Genetic factors in reaction to exposures - 1,840 entries found
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- Genetic factors in reaction to exposures
Chen M., Ho C.W., Huang Y.C., Wu K.Y., Wu M.T., Jeng H.A., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Lai C.H., Pan C.H., Chen Y.M.
Glycine N-methyltransferase affects urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels after PAH exposure
The objective of this study was to assess the modulating effects of genetic polymorphisms of glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) genotypes on 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine from coke-oven workers, consistently exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study participants included 289 coke-oven workers from a steel company in Taiwan. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, peripheral blood samples, and questionnaires were used to quantify PAH exposure, oxidative DNA damage, GNMT gene polymorphisms, demographic data, and environmental pollutants. Urinary 1-OHP level, GNMT STRP1 genotype, and worksite were significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments were made for covariates. This study suggests that GNMT STRP1 could modulate urinary 1-OHP and 8-OHdG levels in coke-oven workers exposed to PAHs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.812-819. 39 ref.
Glycine_N-methyltransferase_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Zakeri F., Hirobe T., Akbari Noghabi K.
Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on interventional cardiologists
Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are likely to receive high radiation exposure as a result of procedures they undertake. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of low-dose X-ray radiation exposure on chromosomal damage and on selected indices of cellular and humoral immunity in ICs. The study population consisted of 37 ICs and 37 clinical physicians as the control group with similar age, sex and duration of employment, without any work-related exposure to ionizing radiation. Cytogenetic studies were performed by chromosome aberration analysis and immunological studies by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunodiffusion techniques. The frequencies of aberrant cells, chromosome breaks and dicentrics plus centric rings were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the control group, without positive correlation between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative doses of the ICs. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.464-469. Illus. 26 ref.
Biological_effects.pdf [in English]
Savolainen K., Pylkkänen L., Norppa H., Falck G., Lindberg H., Tuomi T., Vippola M., Alenius H., Hämeri K., Koivisto J., Brouwer D., Mark D., Bard D., Berges M., Jankowska E., Posniak M., Farmer P., Singh R., Krombach F., Bihari P., Kasper G., Seipenbusch M.
Nanotechnologies, engineered nanomaterials and occupational health and safety - A review
The significance of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and nanotechnologies is growing rapidly. Nanotechnology applications may have a positive marked impact on many aspects of human every day life. Hundreds of consumer nano-based products are already on the market. However, very little is known of the risks of ENM to occupational safety and health, even though workers are likely to be at extra risk compared with other potentially exposed groups of people, because of the higher levels of exposure at workplaces than in other environments. However, knowledge of the exposure to, or effects of, ENM on human safety and health in occupational environments is limited and does not allow reliable assessment of risks of ENM on workers' health. This article discusses several issues related to ENM in the workplaces which require marked attention.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.957-963. Illus. 55 ref.
Bhargava A.;, Punde R.P, Pathak N.;, Dabadghao S, Desikan P.;, Jain A.;, Maudar K.K.;, Mishra P.K.
Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: A study after two decades
Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 were injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. This study aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. Participants were divided into three groups: age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones; age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal; age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal. The status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) in these three groups was analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin-induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-208. Illus. 32 ref.
Status_of_inflammatory_biomarkers.pdf [in English]
Albin M., Jakobsson K.
Occupational health epidemiology in the Nordic countries - Status and trends
This review describes the current status and trends in occupational health research in the Nordic countries, which rank among the top five globally in terms of research output in this field. Issues discussed include the social aspects of workforce ageing, migration, mental ill-health among younger women, oxidative stress and genetic factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, No.7, Suppl.1, p.41-47. Illus. 52 ref.
Individual susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and metallothionein gene polymorphisms: With references to current status of occupational cadmium exposure
This article describes the strategy used for analyzing individual susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and genetic polymorphisms of metallothionein, with reference to the current status of occupational cadmium exposure.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.487-494. Illus. 89 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_487.pdf [in English]
Dai Y., Leng S., Li L., Niu Y., Huang H., Liu Q., Duan H., Cheng J., Zheng Y.
