database 2 which both updated and expanded the datasets contained in the original NPD. This report describes the work undertaken for updating the population database.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR_678.pdf [in English]
Baker M., Stanley I.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessing and modelling the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth in structural steels
The objective of this study was to improve the current methods of reliability assessment for structures, and in particular steel offshore structures approaching the end of their design lives. Work was carried out to investigate the variability in the fatigue crack growth of steels and the way in which the corresponding uncertainties could best be incorporated into the assessment process. This included the fatigue testing of specimens of specific grades of steel with the explicit aim of studying the variability in crack growth under different conditions. Findings are presented. The relatively large uncertainties associated with fatigue crack growth behaviour, even within relatively homogenous sets of specimens, means that the variance in the predicted fatigue life is relatively large. It has been shown, however, that the use of fatigue crack growth rate data from relatively early in the life of a particular structure can significantly reduce this uncertainty and improve the reliability predictions through the process of reliability updating.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 97p. Illus. 49 ref.
RR643.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Improved generic strategies and methods for reliability-based structural integrity assessment
This report presents a summary of the research undertaken during a project entitled "Improved generic strategies and methods for reliability-based structural integrity assessment". The research covers a wide range of topics including: the development of improved methods of reliability analysis which can be easily linked with standard methods of advanced structural analysis; a detailed study of the variability of fatigue crack growth in structural steels and the implications for fatigue reliability analysis; developments in the use of reliability updating techniques in relation to the prediction of fatigue failure; applications of structural system reliability analysis to the behaviour of a North Sea jacket structure; and the development of a methodology for the reliability-based fracture assessment of pipelines containing cracks.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 14p. + Appendix 31p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
RR642.pdf [in English]
Williamson J., Daniels C.
Health and Safety Executive
Third party major accident hazard pipeline (MAHP) infringement : A case study
Third party damage to underground services of all types continues to be a source of danger and financial loss to workers, members of the public, utility companies and contractors. When the underground service is a Major Accident Hazard Pipeline (MAHP) such as a high-pressure gas main or a petrochemical pipeline then the consequences of a rupture can be devastating to people and the environment. This report highlights the underlying issues that contributed to a third party MAHP infringement in February 2007, detailing the factors that contributed to that incident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 37p. Illus. 12 ref.
RR640.pdf [in English]
Deep defence - Nuclear safety contribution to industrial safety
La défense en profondeur - Contribution de la sécurité nucléaire à la sécurité industrielle [in French]
This publication presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of deep defence by examining its application in the nuclear field, and subsequently explores its transfer to an industrial context with the help of a specific example, a liquefied natural gas storage and distribution site.
Editions Tec et Doc Lavoisier, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xii, 66p. Illus.43 ref. Index. Price: EUR 32.00.
Prevention and management of major hazards - Proactive protection of enterprise assets
Technische Krisenprävention und -bewältigung - Unternehmenswerte proaktiv schützen [in German]
This article explains how to implement emergency control and management measures within the enterprise. Contents: definition of an emergency situation; sectors that may be affected; causes that could give rise to an emergency situation within the enterprise; preventive measures; early warning of emergency situations; generating worst case scenarios; importance of good communications in emergency situations; preparedness for responding to cases of serious emergencies.
Die BG, Jan. 2008, No.1, p.25-29. Illus. 5 ref.
Jakovlev S.Y., Isakevič N.V., Ryženko A.A., Fridman A.Ja.
Risk assessment and control: Implementation of information technologies for safety of enterprises
Ocenka riska i upravlenie riskom: Vnedrenie informacionnyh tehnologij na predprijatijah Murmanskoj oblasti [in Russian]
The aim of this article is to provide examples of the implementation of the modern safety management method developed by a Russian information technology and mathematical modeling institute. The computer-based system includes modules for evaluating the risk of major hazards and developing alternative scenarios, together with a decision support system. The method was tested and validated in a phosphate and alumina mining complex, and in an oil processing enterprise.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2008, Vol.11, No.3, p.84-86 (English); p.86-88 (Russian). Illus. 4 ref.
