Animal hazards - 245 entries found
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Allan K.M., Murphy E., Ayres J.G.
Assessment of respiratory health surveillance for laboratory animal workers
Occupational asthma is the most common work-related respiratory disease in the United Kingdom. Individuals whose work potentially puts them at risk include those exposed to laboratory animals. Workplace health surveillance programmes aim to minimize these health risks but are recognized to be challenging to implement effectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the respiratory health surveillance programme provided by an occupational health service (OHS) to individuals potentially exposed to respiratory sensitizers at work with laboratory animals. Case notes from the OHS respiratory health surveillance programme over a two-year period were examined. Symptom detection by the OHS surveillance questionnaire was compared to a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The surveillance spirometry records were audited against good standards of practice. The current surveillance appears to be effective in identifying potential cases of occupational asthma. Modification of the questionnaire content and layout might improve response rates. This study suggests that spirometry does not detect new cases other than those already identified by questionnaire.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.458-463. 16 ref.
Assessment_of_respiratory_health_surveillance.pdf [in English]
Nicholson P.J., Mayho G.V., Roomes D., Swann A.B., Blackburn B.S.
Health surveillance of workers exposed to laboratory animal allergens
Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) remains prevalent among workers exposed to laboratory animals. Pre-placement and health surveillance procedures vary between different employers. The objective of this literature survey was to determine evidence-based strategies for pre-placement and periodic health assessments for workers exposed to laboratory animals. Based on the findings, it is recommended that laboratory animal workers should have a baseline health assessment that includes a health questionnaire, face-to-face assessment and spirometry. Identification of specific immunoglobulin E to common aero-allergens and to domestic and laboratory animal allergens may be used to identify workers who would benefit from further advice about managing their exposure, where risk assessment indicates that this might be prudent. Thereafter health surveillance should be performed by administering an appropriate health questionnaire, covering upper and lower respiratory, eye and skin symptoms on exposure, and wheals with animal scratches. The questionnaire should be administered at increased frequency for the first few years, the frequency being determined by a risk assessment. When workers develop new symptoms suggestive of LAA or where an asthmatic employee experiences deterioration either in symptoms or in control, they should be assessed further and a multicause multidisciplinary investigation performed.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.591-597. 50 ref.
Alonso Espadalé R.M., Solans Lampurlanés X., Constans Aubert A.
Veterinary centres: Occupational exposure to biological agents
Centros veterinarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the main risk factors of exposure of the staff of veterinary centres (practices or clinics) to biological agents as well as preventive measures. It mainly concerns services in urban regions which treat pets. A table lists the main zoonoses related to these pets.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 11 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/821%20web.pdf [in Spanish]
Chapman L.J., Taveira A.D., Karsh B.T., Josefsson K.G., Newenhouse A.C., Meyer R.H.
Work exposures, injuries, and musculoskeletal discomfort among children and adolescents in dairy farming
The objective of this study was to investigate work performed by children and adolescents on dairy farm operations. Mail questionnaires were addressed to a community-based, age- and operation size-stratified sample of 240 individuals aged six to eighteen who worked on dairy operations in Wisconsin. Data were collected in 1999. The 197 children and adolescents reported averaging 567 hours of dairy farm work in the last year (10.9 hours/week) and completed over 1/3 of all calf feeding, 1/5 of the milking, 1/5 of cow feeding and 1/10 of tractor operation hours on their farm during the weeks they worked. Some of these young workers reported accomplishing duties also judged by some experts as hazardous work, including nearly half of the 9- to 11-year-olds driving tractors. Six nonfatal injuries were reported that required stopping work (14.6 per 100 full time equivalents per year), including those that required medical attention. Musculoskeletal discomfort and disability reports were unremarkable compared to existing studies of general and working populations. Wisconsin dairy farm youth appeared to be working no more hours per week than their peers in other studies of agricultural populations. However the exposures of very young workers to hazardous tractor driving and tower silo tasks suggest that there is an urgent need for improved and validated interventions to reduce these exposures.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.9-21. 51 ref.
Occupational respiratory allergy to small laboratory animals
Allergie respiratoire professionnelle aux petits mammifères de laboratoire [in French]
Occupational respiratory sensitization to small laboratory mammals applies to biological, medical and pharmaceutical research. The condition is generally immuno-allergic and IgE-dependant. The most common allergens have been identified and characterized, in particular for rats and mice, the most frequently-involved species. Diagnosis usually relies on symptoms linked to contact with animals and positive skin or serological tests. Various preventive and protective measures are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.471-479. Illus. 43 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2047/$File/TR47.pdf [in French]
Schmid K., Jüngert B., Hager M., Drexler H.