Effects of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase on trichloroethylene-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis among exposed workers
This case-control study was conducted to investigate effects of various genotypes and phenotypes of N-acetyltransferases (NATs) on individual susceptibility to trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis. The study involved 111 patients with hypersensitivity dermatitis and 154 healthy TCE-exposed workers. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the polymorphic sites of NATs. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.479-486. 41 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_479.pdf [in English]
Kezic S., Visser M.J., Verberk M.M.
Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis
The purpose of this literature survey was to review the present knowledge on the factors which determine individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Recent discoveries regarding genes involved in the skin barrier, inflammatory response and biotransformation of xenobiotics provide more insight in the individual susceptibility for OCD. Knowledge of the factors which predispose to OCD will be useful in occupational health practice for the application of preventive measures and for career guidance for apprentices and workers in high risk occupations.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.469-478. 93 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_469.pdf [in English]
Triolet J., Héry M.
Chemical risk assessment methods - A critical analysis
Les méthodes d'évaluation des risques chimiques - Une analyse critique [in French]
Within the framework of agreements intended to improve how the CMR (carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic substances) risk is taken into account in the chemicals, paint manufacturing and mechanical engineering sectors, an inventory of the available chemical risk assessment methods was drawn up and a critical analysis was carried out. Seven of these methods, sufficiently similar so as to be comparable, were then applied to a test case designed to be representative of an enterprise of the chemicals and paint sectors. Findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.216, p.11-22. 8 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202312/$File/ND2312.pdf [in French]
Brochard G., Le Bâcle C.
Mycotoxins at the place of work. I. Sources and toxic properties of the main mycotoxins
Mycotoxines en milieu de travail. I. Origine et propriétés toxiques des principales mycotoxines [in French]
Mycotoxins consist of toxic substances secreted by microscopic fungi or moulds. They may contaminate various foodstuffs and cause acute or chronic poisoning in humans and animals. This first article presents an overview of current knowledge on the main mycotoxins. A second article will discuss possible exposures to mycotoxins at the place of work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.119, p.299-323. Illus. 43 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20128/$File/TC128.pdf [in French]
González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Barbosa-Sabanero G., Pérez-Luque E.L., Wrobel K.
Exposure to organic solvents and cytogenetic damage in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa from shoe workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of solvents used in shoemaking. Thirty-four exposed Mexican shoe workers and 34 unexposed control subjects, paired by age and sex, were compared. Occupational exposure was determined by personal monitoring followed by gas chromatography. Exfoliated buccal cells of each subject were used to determine the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. Solvents detected were acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone and toluene. The incidence of nuclear abnormalities was significantly higher in the exposed group. A positive relationship was found between the incidence of micronuclei and workplace toluene concentrations. The micronucleus test is proposed as a low cost biomarker of genotoxicity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.373-380. Illus. 34 ref.
Garlantézec R., Monfort C., Rouget F., Cordier S.
Maternal occupational exposure to solvents and congenital malformations: A prospective study in the general population
To study the relations between maternal occupational exposure to solvents during pregnancy and the risk of congenital malformations, a prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken in three districts of Brittany, France, involving 3421 pregnant women. Occupational exposure to solvents at the beginning of pregnancy was assessed from the women's self-reported occupational exposures and from a job-exposure matrix. Logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential confounders. Significant associations were found between major congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to solvents by both self-reports and the job-exposure matrix (OR 2.48 and 3.48 respectively for the highest and lowest exposure groups). A significant dose-response trend was observed with both exposure assessment methods. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.456-463. 40 ref.
Yong L.C., Sigurdson A.J., Ward E.M., Waters M.A., Whelan E.A., Petersen M.R., Bhatti P., Ramsey M.J., Ron E., Tucker J.D.
Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience
Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. This study determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects. Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in the mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects. However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.56-62. 40 ref.
Wen-Bin M., Wei W., Yu-Lan Q., Fang J., Zhao-Lin X.
Micronucleus occurrence related to base excision repair gene polymorphisms in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer
This study examines whether base excision repair gene polymorphisms contributes to susceptibility of chromosomal damage induced by vinyl chloride. The cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 185 vinyl chloride exposed workers to detect chromosomal changes in peripheral lymphocytes. The PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to detect polymorphisms of TDG, PARP1 and APE1 genes. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. Findings are discussed. Vinyl chloride exposed workers carrying TDG 199Gly/Ser + Ser/Ser genotypes were found to be highly susceptible to chromosomal damage. A combination of TDG Gly199Ser and APE1 Ile64Val polymorphisms may modify the risk of chromosomal damage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.578-585. 43 ref.
Shirangi A., Fritschi L., Holman C.D.J., Bower C.
Birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians
To investigate the risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians exposed to occupational hazards such as radiation, anesthetic gases and pesticides, a questionnaire survey was conducted among of all graduates from Australian veterinary schools from 1960 to 2000. In a multiple logistic regression controlling for the potential confounders, the study showed an increased risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians after occupational exposure to high doses of radiation (taking more than 10 X-ray films per week, odds ratio 5.73) and to pesticides (exposure at least once per week, odds ratio 2.39).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.525-533. 53 ref.
Wang Y., Duan H., Dai Y., Bin P., Cheng J., Pan Z., Huang C., Leng S., Chen W., Zheng Y.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed workers
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-exposed workers. Blood and urine samples of 140 PAH-exposed workers and 66 non-PAH-exposed workers were collected. The polymorphisms of UGT1A7, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and 1-hydroxypyrene were analyzed. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that polymorphisms of UGT1A7 gene may alter the severity of PAH-induced chromosomal damage among the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.682-689. Illus. 56 ref.
Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.
Jakobsson K., Mikoczy Z.
Reproductive outcome in a cohort of male and female rubber workers: A registry study
The objective of this study was to investigate whether employment in the Swedish rubber industry from 1973 onwards had a negative impact on reproductive health. Pairs of mother and child, and triads of father-mother-child were obtained through linkage of a cohort of 18,518 rubber factory employees with the Swedish Population Registry. Birth outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Register for 17,918 children. For each child, parental employment as blue-collar rubber worker during the pregnancy and sperm maturation period was obtained from work-place records. Children to female food industry workers, in all 33,256, constituted an external reference group. Working in the rubber industry was found to have a statistically significant effect on the sex ratio, the risk of multiple births, birth weight and weight for gestational age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.165-174. 43 ref.
Chiu B.C., Blair A.
Pesticides, chromosomal aberrations, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposures and risk of NHL was largely limited to NHL cases with the chromosomal translocation t(14;18). This review summarizes the findings of various epidemiologic studies, speculates on implications, and suggests the research needed to clarify the role of pesticides in NHL.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.250-255. 20 ref.
Pahwa P., Nakagawa K., Koehncke N., McDuffie H.H.
Effects of polymorphic variations in tumor necrosis factor alpha and occupational exposure to grain dust on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between polymorphism of genes encoding Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and longitudinal lung function decline in grain workers exposed to grain dust. Male workers who participated in the Saskatchewan Grain Workers Surveillance Program from 2002 through 2005 responded to questionnaires on demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, as well as on their respiratory symptoms. They were subjected to pulmonary function measurements and provided DNA for genotyping. Findings show that years in the grain industry is an effect modifier between TNF-α 308 genotype and longitudinal decline in one-second forced expiratory volume among male subjects exposed to grain dust.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.215-221. Illus. 20 ref.
