Natural phenomena - 188 entries found
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Pachauri R.K., Kjellstrom T., Lemke B., Otto M., Makhonge P., Dapi L.N., Hawthorne L., Valenti A., Iavicoli S., London L., Reynolds L., Irlam J., Kaoneka B.S., Lekei E., Bansimbile A., SeLvage G., Lehtinen S.
Collection of articles on the impact of climate change on occupational safety and health (OSH) in African countries. Contents: climate change, occupational heat stress and impacts on health and productivity in Africa; climate change challenges in Kenya; impact of climate change on students in Yaoundé, Cameroon; climate change impacts on farmers in Ethiopia; impact of climate change and green jobs on OSH; climate change, OSH and social justice; environmental impactions of pest control practices in vegetable production in Tanzania. Other topics brief reports on OSH conferences during 2011 in Accra, Ghana, Istanbul, Turkey and Espoo, Finland.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2011, Vol.21, No.3, p.43-63 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Climate_change_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Code of practice in times of typhoons and rainstorms
Hong Kong is frequently hit by tropical cyclones or typhoons during the summer months. Taking into account the interests of employers, employees and the wider community, this booklet aims to provide guidance in time of typhoons. Contents: introduction; work arrangements; rules regarding report for duty, release from work and resumption of work; payment of wages and allowances; provisions under the employment ordinance, the safety and health ordinance and the employees' compensation ordinance. Appendices include: work arrangements in times of typhoons and rainstorms; work arrangements of outdoor work in exposed areas in times of inclement weather; weather warnings.
Occupational Health Service, Labour Department. 15/F, Harbour Building, 38 Pier Road, Central. Hong Kong, 2011. 40p.
Code_of_practice_in_times.pdf [in English]
Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
This article develops framework for identifying how climate change could affect occupational safety and health based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature, air pollution, ultraviolet exposure, extreme weather, vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats, industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change.pdf [in English]
Aschan C., Hirvonen M., Rajamäki E., Mannelin T., Ruotsalainen J., Ruuhela R.
Performance of slippery and slip-resistant footwear in different wintry weather conditions measured in situ
In Finland, about 70,000 pedestrians are injured each year in fall accidents, two-thirds of which occur when the walking surface is covered by ice or snow. This study was carried out to evaluate the usability of a portable slip simulator for measuring slipperiness of walkways during winter conditions and to assess slip resistance of different footwear. The simulator was found to be a reliable tool, potentially enabling the Finnish meteorological office to provide warnings of very slippery days.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1195-1200. Illus. 31 ref.
McMullen C., Hayden T., Eds.
UNEP yearbook 2009. New science and developments in our changing environment
This yearbook makes a detailed inventory of the state of the global and regional environment. Topics covered: effects expected from degradation of ecosystems; impact of harmful substances on ecosystems and human health; consequences of climate change; the continued human and economic loss resulting from disasters and conflicts; overexploitation of resources.
Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), P. O. Box. 30552 Nairobi 00100, Kenya, 2009. iv, 64p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Larcher C., Ravallec C., Richez J.P.
Weather-related hazards - Good forecasting for improved safety
Risques climatiques - Une bonne prévision pour une meilleure prévention [in French]
Wind, rain, floods, lightning, frost or heat waves can affect operations, particularly in the construction sector and in the transport of goods and persons. Whenever they occur, these weather-related events can cause severe damage. This collection of articles is devoted to the topic of protection against the effects of these occurrences, based on forecasts, vigilance and the organization of services responsible for ensuring the safety of persons and work equipment. Contents: description of the forecasting service of the French national weather service (Météo France) for various sectors (agriculture, transport); vigilance service of Météo France; wind-related risks for tower cranes; flood plan of a major manufacturing site situated on the banks for the Seine river; clearing post-disaster damage taking hazards into account (collapse, falls from heights, asbestos); case of damage caused by exceptional rains to a manufacturer of trailers and campers.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2009, No.691, p.16-29. Illus. 4 ref.