Is there a need for special preventive medical check-ups in employees exposed to experimental animal dust?
In Germany, employers of workers exposed to experimental animal dust are required by law to provide preventive medical check-ups. This article reports first experiences with these medical check-ups conducted since 2005 at a university hospital among 132 workers in contact with experimental animal dust. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their symptoms and were subjected to respiratory function tests, whole-body plethysmography, skin prick tests, a bronchial provocation test with methacholine, and serological examinations for total IgE and specific IgE. Findings are discussed. The results confirm the need of regular check-ups for workers in contact with experimental animal dust.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.319-327. Illus. 23 ref.
Kayali G., Ortiz E.J., Chorazy M.L., Gray G.C.
Lack of evidence of avian adenovirus infection among turkey workers
Although there are many animal-specific adenoviruses and occasionally they have been noted to infect man, rarely have they been studied as potential zoonotic pathogens. In this study, it was hypothesized that the hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an avian adenovirus that causes illness among turkeys, might infect humans. Using an enzyme immunosorbent assay, the authors compared sera from 95 turkey-exposed individuals with sera from 82 nonexposed controls. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical difference in anti-HEV antibodies between the two groups.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.299-305. 24 ref.
Dosman J.A., Chenard L., Rennie D.C., Senthilselvan A.
Reciprocal association between atopy and respiratory symptoms in fully-employed female, but not male, workers in swine operations
Women account for a sizeable proportion of the workers in swine operations. A total of 240 men and 134 women swine barn workers, together with 184 men and 227 women non-farming rural dwellers completed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and underwent skin prick tests. Findings indicate that atopy in exposed female workers may be protective of symptoms suggestive of chronic bronchitis but that atopic women workers may be more susceptible to the development of asthma, and that exposures to the various inhaled substances at the workplace may be mediated differently in men and women.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.270-276. Illus. 21 ref.
Geier M.V., Quarcoo D:, Spallek M.F., Joachim R., Groneberg D.A.
Bites from poisonous snakes - A global challenge
Giftschlangenbisse - eine globale Herausforderung [in German]
Venomous snakes exist in many regions of the world. Each year, approximately 2.5 million humans get bitten by snakes and 100,000 die. In most countries, records of snake bite accidents are incomplete. In case of poisoning, symptoms may vary and are by no means predictable. Therapeutic options are limited.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 2009, Vol.59, No.1, p.8-21. Illus. 41 ref.
Deaths from reptile bites in the United States, 1979-2004
Each year in the United States, bites from reptiles cause thousands of injuries, but fortunately few deaths. This article reviews deaths from reptile bites over a period of 25 years. Mortality data was obtained using the CDC WONDER database allowing the analysis of deaths having occurred from 1979 to 2004 due to reptile bites. Information on race, gender, age and State where death occurred are reported. There were 134 deaths reported over this 25-year time period. Whites and males accounted for 93.3% and 79.1% of the victims, respectively; 55.9% of the fatalities occurred in five states. Other findings are discussed.
Clinical Toxicology, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.44-47. Illus. 22 ref.
Crook B., Easterbrook A., Stagg S.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to dust and bioaerosols in poultry farming: Summary of observations and data
The poultry industry in the United Kingdom involves a range of activities including laying litter, populating with young birds, depopulating (reducing bird density during growth or removing at the end of the cycle), litter/manure removal, cleaning houses after depopulation, and routine maintenance and housework. The objective of this study was to measure workers' exposure to airborne dust and bioaerosols associated with these tasks in a representative cross-section of commercial poultry production. In total, eleven sampling visits to eight different farms were undertaken. The results showed that, at maximal exposure, poultry workers were exposed to total inhalable dust levels exceeding 10 mg/m3 during most activities. Exposure to airborne bacteria potentially exceeded one million cfu/m3 of air in each of the activities monitored. Maximal endotoxin levels ranged according to task from 30 to more than 38,000 EU/m3. Maximal airborne fungal concentrations ranged from 2,000 to 600,000 cfu/m3. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 62p. Illus. 20 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_655.pdf [in English]
Jeebhay M.F., Robins T.G., Miller M.E., Bateman E., Smuts M., Baatjies R., Lopata A.L.