Kisby G.E., Muniz J.F., Scherer J., Lasarev M.R., Koshy M., Kow Y.W., McCauley L.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon were analysed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and was serum analysed for lipid peroxides. Cellular DNA damage was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Compared to unexposed populations, urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators, with 8-OH-dG levels being 8.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively and malondialdehyde levels 4.9 and 24 times higher, respectively. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were also significantly greater in lymphocytes of applicators and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.206-214. Illus. 22 ref.
Karaman A., Pirim I.
Exposure to bitumen fumes and genotoxic effects on Turkish asphalt workers
The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to asphalt fumes among Turkish asphalt workers and to determine whether any effects could be detected with genotoxic tests. The study included 26 asphalt workers and 24 control subjects. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) were determined in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion was used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to PAHs. The asphalt workers had a significant increase in SCEs and MN. A positive correlation existed between the duration of exposure and rates of SCE or MN frequencies. The concentration of 1-OHP in urine was higher for the asphalt workers than for the controls. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the urinary 1-OHP concentration and SCEs or MN frequencies.
Clinical Toxicology, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.321-326. Illus. 59 ref.
Eniafe-Eveillard M.B., Loddé B., Sawicki B., Dewitte J.D.
Matériaux composites [in French]
Composites consist of heterogeneous materials with a polymer matrix and a wide variety of fibrous reinforcements, giving therefore rise to a very diverse set of risks to which workers manufacturing these products are exposed. More than 90% of these materials are based on glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyesters (which involve exposure to styrene). The main health hazards of these materials include skin diseases, together with respiratory and neurological disorders. The emerging field of nanocomposites adds new hazards (the most reported being lung and skin effects). With annual growth rates of close to 6% since 1994, the use of composites is constantly increasing. The evaluation of the hazards faced by the workers and the implementation of effective protection measures are therefore important.
EMC - Pathologie professionnelle et de l'environnement , Pathologie professionnelle et de l'environnement, 2nd Quarter 2009, No.163, 12p. Illus. 58 ref.
Cherry N., Moore H., McNamee R., Pacey A., Burgess G., Clyma J.A., Dippnall M., Baillie H., Povey A.
Occupation and male infertility: Glycol ethers and other exposures
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between male infertility and occupational exposures, particularly glycol ethers. It involved men attending 14 fertility clinics in the United Kingdom, from whom a semen sample was collected and occupational exposure data were obtained by means of interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Work with organic solvents, particularly glycol ethers was associated with the likelihood of low motile sperm count. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for moderate and high glycol ether exposure (compared with none) were 1.70 and 2.54. After adjustment for potential confounders, these risks were slightly reduced (OR 1.46 and 2.25, respectively). No other occupational risk factor was identified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.708-714. Illus. 31 ref.
Rajan P., Kelsey K.T., Schwartz J.D., Bellinger D.C., Weuve J., Spiro A., Sparrow D., Smith T.J., Nie H., Weisskopf M.G., Hu H., Wright R.O.
Interaction of the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and lead burden on cognitive function: The VA normative ageing study
This study evaluated the modifying influence of a δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism on the relation between lead burden and cognition among older men. Information on ALAD genotype, lead measurements, potential confounders and cognitive testing was collected from 982 veterans. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. With higher levels of tibia lead, ALAD 1-2/2-2 carriers exhibited worse performance on a spatial copying test in comparison with ALAD 1-1 carriers. However, there was no consistent pattern of an ALAD genotype-lead interaction for the other tests.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1053-1061. 36 ref.
Jönsson L.S., Littorin M., Axmon A., Jönsson B.A.G., Broberg K.
Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of impaired lung function among Swedish rubber workers. Included in the study were 159 rubber exposed and 118 unexposed controls. Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (a marker of carbon disulfide and vulcanization fumes) were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and conventional polymerase chain reaction. There was an association between increasing levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and impaired lung function among exposed workers. The association was modified by glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52 and GSTP1-114. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1006-1012. 43 ref.