Risikko T., Remes J., Hassi J.
Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the Finnish maritime administration
Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in the occupational safety, health and quality systems of enterprises. An approach was developed for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration. This study evaluates the results of implementing this approach three years after its introduction. Although findings showed an increased awareness about cold work, there were few concrete improvements or policy implementations. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.433-446. Illus. 39 ref.
Die weisse Gewalt [in German]
Il pirocolo bianco [in Italian]
La mort blanche [in French]
The survival rate of persons covered by an avalanche is around 93%. However, after more than 15 minutes under snow, chances of survival diminish rapidly due to the risk of asphyxia. In Switzerland, avalanches cause an average of 25 deaths each year. Contents of this feature on the risks related to avalanches: account of a mountain guide having survived an avalanche which occurred while accompanying two backcountry skiers; "White Risk", an interactive CD on the prevention of avalanche risks published by SUVA (Swiss national accident insurance organization); online testing of the risk profile of skiers and snowboarders (www.suva.ch/risque).
Benefit, Nov. 2008, No.4, p.4-9. Illus.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_04_08_i.pdf [in Italian]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_04_08_d.pdf [in German]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/benefit_04_08_f.pdf [in French]
Ren C., Williams G.M., Morawska L., Mengersen K., Tong S.
Ozone modifies associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality: Analysis of the NMMAPS data
This study aims to explore the modifications by ozone of the associations between maximum temperature and cardiovascular mortality (CVM), using data from the United States National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). Poisson regression models were used to examine these associations in 95 regions of the United States during 1987-2000 from June to September. A response surface model was used to examine the joint effects of temperature and ozone on CVM in summer. Results show that the higher the ozone concentration, the stronger the temperature-CVM associations. A 10°C increase in temperature on the same day was associated with an increase in CVM by 1.17% and 8.31% for the lowest and highest level of ozone concentrations in all communities, respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.255-260. Illus. 39 ref.
Hegewald J., Uter W., Kränke B., Schnuch A., Pfahlberg A., Gefeller O.
Meteorological conditions and the diagnosis of occupationally related contact sensitizations
The objective of this study was to quantify the possible impact of temperature and humidity on patch-test reactions to occupationally related allergens. Clinical data from 61,780 patients tested with standard series allergens potentially related to occupational exposure from 1993 through 2001 were collected by a contact sensitization surveillance network. The association between the patch-test results and meteorological data (air temperature and humidity) collected at the time and the approximate location of the testing was analyzed in a multinomial logistic regression analysis. For the most part, weather conditions were not associated with reactions to occupational allergens. Thus the validity of patch testing does not seem to be compromised by meteorological conditions.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.316-321. Illus. 20 ref.
Explosion hazards from methane emissions related to geologic features in coal mines
Explosions in coal mines are caused when buildups of explosive gas and/or dust are ignited by a flame or spark. Methane is normally contained in coal and is liberated during mining. Because this gas is explosive in the range of 5%-15% by volume in air, fresh air is constantly supplied to the working face to prevent the methane/air mixture from reaching this explosive range. The required amount of ventilation air is based on estimates of methane release under normal conditions. Occasionally, unanticipated and unusually high emissions are encountered, which, despite normal ventilation controls, result in an explosive mixture that a spark from a cutting bit or electrical equipment can easily ignite. Investigations have shown that such emissions are often associated with anomalous geologic features or conditions. This report provides operators with specific information on recognizing and alleviating potential hazards from methane emissions related to these geologic features.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2008. 18p. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-123.pdf [in English]
Preventive measures to be taken at the place of work during hot weather conditions
Les mesures de prévention à prendre en cas de fortes chaleurs dans les lieux de travail [in French]
Exposure to heat at the place of work can cause serious health problems and accidents, possibly leading to death, particularly during outdoor work, such as among construction workers or during road inspection and cleaning. In order to ensure work under acceptable conditions, employers are required to take preventive measures as far upstream as possible. This article summarizes the main provisions of French regulations that apply to work during hot weather conditions, concerning the requirement that employers implement individual and organizational preventive measures as a function of weather conditions, applicable to both workplaces and working conditions.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, May 2007, No.100, p.10.