Releases of dangerous chemicals in Poland in 2005 in the context of hazardous substances emergency events surveillance (HSEES) system developed in the US
The objective of this study was to analyze data concerning acute releases of hazardous chemicals in Poland in 2005. Fire department's reports were the main source of information on these incidents. In 2005, 245 incidents of chemical release and 23 of threatened release were recorded. Most of acute chemical incidents were associated with transportation and warehousing (39.6%); in this truck transportation accounted for almost 50%, and the chemical and food sector for a little more than 50% of the total incidents. Human error and equipment failure were the primary causal factors, contributing respectively to 54.9% and 38.4% of the incidents. The chemicals involved most frequently were mercury, propane-butane mixture, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, natural gas, sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Out of 268 emergencies, 43 (16.0%) involved casualties, most commonly from respiratory irritation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.4, p.277-288. Illus. 13 ref.
Judgement on the safety of a sociotechnical system
Le jugement sur la sécurité d'un système sociotechnique [in French]
This article raises issues related to major industrial accidents. It argues that the excessive confidence that often results in a major accident is due to unfortunate drifts in the working of organizations.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.42-48. Illus.
Historical review of major environmental accidents involving chemicals
Histoire des catastrophes environnementales d'origine chimique [in French]
A first part of this article presents a concise overview of the 100 or so major chemical accidents having occurred since the beginning of the 20th century. Some 45 major accidents are next reviewed in more detail, with data on the extent, causes and victims. The toxicology of the products involved, together with the epidemiological and ecotoxicological implications are provided for each accident.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2008, No.161, 21p. 119 ref.
Seillan H., Chaize D., Hirschhorn M., Turpin M., Rivière A.
Emergency and safety
L'urgence et la sécurité [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the safety implications of emergencies: advice on how to cope with the unexpected; managing events that do not follow established patterns; emergency services at the European level; method enabling emergency services managers to organizes their work in a systematic way; medical emergencies; concept of emergency in French legislation.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2008, No.98, p.8-28. Illus.
Marwitz S., Maxson N., Koch B., Aukerman T., Cassidy J., Belonger D.
Corporate crisis management - Managing a major crisis in a chemical facility
Chemical industry sites should have well-trained and organized emergency response plans to manage an incident within the plant or during transport. The implementation of an incident command system using either internal resources or external response through mutual aid agreements is generally sufficient to address the direct impact of an event on the site. However, management should also be able to address issues such as press releases, medical advice, employees and family support, and agency notifications. This article proposes an outline for corporate management in the event of a major incident at a chemical industry site or during transportation.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 2008, Vol.159, No.1, p.92-104. Illus. 5 ref.
Iranzo García Y.
Internal emergency plans in the chemical industry
Planes de emergencia interior en la industria química [in Spanish]
Contents of this article on internal emergency plans in the chemical industry: example of classification of a dangerous substance (acrylonitrile) used by an enterprise; internal and external emergency plans; categories of accidents in the chemical industry; contents of an internal emergency plan; implementation and updating of the internal emergency plan.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2008, No.47, p.36-45. Illus. 6 ref.
de Terssac G., Gaillard I.
The AZF disaster - Contributions from human and social sciences
La catastrophe d'AZF - L'apport des sciences humaines et sociales [in French]
On 21 September 2001, a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, exploded, causing the death of 30 persons, together with injuries and traumatic shock to many others. This disaster gave rise to a new industrial safety culture, in particular with respect to consultation between industry and government in the exchange of information (Bachelot law of 2003). This publication covers the various theoretical and practical lessons learned from this disaster, seen from a social and human sciences perspective.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xvii, 276p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 50.00.
Van Wassenhove W., Garbolino E.