Occupational allergy and asthma among salt water fish processing workers
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Subjects were 594 workers in two processing plants who responded to a modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire and who underwent skin tests using extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish and fishmeal, as well as spirometry and methacholine challenge tests. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.899-910. 50 ref.
Taimur Z., Hussaini S.
Atrial fibrillation in a commercial diver
Electric current can damage the body by disrupting electric rhythms, inducing muscular spasms and causing burns. The torpedo ray is a fish with powerful electric organs, which can serve either as predatory tool or defensive weapon. This article presents an unusual case of atrial fibrillation due to electric shocks by a torpedo ray in a 42-year-old male commercial diver while on routine diving operations. After being examined by a cardiologist, he was able to take up his normal work after four weeks' of absence, without sequellae. Such occurrences are extremely rare and no documented case was found in the medical literature.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.144-146. Illus. 12 ref.
Aasmoe L., Bang B., Egeness C., Løchen M.L.
Musculoskeletal symptoms among seafood production workers in North Norway
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among production workers in seafood industries in North Norway and to analyse associations between musculoskeletal symptoms and possible risk factors in the seafood industry. A total of 1767 employees in 118 seafood-processing plants responded to a questionnaire on working conditions and health aspects. Musculoskeletal symptoms were found among the majority of production workers in the whitefish, shrimp and salmon industry, the highest prevalence being among female workers. The main difference between types of seafood industries was the high prevalence of symptoms from wrist/hands in the salmon industry. Cold work was an important risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.64-70. 21 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/64 [in English]
Vohra R., Clark R., Shah N.
A pilot study of occupational envenomations in North American zoos and aquaria
The objective of this study was to characterize occupational envenomations from exotic and native creatures in North American zoos and aquaria. Questionnaires were mailed to curators at 216 zoos and aquaria. The questions addressed the number and types of bites, availability of antivenom on the premises, and sources of general information about envenoming. The response rate was 58%. Twenty-six (21%) of responding institutions replied that they had at least one incident of bite from a venomous species in the last 10 years. Species of animals included a variety of native and exotic terrestrial and marine species. There were no deaths or serious outcomes reported as complications of these incidents. Less than one-third of responding institutions reported having antidotes on-site.
Clinical Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.9, p.790-793. 11 ref.
Fagrell B., Jörneskog G., Salomonsson A.C., Larsson S., Holm G.
Skin reactions induced by experimental exposure to setae from larvae of the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora)
This study aimed to evaluate the skin reactions following exposure to setae from larvae of the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP). A drop of setae suspension was applied on the forearm of six volunteers. The local skin reactions were studied by microscopy and skin perfusion using laser Doppler (LD) scanning. Setae penetrated into the skin, and LD scanning showed a marked increase in blood perfusion in all subjects. In two subjects, having a history of severe symptoms, microscopic vacuoles developed around setae, followed by desquamation and severe symptoms. In the remaining individuals with only light symptoms during previous exposure, there were only mild reactions that disappeared within three weeks. No immunoglobulin (Ig) E or IgG4 antibodies to larval antigens were found in any of the volunteers.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2008, Vol.59, No.5, p.290-295. Illus. 19 ref.
Clin B., Stosse-Guevel C., Marquignon M.F., Verneuil L., Letourneux M.
Professional photosensitive eczema of fishermen by contact with bryozoans: Disabling occupational dermatitis
Eczema associated with bryozoans is a form of occupational contact dermatitis caused by a living organism, occasionally associated with photosensitivity and essentially concerning fishermen. It can be extremely disabling and often giving rise to major social consequences since the eviction of the responsible allergen generally requires occupational reclassification, a measure which fishermen have great difficulty in accepting. Based on the description of three cases of photosensitive eczema associated with contact with the bryozoan Alcyonidium gelatinosum among fishermen from the English Channel coastline, this article describes the characteristics of this occupational dermatitis and its prevention.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.45-52. Illus. 8 ref.
Miraz Novás C.
Hygiene evaluation of occupational biological hazards in the animal house of a health research facility
Evaluación higiénica de riesgos biológicos del trabajo en estabulario de un centro de investigación sanitaria [in Spanish]
The purpose of this study was to assess the biological hazards to which workers in the animal facilities of a health research facility are exposed in order to determine the need for preventive measures. The methodology used involved identification of the microorganisms present, damage to health, routes of transmission, possibility of vaccination and percentage of vaccinated personnel, and the existing hygienic measures. Findings highlight the need of further preventive measures, particularly for the control of Leptospira and Brucella.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original9.pdf [in Spanish]
Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N., Kim Y.S., Roh Y.M.
Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in confinement nursery pig houses. A control pig house was used for comparison, where no feed was supplied during the experimental period. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, airborne fungi and ammonia were found to be significantly higher in the pig house with feeding than in the control pig house. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increases the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to operations involving no feeding.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.138-143. Illus. 25 ref.
Oldenburg M., Latza U., Baur X.
Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches in seafarers. In July 2005, 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance programme for a cross-sectional study. Standardized interviews and skin prick tests (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. Furthermore among cockroach-sensitized seafarers, total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to the SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20). Other findings are discussed. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to for a more complete assessment of the clinical relevance of cockroach sensitization on board ships.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.727-734. 31 ref.
Kolstrup C., Lundqvist P., Pinzke P.
Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. Data on self-perceived psychosocial work environment and MSDs were collected by means of questionnaires. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as being good by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs of the back and upper extremities. The study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-36. 53 ref.
Seitz C.S., Bröcker E.B., Trautmann A.
Occupational allergy due to seafood delivery: Case report
Sensitization to fish or crustaceans requires intensive skin contact and/or airway exposure. This article presents the case of a truck driver delivering seafood for 10 years, and who neglected preventive measures such as wearing gloves and protective clothing. Despite his sensitization to fish and crustaceans, he tried to remain in his job but with ongoing allergen exposure: his symptoms progressed from initial contact urticaria to generalized urticaria, anaphylaxis and finally asthma. Among predisposed atopic individuals, even minor exposure to seafood allergens may lead to occupational allergy. With ongoing allergen exposure, progression to potentially life-threatening symptoms may occur.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2008, Vol.3, No.11, 3p. 14 ref.
Lipscomb H., Kucera K., Epling C., Dement J.
Upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders among a cohort of women employed in poultry processing
This study evaluated musculoskeletal problems among women employed in poultry processing in North Carolina. Data on symptoms and exposure to risk factors were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 291 women through interviews and physical examinations conducted at 6-month intervals over three years. Variables studied included cumulative exposure, work organization factors, other medical conditions, depressive symptoms, children in the home and hand-intensive home activities. Poisson regression was used to evaluate factors associated with occurrences of upper extremity symptoms and incidence of disorders at follow-up. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.24-36. 41 ref.
Krakowiak A., Wiszniewska M., Krawczyk P., Szulc B., Wittczak T., Walusiak J., Pałczynski C.
Risk factors associated with airway allergic disease from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians
This study examines the risk factors for the development of occupational airway allergy (OAA) from exposure to laboratory animal allergens (LAA) among Polish veterinarians. Two hundred veterinarians responded to the questionnaire and were subjected to skin prick tests for common allergens and LAA (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit). Evaluation of total serum IgE level and specific IgE against occupational allergens was performed. The prevalence of asthmatic and ocular symptoms was statistically more prevalent in the group of veterinarians sensitised to LAA versus non-sensitised subjects. The most frequent occupational allergens of skin and serum reactivity were LAA (44.5 and 31.5%, respectively). In 41 (20.5%) and in 22 (11%) subjects, serum specific IgE to natural rubber latex allergens and disinfectants was also found. Serum sensitisation to cat allergens and daily contact with laboratory animals (LA) increased the risk for developing occupational rhinitis. Furthermore, having worked more than 10 years and daily contact with LA were also significant risk factors for the development of OAA. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2007, Vol.80, No.6, p.465-475. Illus. 41 ref.
Ornithosis-psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)
Ornithose-psittacose (Chlamydophila psittaci) [in French]
Ornithosis or psittacosis is an infection caused by a bacterium transmitted by infected birds or their contaminated environment. The disease often remains unnoticed but its effect on humans can be serious. Contents of this leaflet: information on the bacterium (Chlamydophila psittaci); description of the disease; occupations and populations at risk; safety, health and protective measures to be implemented.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/intranetobject-accesparreference/ed%206010/$file/ed6010.pdf [in French]
Bouchet H., Castel S., Chaney C., Mzabi M.I.