Vargas M., Salazar J., Rondón D., Montaña J.
Philosophy of protection of oil installations
Filosofía de protección de instalaciones petroleras [in Spanish]
This article addresses the issue of the hazards caused by atmospheric electrical discharges to existing oil installations and fuel storage sites, this natural phenomenon being one of the main causes of fire and damage to electronic control systems, resulting in major economic losses as well as fatalities and injuries among workers and neighbourhood populations. Contents: introduction and background; general aspects and mechanisms of the causes of damages and fires; integral protection system and risk reduction (external protection, internal protection, personal safety guide, alarm systems).
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug.2007, Vol.53, No.314, p.46-51. Illus. 17 ref.
Bulat J., Long D.
Health and Safety Executive
Use of 3D seismic data as a substitute for high-resolution seismic surveys for site investigation
3D seismic data are routinely used in deep-water exploration areas for site investigation work as well as for basic production prospect evaluation, as this helps to reduce costs. This report presents the critical parameters that influence the suitability of 3D surveys for site investigation work. Published guidelines and industry practice suggest that where 3D surveys specifically target the seabed and near-seabed sections, a vertical resolution of 6m and finer are possible in water depths greater than 500m. This is comparable to a conventional site survey vertical resolution of 4-5m. However, 3D surveys where the seabed is not a target possess significantly lower vertical resolutions and are not fit as a substitute for site surveys.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 28p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr459.pdf [in English]
Payeur M., Corthésy R., Leite M.H.
Detection of boulder movement by digital imaging
Détection des mouvements de blocs rocheux par imagerie numérique [in French]
Close to half of all fatalities and more than 12% of accidents in underground mines are caused by falls of bedrock. These rock falls are usually preceded by displacements that are almost impossible to detect visually. The aim of this project was to develop an affordable system, based on existing high-resolution digital photography and image-processing software, that detects rock-wall displacements by comparing digital images of the walls of mine galleries at different times. This allows high-risk zones to be identified and appropriate preventive measures to be applied.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iii, 36p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-439.pdf [in French]
Brasseur G., Cheneau V., Bondéelle A.
Wind turbines - Safety, higher and higher
Eoliennes - La sécurité, toujours plus haut [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on wind turbines: overview of current French installations and major planned investments in France and in Europe; summary of a survey carried out in a region of France on the safety and working conditions during the design phase, construction, erection and operation of wind turbines.
Travail et sécurité, May 2006, No.662, p.21-31. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/ArchivesTS.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS662page21_1/$File/TS662page21.pdf?OpenElement [in French]
Sanders C.J., Ivings M.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Natural ventilation of offshore modules
Natural ventilation is a common method for mitigating the hazard posed by gas and vapour leaks on offshore platforms. Openings in wind walls and doors allow the wind to blow through a module and hence the ventilation is not generally dependent on the operation of any devices such as mechanical fans. This report investigates the effectiveness of natural ventilation of offshore platforms, focusing on the non-uniformity of the ventilation within a module and its dependence on the wind conditions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 82p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr402.pdf [in English]
Venugopal V., Wolfram J., Linfoot B.T.
Health and Safety Executive
The properties of extreme waves
In the safety assessment of both fixed and floating offshore structures, it is necessary to ensure that the structure has sufficient strength to withstand the most extreme combination of environmental loads likely to be experienced during the design life. However significant uncertainties remain concerning the characteristics of real, extreme, three-dimensional waves. The research described in this report focused upon wave crest heights and the potential loss of air gap for fixed structures by examining the distribution of wave crest elevations in storms, together with the directional spreading of wave energy by examining the wave spreading factor.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. viii, 80p. Illus. 62 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr401.pdf [in English]
Hadjigeorgiou J., Lemy F.