Lessons learned from accidents and the prevention of hazards - Principles and methods
Retour d'expérience et prévention des risques - Principes et méthodes [in French]
The lessons learned from accidents approach (LLA) is to provide enterprises with the means of benefiting form past experiences. This publication presents the state of the art with respect to the definition and implementation of an LLA aimed at managing hazards within the enterprise. A first part deals with the basic theoretical and methodological aspects. The second part describes the implementation of an LLA system. It explains the prerequisites for introducing an LLA within the enterprise, together with the approach for its implementation. An example of the LLA method, which comprises a hazard evaluation phase, is also included. Finally, the conclusion addresses the contributions and limits of the LLA approach in the context of hazard evaluation, and discusses the prospects for further improvements.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. vii, 72p. Illus. 64 ref. Index. Price: EUR 35.00.
Basics of frequential and Bayesian approaches - Applications in the field of the control of industrial hazards
Les fondements des approches fréquentielle et bayésienne - Applications à la maîtrise du risque industriel [in French]
Analysing the risk of industrial accidents consists of evaluating the likelihood of occurrence of a dreaded event and of its consequences. For evaluating this likelihood, an approach based on frequential statistics approach was commonly used, an approach which however is lacking in terms of both rigour and objectivity. This publication explains the advantages of an approach based on Bayesian statistics and subjective probability, which takes into account all available knowledge for carrying out a hazard evaluation, including lessons learned from accidents and expertise.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xix, 248p. Illus. 42 ref. Index. Price: EUR 70.00.
De Fex R.L.
Chemical hazard evaluation methods
Metodologías de análisis de riesgos químicos [in Spanish]
Aimed at safety specialists, this article reviews the methodologies available for evaluating chemical hazards. It firstly defines the general hazard analysis framework for the purpose of ensuring chemical safety, and then briefly describes the various analytical methods: preliminary hazard analysis (PHA); job hazard analysis (JHA); fault tree analysis (FTA); hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP); failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA); quantitative risk assessment (QRA); DOW fire and explosion index; layer of protection analysis (LOPA).
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2008, Vol.54, No.317, p.61-66. Illus. 9 ref.
Hazard alert: Combustible dust explosions
Combustible dusts are fine particles that present an explosion hazard when dispersed in air in certain conditions. A dust explosion can be catastrophic and cause employee deaths, injuries, and destruction of entire buildings. In many combustible dust accidents, employers and employees are unaware that a hazard exists. Contents of this safety information sheet on dust explosions: how dust explosions occur; catastrophic secondary explosions; industries at risk; dust control recommendations; ignition control recommendations; injury and damage control methods; OSHA regulations; sources of additional information.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Mar. 2008. 2p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/OSHAcombustibledust.pdf [in English]
Mauer M.P., Cummings K.R., Carlson G.A.
Health effects in New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster
The state of health of 1423 New York State personnel who responded to the World Trade Center disaster was evaluated. Data collected by means of questionnaires, clinical examinations and laboratory tests were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Lower and upper respiratory symptoms were reported by nearly half of the study participants. One third reported a psychological symptom. Some health effects were associated with having been caught in the cloud of dust on the day of the terrorist attack. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1197-1205. Illus. 28 ref.
Bellamy L.J., Geyer T.A.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a working model of how human factors, safety management systems and wider organisational issues fit together
This report describes a working model integrating human factors (HF), safety management systems (SMS), risk control (RC) and wider organizational issues, with a focus on major chemical major hazards. Eight major accidents were analysed. Repeated failure patterns were found which were represented as four specific combinations of components from the HF, SMS, RC and organization taxonomy, each combination defined by a theme. The four themes were: understanding of major accident prevention; competence for tasks; priorities, attention and conflict resolution; assurance. These themes were used for developing chemical hazard stakeholder priorities during a one-day workshop.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 192p. Illus. 97 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr543.pdf [in English]
Delgado Saborit J.M.
Measurement of environmental hazards
La medida del riesgo ambiental [in Spanish]
This article describes a new method for evaluating the effects of enterprise activities on the natural environment. It includes an evaluation of the risks of environmental hazards using environmental factors (toxicity, volatility, bio-concentration, adsorption, biodegradability, synergies). This analysis, together with the use of various scenarios, enables the determination of the two main constituents of environmental hazards, namely environmental consequences and the probability of occurrence of accidents.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.107, p.50-63. Illus. 9 ref.