Fishmongers through the ages
Poissonniers d'hier et d'aujourd'hui [in French]
The job of fishmonger has much evolved through the centuries, as have the methods used for fishing and transporting fish (including the rapid growth in deep freezing on-board fishing vessels). Today, fishmongers work in small fish shops, in medium and large supermarket chains, on markets, in industrial enterprises, at wholesalers, at caterers or in traditional restaurants. In this occupation, occupational accidents and diseases can have multiple effects on the operations of the enterprise. The main hazards include osteo-articular injuries due to occupational accidents (falls, incorrect manual handling) or repetitive work, skin injuries and diseases (cuts, burns, contact dermatitis, warts) and cardiovascular diseases due to prolonged exposure to cold working environments. An occupational information sheet on the job of fishmonger is included as an insert.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-127. 8 ref. + Insert 2p.
Ornithosis-psittacosis: Beware of infections caused by birds
Ornithose-psittacose: gare aux infections dues aux oiseaux [in French]
Construction industry workers are at risk of exposure to ornithosis-psittacosis, an infectious disease transmitted by bird droppings. The bacterium which causes the infection is very stable and can survive several months in dried droppings without losing its potency. The most frequent signs are fever, shivering, headache, cough and flu-like symptoms. It can also cause moderate or severe bronchopneumonia. It is recognized as an occupational disease in France. Preventive measures include the usual hygiene precautions, working in a manner to avoid the formation of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.58-59. Illus.
Koistinen T., Ruoppi P., Putus T., Pennanen S., Harju A., Nuutinen J.
Occupational sensitization to storage mites in the personnel of a water-damaged grocery store
The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposure and sensitization to storage mites (SM) in sales staff working in a moisture-damaged building and three healthy reference buildings. The study population consisted of all 12 employees of the moisture-damaged grocery store and twelve symptom-free controls working in three healthy reference groceries, matched by age, sex and occupation. Dust samples from each building were examined for mites. The clinical study consisted of an otorhinolaryngological examination and a determination of IgE reactivity to three SMs and two house dust mites. Prick tests were made to the same five mites and to five common aeroallergens. If sensitization to any of the SMs was detected, a nasal provocation test was also performed. SMs were found in all buildings. Seven cases and four control subjects showed IgE-mediated reactivity. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.602-606. 29 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p303n44j40h4368t/fulltext.pdf [in English]
A hantavirus exposure control program for employers and workers
Hantavirus infection is caused by a virus found in some field rodents in Canada and the United States. It is rarely transmitted to humans, but when it is, it can cause severe illness, even death. This booklet is intended for employers and workers who may come into contact with rodents or rodent droppings while at work, primarily in rural areas. Contents: definition of hantavirus, the diseases it causes, how it is transmitted and where it is most likely to be encountered; responsibilities of employers; exposure control plan; respiratory protection; good work practices.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. iii, 17p.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/hantavirus.pdf [in English]
Elliott L., Heederick D., Marshall S., Peden D., Loomis D.
Incidence of allergy and allergy symptoms among workers exposed to laboratory animals
In this study on the relation between exposure to laboratory animals and laboratory animal allergy (LAA), data were obtained by questionnaires and serological tests from a cohort of workers exposed to laboratory animals at a pharmaceutical manufacturing company during a 12-year period. Poisson regression was used to model the incidence rate ratios of LAA at different levels of exposure. Higher incidence rate ratios were seen with increasing reported hours carrying out tasks involving working with animal cages or with many animals at one time. The most common symptoms were related to rhinitis rather than to asthma. This study suggests that the risk of LAA increases with duration of exposure to animals and work in animal related tasks. Incidence might be reduced by limiting hours per week of exposure to laboratory animals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.766-771. Illus. 19 ref.
Recommendations for protecting outdoor workers from West Nile virus exposure
Outdoor workers are particularly at risk of exposure to the West Nile virus, which is most often spread to humans from the bite of an infected mosquito. This booklet provides guidance on the prevention of exposure to this virus. Contents: introduction (characteristics of West Nile virus); frequently-asked questions; recommendations for employers; recommendations for workers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 2005. 11p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-155/pdfs/2005-155.pdf [in English]
Flyvholm M.A., Mygind K., Sell L., Jensen A., Jepsen K.F.
A randomised controlled intervention study on prevention of work related skin problems among gut cleaners in swine slaughterhouses
This study evaluated the effect of an intervention to reduce work related skin problems in gut cleaning departments in Danish swine slaughterhouses. The intervention included educational activities on the use of gloves and skin care products, together with evidence based recommendations. The effect of the intervention was evaluated by telephone interviews using modified the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (see CIS 04-317). A total of 644 (87.5%) participants responded at the baseline interview and 622 (71.6%) at the follow up interview one year later. At follow up, the frequency of eczema on hands or forearms in the intervention departments within the previous three months was reduced significantly from 56.2% at baseline to 41.0%, while a slight non-significant increase was observed in the comparison departments (from 45.9% to 50.2%).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.642-649. Illus. 27 ref.