Development of an image analysis system for characterizing rock masses
Développement d'un système d'analyse d'images pour la caractérisation des massifs rocheux [in French]
The collection of reliable information for improving the design of underground excavations is a major problem in underground mines where boulders that detach from the rock mass can cause serious injuries. This report describes an image analysis system adapted to the conditions in underground mines. Compared to the traditional method of discontinuity surveys, this technique offers many advantages: the time necessary for data acquisition is greatly reduced; the large amount of data collected increases the quality of the information available for characterizing the rock mass; it allows the creation of a permanent database; it is simple to implement; and mainly, it avoids the operator's direct exposure to falling boulders.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iii, 46p. Illus. 45 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-414.pdf [in French]
Bullman S., Chan N.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a ventilator test procedure to take account of external wind conditions
This project investigated the viability of enhancing an existing ventilator test procedure to account for the presence of a wind. Test results showed considerable variation in vent performance when vents were subjected to crosswind flows across a range of face angles. Many designs exhibited strong variation with face angle, while some exhibited significant effective area reductions when the crosswind was introduced. The present findings indicate that the maximum bulk wind speed required for an assessment of vent performance is 21 m/s. Measurements should be taken at five face angles of -90°, -45°, 0°, 45° and 90°. In conclusion, the test procedure described here should form the basis for the characterization of vent units with cowls that are currently available and those that seek BSI approval in the future.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 105p. Illus. Price: GBP 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr288.pdf [in English]
An attempt at the standardization of natural hazards assessment in mining
Próba standaryzacji oceny zagrożeń naturalnych w górnictwie [in Polish]
This article describes a method for calculating new relative indices for assessing the occurrence of natural hazards in mining. Use of the hazard index and the hindrance index allows mines to be classified according to their potential exposure to the effects of natural hazards. On the basis of computed index values, a classification has been made of those mines in which no fatal accident was noted for the period 2001-2003.
WUG Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ochrona Środowiska w Górnictwie, 2004, Vol.123, No.11, p.14-16. 2 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Operation of ski slope maintenance equipment
Betrieb von Pistenpflegegeräten [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association on ski slope maintenance equipment: scope; definitions; preventive measures against health hazards and dangerous work-related situations (operating the equipment in compliance with service instructions, demands on drivers, danger zones, driving the equipment, use in specific situations, transport of passengers on the loading deck, transport of loads, use of winches, maintenance, checks).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Jan. 2004. 14p.
http://www.bg-bahnen.de/asp/dms.asp?url=/zh/z590/titel.htm [in German]
Prevention of the risk of collapse of tower cranes due to wind
Prévention du risque de renversement des grues à tour sous l'effet du vent [in French]
This recommendation is aimed at owners of construction enterprises whose workers operate tower cranes. Contents: scope; objective of the recommendation; prevention principles; notices and instructions provided by the manufacturer; prevention measures. Appendices include: influence of the weights and surface distribution of loads on crane stability; effects of sites on wind flux; regulations; how to consult weather forecasts; determination of wind speed to ensure crane stability.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2004, No.645, vol. II, 11p. Illus.
http://www.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/atmp_media/R406.pdf [in French]
Ganem Y., Meyer J.P., Luzeaux N., Brasseur G., Laborde L., Pomian J.L.
Thermal environments: Work during hot spells
Ambiances thermiques: travail en période de fortes chaleurs [in French]
As a result of the heat wave of 2003, many questions were raised concerning the health effects of work in hot environments and possible preventive measures. An information package was put together and published on the French Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (INRS) website. However, it became apparent that this information needed to be further developed and a multidisciplinary working group was established to prepare the present information and guidance document. Contents: thermal comfort; epidemiological data; risk factors; adaptation to heat and effect of heat on humans; prevention measures (working conditions, work organization, selective measures that may be implemented by employers, personal lifestyle measures, technical measures); legal aspects.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2004, No.97, p.51-68. Illus. 54 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/DMT_TC%2097/$File/Visu.html [in French]
Prevention of the risk of prefabricated shuttering elements being blown down by wind
Prévention du risque de renversement des banches sous l'effet du vent [in French]
The objective of this recommendation is to specify the preventive measures to be implemented to ensure the stability of prefabricated shuttering elements exposed to wind during all phases of their use and storage. Contents: scope; prevention principles; preventive measures at the organizational level, including building site preparation; technical preventive measures (stabilisation by rear anchoring, counterweights and coupling).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2004, No.636, fascicule II, p.11-15. Illus.