Report of the Federal Government on occupational safety and health and on occupational accident and disease occurrences in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2006
Bericht der Bundesregierung über den Stand von Sicherheit und Gesundheit bei der Arbeit und das Unfall- und Berufskrankheitengeschehen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahr 2006 [in German]
Status report of the German government on occupational safety and health in Germany during 2006. Topics addressed: overview of the state of occupational safety and health (data, legal aspects, accidents, industrial accidents and commuting accidents, occupational diseases, prevention and economic aspects, insurance costs, work aptitude, invalidity pensions); safety and health in the temporary work sector (data, legal aspects, accidents, work aptitude, invalidity); overview of accidents among students. Appendices include a list of German industrial safety regulations, together with examples of regulations of occupational accident insurance providers.
Bundesanzeiger Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Amsterdamer Str. 192, 50735 Köln, Germany, Dec. 2007. 172p. Illus.
http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/16/077/1607704.pdf [in German]
Major accident hazards in Poland: Current status
Zagrożenia poważnymi awariami w Polsce - stan aktualny [in Polish]
The quantitative definition of major accidents according to Polish regulations is presented and discussed. Data on major accidents having occurred in Poland in 2005, based on the official report of the Chief Inspector of Environmental Protection, are presented, together with brief descriptions of ten selected major accidents. According to European Commission data, Poland ranks at the top of all EU Member States in terms of major accident hazards.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, May 2007, No.5 (428), p.14-18. Illus. 9 ref.
Seillan H., Blanc P., Guerard P.
Inventory of industrial accidents 2007
Inventaire 2007 des accidents technologiques [in French]
This collection of articles analyses the 20,238 industrial accidents which occurred in France between 1992 and 2006, and that are featured in the ARIA database. Data are presented by type of event, sector of activity, substances involved, primary cause of accident and consequences. Trends in fatal accidents as well as an accident severity scale are also presented. An interview with a senior official of the French Ministry of Ecology is included, together with boxes offering short descriptions of representative accidents. Data on all accidents having occurred in France and other countries from 1997 can be accessed at the following URL: www.aria.ecologie.gouv.fr.
Préventique-Sécurité, July-Aug. 2007, No.94, p.15-29. Illus.
Process-related accidents in 2006
Accidents technologiques de l'année 2006 [in French]
This article comments the key statistics concerning process-related accidents in France listed in the ARIA database for the year 2006. Topics addressed: typology of the accidents listed; sectors of activity involved; families of products involved; main cases of accidents; consequences of accidents; lessons learned. Tables summarize accident statistics according to the type of event, sector of activity, families of products involved, causes and main consequences.
Face au risque, June-July 2007, No.434, p.29-32. Illus.
Accidents in silos: Fires, explosions (I)
Accidents dans les silos: incendies, explosions (I) [in French]
Topics addressed in this review article on fires and explosions involving grain silos: main types of accidents having occurred in France listed in the ARIA database; main consequences of these accidents; accidents having occurred abroad; short descriptions of several typical accidents; intervention of emergency services.
Face au risque, Apr. 2007, No.432, p.17-21. Illus.
Accidents in silos (II): Main lessons to be drawn
Accidents dans les silos (II), les principaux enseignements [in French]
This article is a sequel to an article on fires and explosions in grain silos. It addresses gains from experience, underscores the importance of proper maintenance of machinery and equipment, as well as of organizational measures before undertaking maintenance work. It also includes short descriptions of several accidents drawn from the ARIA database.
Face au risque, May 2007, No.433, p.31-35. Illus.
The carriage of dangerous goods and use of transportable pressure equipment regulations 2007 [United Kingdom]
These United Kingdom Regulations on the carriage of dangerous goods by road and rail came into force on 1 July 2007. They transpose Directives 2006/89/EC and 2006/90/EC with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by rail into United Kingdom law. They take into account the European Agreement on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road 2003 (ADR 2003). They also update and supersede various United Kingdom Regulations, including The Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations 2004 (see CIS 03-1521).
The Stationery Office, PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2007. 79p. Price: GBP 12.80. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2007/20071573.htm [in English]
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