Ruoppi P., Koistinen T., Pennanen S.
Sensitisation to mites in laboratory animal workers with rhinitis
This study examined the frequency of sensitization to mites among rhinitic laboratory animal workers and investigated whether sensitization could be work-related. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in 40 subjects who were working with laboratory animals and who were diagnosed with rhinitis. Positive SPT results were found in 35 out of 40 workers: in 14 for storage mites, four for house dust mites, 25 for other common aeroallergens and 19 for laboratory animals. Furthermore, a guanine test indicated the presence of mite-derived material in 21 out of 22 dust samples collected in the work premises. This study suggests that subjects who are occupationally exposed to laboratory animals are also exposed to mite-derived allergens. Sensitization to mites is common and may be work related.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.612-615. 32 ref.
Suarthana E., Vergouwe Y., Nieuwenhuijsen M., Heederik D., Grobbee D.E., Meijer E.
Diagnostic model for sensitization in workers exposed to occupational high molecular weight allergens
Occupational allergy is frequent among workers exposed to high molecular weight allergens. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a generic diagnostic model for identifying workers at high risk of being sensitized to these allergens. The model was developed using data from Dutch laboratory animal workers and bakers using logistic regression analysis. The model takes into account working hours per week, work-related symptoms, total IgE and IgE to common allergens. Significant interactions between the type of work and the predictors resulted in different scores for animal workers and bakers. Internal and external validation showed that the model was satisfactorily calibrated and discriminated between workers at high and low risk of being sensitized.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.48, No.3, p.168-174. Illus. 16 ref.
Bang B., et al.
Exposure and airway effects of seafood industry workers in Northern Norway
This study examined airway symptoms and exposure to bioaerosols and exhaust gases in seafood industry plants in Northern Norway. It involved personal and environmental exposure measurements in 17 plants, analysis of 984 questionnaire responses and clinical examinations of 225 workers. The workers were found to be exposed to allergens, endotoxins, moulds and exhaust gases. The one-year prevalence of work-related airway symptoms was 42.8% for production workers and 25.9% for administrative workers. Mean levels of one-second forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity were less than the predicted values in all exposed non-smoker groups. 20.5 % had increased levels of total IgE. However, specific IgE-mediated reactions seemed to be relevant only in the shrimp industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.482-492. 30 ref.
Beware of the dog. Utility workers need training and knowledge to avoid canine attacks
Utility workers encounter hundreds of dogs each month and are often attacked. Dog bites can cause severe physical and emotional damage. Good training and information can help reduce these incidents. This article provides basic guidance on avoiding attacks from dogs and on what to do if bitten by a dog.
Safety and Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.172, No.3, p.52-55. Illus. 2 ref.
Working with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Information sheet on avian influenza (also known as bird flu), aimed at people who may be exposed to infected animals. There are two associated data sheets with more specific information: Avoiding The Risk Of Infection When Working With Poultry That Is Suspected Of Having Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Avoiding The Risk Of Zoonotic Infections When Working With Poultry That Is Not Suspected Of Having Avian Influenza.
Health and Safety Executive (http://www.hse.gov.uk/), United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (2+2+1p.)
http://www.hse.gov.uk/biosafety/diseases/avianflu.htm [in English]
Bang B.E., Aasmoe L., Aardal L., Andorsen G.S., Bjørnbakk A.K., Egeness C., Espejord I., Kramvik E.
Feeling cold at work increases the risk of symptoms from muscles, skin and airways in seafood industry workers
Norwegian workers in seafood industry plants are exposed to a cold and often wet environment. This study on the relationship between feeling cold at work and the risk of muscular, skin and airway symptoms involved 1767 seafood industry workers, who responded to a questionnaire. In addition, thermal measurements were carried out in 17 seafood industry plants. 15.9% of production workers and 1.7% of administrative workers reported that they often felt cold at work. Mean finger temperatures after one hour of work varied between 16 and 22°C. Foot temperature dropped from morning until lunch time in 85% of the measurements. Production workers who reported that they often felt cold had significantly increased prevalence of symptoms from muscles, skin, and airways while working, compared to workers who reported that they never felt cold at work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.47, No.1, p.65-71. Illus. 23 ref.