Identification of ergonomic issues that affect workers in oilrigs in desert environments
The main objective of this research was to assess ergonomic-related problems in oil rigs in a desert environment. The investigation involved the use of a checklist, the physical inspection of the premises and the examination of the workers' medical records. Findings showed that significant health problems could be attributed to ergonomic deficiencies in the environment and work system of the oil rig. Some of the major ergonomic issues identified were hard physical work, back pain, discomfort, hot environments, long shifts and diverse schedules. 94% of the employees perceived the workday as very long, 79% were dissatisfied with the work schedule, while 61% perceived the summer work environment as extremely hot. Ergonomics should be considered in the work system design so as to reduce or eliminate problems in oil rigs in hot climate regions.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.2, p.169-177. Illus. 27 ref.
Hang H.M., Byass P., Svanström L.
Incidence and seasonal variation of injury in rural Vietnam: A community-based survey
The objective of this study was describe seasonal effects on injury incidence at the community level in the Bavi district of northern Viet Nam, a mainly rural area. All non-fatal unintentional injuries which occurred in a sample of 24,776 persons living in 5801 households were recorded during 2000. Four interview surveys per household were also conducted during the year, during which information was collected on accidents having occurred in the preceding quarter. Injury morbidity data were analysed according to sex, age and circumstances of injury. 1917 persons experienced a total of 2079 non-fatal injuries during the period of observation, corresponding to an incidence of 89/1000 person-years. Seasonal variations were found in all types of injury. Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in July and April, while the lowest monthly rates were found in May and November. Peaks were observed in February and April for traffic injuries, June for work-related injuries, July, August and October for home injuries. Finally, a significantly higher incidence rate was observed in the third quarter (103/1000 person-years).
Safety Science, Oct. 2004, Vol.42, No.8, p.691-701. Illus. 16 ref.
Upton S., Ross D., Pierce B.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement and modelling of combustion products from flueless gas appliances
This report presents results of measurements and modelling of the combustion products emitted from flueless gas appliances. Measurements were made using wide a range of such appliances, at varying firing rates, in a controlled chamber, including simulations of conditions that would be experienced in air-tight rooms. Ventilation in the chamber was either in the form of vents in the chamber walls, or at controlled air exchange rates via a mechanical ventilation system. This enabled the prediction of the likely concentration of combustion products for a range of ventilation provisions, room sizes and potential uses of the flueless gas appliances. Concentrations of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ultra-fine particles and aldehydes were measured, together with gas consumption.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 82p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr127.pdf [in English]
Hill R.W., Marks S.
Health and Safety Executive
Flueless gas fires - Concentration of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, and particulate level produced in use
Fixed flueless gas fires to supplement central heating systems are subject to certification by an independent Notified Body for compliance with the Gas Appliances Directive. The certification process includes an assessment of the manufacturer's installation instructions. Three manufacturers are currently offering a range of flueless fires. However, their installation instructions are inconsistent with one another. The objective of this project was to encourage manufacturers to develop common product and installation standards. It involved measuring the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulates produced by the appliances in a test facility simulating a residential home.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 34p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr023.pdf [in English]
Ratajczak J., Majka A., Chmiel M., Janik P., Dziwulski D., Porowski R.
Safe plant - A hundred ways to avoid trouble - A guide
Bezpieczny zakład - Sto sposobów na uniknięcie kłopotów - Poradnik [in Polish]
This booklet presents the most common hazards arising as a result of major accidents and natural disasters. It also addresses the consequences of these hazards for people and environment, the ways to prevent such consequences and rules of conduct to be followed in the event of their occurrence. The booklet was published in co-operation with National Working Environment Authority in Denmark.
Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy Główny Inspektorat Pracy, ul. Krucza 38/42 Warszawa, Poland, 2003. 48 p. Illus.
Scaperdas A., Hebden C.R.
Health and Safety Executive
Source term modelling of releases within building complexes
This study relates to the dispersion of dense gases within and downstream of building complexes. A review of earlier work on the topic was undertaken, enabling the significant effects and key parameters to be identified. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling was then undertaken for a typical chlorine release within arrays of varying geometry. The results obtained from CFD were used for the development of a series of flow charts to guide the selection of appropriate modelling choices when conducting risk analysis.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 55p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr064.pdf [in English]
Takahashi T., Ohtsuka Y., Munakata M., Nasuhara Y., Kamachi-Satoh A., Homma Y., Kawakami Y.
Occurrence of farmer's lung disease is relevant to meteorological conditions: A 20-year follow-up field survey analysis
A survey on farmer's lung disease (FLD) in a dairy farming community in the northernmost district of Japan has been in progress since 1978. This article investigates possible correlations between the number of FLD occurrences each year, dairy farming conditions and meteorological data. 34 FLD cases had occurred during the 20-year period. The average number of days below freezing point during the harvest season the year prior to FLD occurrence were significantly smaller than other years (2.1±0.7 days and 4.6±0.7 days, respectively). The average annual sunlight hours in the years preceding FLD occurrence was significantly smaller than those of other years (1457.1±114.0h and 1811.3±97.7h, respectively) and was also significantly smaller for the sunlight hours during a harvest season (821.9± 60.2h and 1023.2±52.7h, respectively). It is concluded that temperature and hours of sunlight are closely associated with FLD occurrence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.506-513. Illus. 20 ref.
Nersesyan A.K., Boffetta P., Sarkisyan T.F, Zalinyan G.G., Arutyunyan R.M.
Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of persons exposed to an earthquake in Armenia
Chromosome aberrations were measured in blood samples taken from 41 victims of the earthquake that hit Armenia in 1988 and in samples of 47 reference blood donors. The victims suffered from severe psychoemotional stress but were otherwise healthy. All the samples were taken 2 to 3 weeks after the earthquake. All the subjects were lifetime nonsmokers. The subjects exposed to the earthquake had a higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations (3.1) than the referents (1.7). The difference persisted when the values were adjusted for age and sex (relative risk (RR) 1.9). The exposed subjects also had a lower percentage of cells with 46 chromosomes than the referents. This study suggests an increase in chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of victims of a severe earthquake. If not due to bias or confounding, the difference may reflect the effect of either environmental exposures related to the earthquake or severe psychogenic stress. The levels of chromosome aberrations found among the earthquake victims in this study are comparable with those found in prospective studies of long-term cancer risk.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.120-124. 22 ref.
Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate
Guideline for the compilation of a mandatory code of practice on mine residue deposits
Mine residue deposits (MRDs) constitute a potential pollution and flow failure hazard, with possible health hazards, injury or loss of life. The South African Mines Health and Safety Act (MHSA) requires employers to prepare and implement a code of practice (COP) on any matter affecting the safety and health of employees. These COPs must comply with official guidelines. This document has been compiled to assist employers in the mining industry prepare a COP covering site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, modification and decommissioning of MRDs.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 2001. 23p. 9 ref.
Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y.
Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings
Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref.
Srivastava A., Kumar R., Joseph E., Kumar A.
Heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass manufacturing unit in India
The heat exposure of workers in coastal areas of tropical countries such as India can have important consequences on productivity and product quality. The hot climate exacerbates the heat exposure close to sources like furnaces. In the present study, heat exposure to workers in glass manufacturing units in a coastal region of India have been assessed. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), the Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) were measured. The WBGT values much exceeded the threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Recommendations are made with respect to work and rest periods for hot workplaces suited to tropical conditions. Certain aspects of the AGCIH standard also need to be adapted to suit tropical conditions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 3 ref.