Ergonomics for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders - Guidelines for poultry processing
A major component of OSHA's approach to ergonomics is the development of industry-specific and task-specific guidelines to reduce and prevent workplace musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). These voluntary guidelines were designed specifically for the poultry processing industry. They were drawn in part from earlier guidelines for meatpacking. While the two guidelines are similar, the poultry guidelines include more examples of practical ergonomic solutions and use the terms "musculoskeletal disorders" and "MSDs" instead of the earlier terminology of "cumulative trauma disorders" and "CTDs".
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Sep. 2004. 23p. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/ergonomics/guidelines/poultryprocessing/poultryall-in-one.pdf [in English]
Canals Pol-Lina M.L., Sala Barbany J., Sanz Gallén P., Nogué Xarau S., Perdomo Segura M.A.
Occupational risks: Marine animal injuries in coastal fishermen of a Mediterranean area of Spain
Riesgos laborales: lesiones por animales marinos en pescadores de bajura del Mediterráneo español [in Spanish]
This questionnaire survey examined the risk of injury from marine animals among coastal fishermen in Tarragona, Spain. Information on age, type of fishing, animals that caused injury, treatment and use of protective measures was collected from 111 fishermen with at least one year's experience. 58.6% of the participants reported injuries with marine animals, especially Scorpaena scorfa and porcus (66.1%) and Trachinus draco (58.5%). Most frequent treatments were local (ammonia) and only 29.2% consumed medicine from the first-aid kit. 6% reported important consequences of the injuries. Only 13.5% of the participants used protective equipment. It is concluded that preventive measures need to be implemented to reduce the risk of injury among fishermen.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2004, Vol.4, No.2, p.106-111. Illus. 20 ref.
Solarz K., Szilman P., Szilman E.
Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish Zoo
This study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period, 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analysed (89.8%). The examination revealed that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites that might cause allergies in workers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2004, Vol.11, No.1, p.27-33. 41 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/11027.pdf [in English]
Avian influenza - Protecting poultry workers at risk
Contents of this information sheet: general information on avian influenza; measures for protecting poultry workers (follow biosecurity practices, recognize infection in poultry, take antiviral medication and get vaccination, know the signs and symptoms of human infection, wear personal protective equipment); respiratory protection; eye protection; protective clothing and hand-hygiene practices. In annex: table showing the advantages, disadvantages and price of different kinds of air-purifying respirators for protecting poultry workers.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2004. 8p.
http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib121304.pdf [in English]
Lopata A.L., Baatjies R., Thrower S.J., Jeebhay M.F.
Occupational allergies in the seafood industry - A comparative study of Australian and South African workplaces
Although seafood allergy due to ingestion is commonly observed in clinical practice, the incidence of seafood allergies in occupational settings is largely unknown. In this study, the work practices, occupational health services and allergy problems in seafood processing enterprises in Australia were examined and compared to a those of a previous study conducted in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used in both countries. In the South African study a response rate of 60% (n=41) was obtained, compared to a response rate of 18% (n = 140) in Australia. In both countries, skin rash accounted for highest of all reported health problems (78-81%) followed by asthmatic symptoms (7-10%) and other non-specific allergic symptoms (9-15%). Most enterprises reported the annual prevalence of work-related symptoms to be less than 5%. In Australia 7% of respondents in workplaces reported workers having left their workplace due to work-related allergy problems.
International Maritime Health, 2004, Vol.55, No.1/4, p.61-73. Illus. 18 ref.
Andersen C.I., Von Essen S.G., Smith L.M., Spencer J., Jolie R., Donham K.J.
Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in swine veterinarians: A persistent problem
This cross-sectional study was conducted during the American Association of Swine Veterinarians annual meeting. The 122 subjects (median age 42.5 years) completed a respiratory symptom and work history questionnaire and performed spirometry. Work-related symptoms included rhinitis (69%), cough and chest tightness (53%) and wheezing (31%). Airway obstruction was seen in 24% of participants. Veterinarians with airway obstruction reported working more hours per week in hog barns than did practitioners with normal pulmonary function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.386-392. 49 ref.
Palmberg L., Larsson B.M., Sundblad B.M., Larsson K.