Kobayashi A., Kikuwaka A.
Increased formaldehyde in jet engine exhaust with changes to JP-8, lower temperature, and lower humidity irritates eyes and respiratory tract
Formaldehyde (FA) in exhaust from fighter aircraft with low smoke combustor (LSC) J79 engines has been reported to cause irritation, becoming more frequent and severe after the fuel was changed from JP-4 to JP-8. The present study, conducted in Japan, investigated the effect of jet fuel and power setting on formaldehyde concentrations in the exhaust. The exposure to formaldehyde among pilots and flight line personnel is also investigated. The exhaust from LSC J79 engines was sampled 50m behind the engine at different power settings in July and February. At an idle power setting, the FA concentration was higher in the exhaust of engines using JP-8 (1.31ppm in July and 2.78ppm in February) than in engines using JP-4 (0.95ppm in July and 1.84ppm in February). The FA concentration increased as both ambient temperature and relative humidity decreased in the sampling atmosphere. The FA concentration of JP-8 fuel at an idle power setting (65%) was higher than that at a 71.5% power setting (1.32ppm and 0.86ppm, respectively).
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.71, No.4, p.396-399. Illus. 9 ref.
Davies P.A., Quinn D.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk assessment results: Sensitivity to weather data
The risks of harming persons in the vicinity of major hazardous industrial sites are calculated to evaluate the tolerability of risks against established criteria. The objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity of risk assessment results to weather parameters (wind speed, weather stability, release orientation). Mathematical models are used for risk calculations performed with five weather sets.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. vi, 86p. Illus. Price: GBP 30.00.
Protecting workers in cold conditions
Topics: Alaska; body temperature; cold; extreme temperatures; frostbite; impermeable fabrics; outdoor work; polar climate; protection against cold; protection against humidity; risk factors; snow; USA; weather protective clothing; wind; winter.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1999, Vol.61, No.10, p.133-136. Illus.
Ooi P.L., Goh K.T., Phoon M.H., Foo S.C., Yap H.M.
Epidemiology of sick building syndrome and its associated risk factors in Singapore
The occurrence of sick building syndrome in a tropical city, and its relation to indoor air quality and other factors was investigated. 2,856 office workers in 56 randomly selected public and private sector buildings were surveyed. The study consisted of a self-administered questionnaire assessing symptoms and perception of the physical and psychosocial environment, inspection of the building plans and premises, and measurement of temperature, relative humidity, respirable particles, chemicals, bioaerosols and other variables. Symptoms typical of the sick building syndrome were reported in 19.6% of the respondents. Multivariate modelling substantiated contributions associated with low thermal comfort, high work related stress, too much noise, a history of allergy or other medical conditions, poor lighting, young employees and female sex. Measurements of indoor air quality or ventilation were not found to be reliable predictors of the symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.55, No.3, p.188-193. Illus. 30 ref.
Gomes J., Lloyd O., Revitt M.D., Basha M.
Morbidity among farm workers in a desert country in relation to long-term exposure to pesticides
Subclinical morbidity patterns among male established migrant farm workers were compared with referents and with new migrant farmworkers in a desert country. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and haemoglobin-adjusted erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were significantly depleted, and results of aiming and digit symbol tests were significantly lower for the established workers. Irritated conjunctiva, watery eyes, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, muscular pain, and weakness were reported by established workers in statistically significantly higher numbers than by the referents and new workers. Morbidity patterns, such as the health complaints and objective parameters suggested in this study, would be suitable as criteria for identifying farm workers most at risk from pesticide toxicity and as criteria for initiating measures to control and reduce exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1998, Vol.24, No.3, p.213-219. 31 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Consideration of the feasibility of developing a simple methodology to assess dispersion in low/zero windspeeds
Topics: air movement; atmospheric pollution; dangerous substances; flammable gases; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; mathematical models; neighbourhood protection; toxic gases; wind.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. vi, 129p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: GBP 37.50.
Baldwin P.E.J., Maynard A.D.
A survey of wind speeds in indoor workplaces
Topics: aerosols; air movement; airflow measurement; field tests; sampling and analysis; ventilation; wind; workplaces.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, July 1998, Vol.42, No.5, p.303-313. Illus. 17 ref.
After the deluge
Topics: bacteria; biological hazards; cleaning; flooding; health hazards; humidity; microorganisms; moulds; mycotoxins; personal protective equipment; sewage.
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 1998, Vol.16, No.7, p.46-47. Illus.
Ivens U.I., Ebbehøj N., Poulsen O.M., Skov T.
Season, equipment and job function related to gastrointestinal problems in waste collectors
In a questionnaire-based study, waste collectors reported more gastrointestinal symptoms than did a control group of municipal workers. Workers collecting organic, residual and mixed household waste fractions reported more nausea than the non-exposed waste collectors. Loaders reported most nausea. The prevalence of nausea was highest in the summer followed by autumn and winter. Diarrhoea occurred most among workers collecting mixed household waste or working either as front runner or loader. The prevalence of diarrhoea was highest in the summer among those exposed to organic, residual and mixed household waste. Workers stated that the gastrointestinal symptoms were related to the smell of rotten waste. This may support the hypothesis that microbial compounds were the causal agents. Topics: diarrhoea; gastric disorders; job-exposure relation; microorganisms; questionnaire survey; refuse collection; seasonal variation; subjective assessment; summer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.861-867. 26 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The implications of dispersion in low wind speed conditions for quantified risk assessment
Dispersion of hazardous substances in low wind speed conditions and implications for quantified risk assessment (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: atmospheric pollution; dangerous substances; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; literature survey; mathematical models; neighbourhood protection; report; United Kingdom; wind.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. v, 174p. Illus. 115 ref. Price: GBP 49.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Waves and winds in the north-west approaches to the United Kingdom
Waves and winds in offshore oil extraction in the north-west (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: natural phenomena; offshore oil extraction; report; United Kingdom; wind.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. viii, 70p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: GBP 45.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Green seas damage on FPSOs and FSUs
Report on the occurrence of green water on offshore floating plant and the need to protect equipment and personnel (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: floating plant; inrushes of water; offshore oil extraction; report; safety by design; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vii, 36p. 30 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Li C.S., Hsu C.W., Lu C.H.
Dampness and respiratory symptoms among workers in daycare centers in a subtropical climate
The association between measures of dampness and symptoms of respiratory illness were investigated in 612 employees of 56 daycare centres in Taipei (Taiwan, China). There was a statistically significant relationship between the prevalence of sick building syndrome symptoms in workers and workplaces with mould or other signs of dampness.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1997, Vol.52, No.1, p.68-71. 16 ref.
Spotlight on work in winter
Health hazards associated with outdoor work in winter are briefly reviewed. Environmental factors are discussed (temperature, wind chill factor) along with the effects of cold on the body (body heat regulation, impairment of manual and mental tasks). Specific cold injuries include frostbite, skin disorders, hypothermia and heart disease. Preventive measures include safe work practices, work breaks, provision of shelter and protective clothing.
Safety Review, Sep. 1997, No.62, insert p.i-vii. 8 ref.
Musson R.M.W., et al.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
UK Continental Shelf seismic hazard
This report describes a study to assess the seismic hazard on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. A unified catalogue of earthquakes in the study area was prepared, along with a seismic source zoning map and seismic hazard contour maps. Secondary hazards caused by earthquakes, such as slope failure and loss of soil strength, were also reviewed. The hazard maps show a wide range of seismic hazard in offshore waters; areas with above average seismic hazard are identified. The report includes an abbreviated version of the earthquake catalogue and seismic activity maps.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. vii, 101p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
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