Partial protection by respirators on airways responses following exposure in a swine house
Exposure to swine dust leads to intense airway inflammation and increased bronchial responsiveness. This study evaluated the effect of respirator use during exposure in a swine confinement building. 22 subjects, of whom 11 wore respirators, were exposed. Before and seven hours after exposure, symptoms and body temperature were recorded, and a nasal lavage and a bronchial methacholine challenge were performed. For exposure assessment, a nasal sampler was evaluated. The subjects wearing respirators showed an attenuated inflammatory nasal response. An increase in bronchial responsiveness was observed in both groups, significantly greater in the unprotected group. The use of respirators reduced endotoxin exposure by more than 90% (assessed by nasal samplers).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.363-370. Illus. 29 ref.
Meijer E., Grobbee D.E., Heederik D.
A strategy for health surveillance in laboratory animal workers exposed to high molecular weight allergens
The purpose of this study was to develop a model for the efficient detection and prediction of occupational allergic diseases. Data from 351 laboratory animal workers participating in an ongoing cohort study were used to develop diagnostic and prognostic models. The models were developed from questionnaire items and workplace concentration measurements to find factors for the estimation of the probability of sensitisation to allergens. The accuracy of the models was evaluated by statistical methods and by comparison of the predicted and observed prevalence. A diagnostic rule containing five questionnaire items allowed the identification of workers with a high risk of sensitisation. These workers showed high rates of work related asthma, allergic symptoms, doctor's visits and absenteeism. A prognostic rule based on four questionnaire items predicted workers at high risk of near future sensitisation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.61, No.10, p.831-837. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Urban rodent control and the safe use of rodenticides by professional users
This information sheet offers guidance to pest control professionals on minimizing the risks rodenticides may pose to human health, non-target animals and the environment. Contents: what to do before treatment of an infestation (site survey, risk assessment, choice of bait); guidance on treatment (using a variety of control methods, monitoring and record keeping); urban situations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2003. 6p. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc515.pdf [in English]
Portengen L., Hollander A., Doekes G., de Meer G., Heederik D.
Lung function decline in laboratory animal workers: The role of sensitization and exposure
The relation between exposure and sensitization to laboratory animal allergens and changes in lung function was investigated in a longitudinal study (median follow up 2.0 years) among 319 laboratory animal workers. A total of 102 subjects who had been working with laboratory animals for less than four years were analysed separately, since an earlier cross sectional analysis had suggested a strong healthy worker effect in more experienced workers. In multiple regression analyses, both sensitization and exposure appeared to contribute independently to lung function decline, after adjusting for gender, age, smoking and atopy. Lung function decline was most pronounced in sensitized subjects who continued to be in contact with the animals to which they were sensitized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.60, No.11, p.870-875. 33 ref.
Netto G.F., Johnson E.S.
Mortality in workers in poultry slaughtering/processing plants: The Missouri poultry cohort study
Subjects who work in poultry slaughtering and processing plants have one of the highest human exposures to viruses that cause cancer in chickens and turkeys. It is not known whether these viruses cause cancer in humans also. Epidemiological studies investigating this issue are scarce. Therefore mortality was studied during the period 1969-90 in a cohort of 7700 subjects who worked in poultry slaughtering and processing plants and were members of a local poultry union in the State of Missouri. Statistically significant excess risks of non-malignant respiratory diseases and symptoms, senility and ill-defined conditions, and increased but not statistically significant excesses for some cancers were observed in particular race/sex groups. Most of these results were based on small numbers of deaths, and in many cases were evident only in particular subgroups of the cohort. The cohort being young, with only 6% deceased at the end of follow up, further follow up of this cohort is required before a reliable assessment of the potential risk associated with viruses from chicken and turkey can be made.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.784-788. 10 ref.
Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/10053.pdf [in English]
Niścigorska J., Skotarczak B., Wodecka B.
Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - Assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR, and correlated with the clinical state of the patients
Borreliosis or Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the introduction of one of a class of spirochetes (the most common being Borrelia burgdorferi) into the blood stream. It is spread through the bite of the common European tick Ixodes ricinus. The most frequent occurrence is found among forestry workers and inhabitants of wooded areas. Diagnosis is based on immunoserologic tests. This study involved 52 forestry workers in Poland who responded to a questionnaire and were subjected to medical examinations. 61% were found to be seropositive. Possible correlations between the results of serological and polymerase chain reaction tests with the clinical state of the patients were investigated. Despite finding IgM antibodies in 10 persons tested, which would indicate recent infection, no DNA of B. burgdorferi was detected in their blood. Also, no DNA of this bacteria was present in 8 persons with IgM and IgG antibodies. The clinical data suggested past symptomatic infection, or even more often, asymptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-19. 41 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/10015.pdf [in English]
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