Baste V., Moen B.E., Riise T., Hollund B.E., Øyen N.
Infertility and spontaneous abortion among female hairdressers: The Hordaland Health Study
This cross-sectional study investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers. A total of 16,907 women in their forties were invited to participate; the response rate was 71%. Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking and education was collected by means of questionnaires. Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks 1.30 and 1.31 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1371-1377. 30 ref.
Harley K.G,, Marks A.R., Bradman A., Barr D.B., Eskenazi B.
DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including DDT, was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP). A total of 402 pregnant women living in a migrant farm worker community were asked how many months they took to conceive. Women reported their and their partners' occupational and home pesticide exposure preceding conception. In a subset of 289 participants, levels of DDT and its decomposition product DDE were measured in maternal serum. No associations were seen with DDT exposure. However, longer TTP was seen among women reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides, but not among men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1335-1342. Illus. 44 ref.
Wu F., Xia Z., Qu Y., Tang Y., Cao D., Sun P., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1RN, NFKB1, FAS, and FASL, and risk of silicosis in a Chinese occupational population
To test whether polymorphisms in IL-1, NF-KB, FAS and FASL genes are associated with risk of silicosis, a case-control study was conducted with 183 silicosis patients and 111 silica-exposed miners who were frequency-matched by age, dust exposure duration, work location, and type of work. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA, using a PCR-RFLP assay. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.843-851. 26 ref.
Vaktskjold A., Talykova L.V., Chashchin V.P., Odland J.Ö., Nieboer E.
Maternal nickel exposure and congenital musculoskeletal defects
The objective of this study was to investigate whether women occupationally exposed to nickel in the nickel and copper refineries in the Kola region of Russia in early pregnancy were at elevated risk of delivering a newborn with a malformation or deformation of the musculoskeletal system. Data were obtained from the Kola Birth Register. Each record was assigned a categorical nickel exposure rating according to the occupation the delivering woman had at the time of becoming pregnant. Based on 22,965 births, 304 infants (13.3/1,000 births) were diagnosed with musculoskeletal defects at birth, especially for feet deformities. The incidence was high, but unrelated to maternal exposure to nickel. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.825-833. 47 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms pro-inflammatory (TNFA, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN and TGFB1) related to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). An additional goal was to observe whether these cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the development risk and severity of CWP. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Findings suggest that the TNFA (-238) variant may be a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant seems to be important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on the development and disease severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
39th national congress on occupational medicine and health
30e congrès national de médecine et santé au travail [in French]
Review of a congress on occupational medicine and health held in Tours, France, from 3 to 6 June 2008. Papers covered four main topics (health among working women, trends in occupational medicine practice, surveillance of mental health at work, strenuousness and declining state of health at work) and six lesser topics (reprotoxic agents, respiratory diseases in agriculture, close supervision of occupational health, biological monitoring of occupational exposure, emerging biological hazards).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.3, p.227-234.
Kielhorn J., Mangelsdorf I., Ziegler-Skylakakis K.
Conclusions of this criteria document: 2-Butenal causes irritation and inflammation of the skin, respiratory tract and eyes in humans and experimental animals. Its strong odour and irritancy may limit exposure to this substance. Most studies identified a genotoxic potential of 2-butenal. Positive results were found in a range of in vitro tests for genotoxicity. Owing to a lack of reliable data, it is not possible to adequately evaluate the toxicity of 2-butenal in humans or to derive a tolerable concentration. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. v, 47p. Illus. Approx. 200 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad74.pdf [in English]
Bretveld R., Kik S., Hooiveld M., van Rooij I., Zielhuis G., Roeleveld N.
Time-to-pregnancy among male greenhouse workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is prolonged in 694 male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides in comparison with 613 non-exposed controls. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires with detailed questions on TTP, as well as on lifestyle (smoking habits, coffee and alcohol consumption, etc.), work tasks, and occupational exposures of the men and their partners in the six months before conception of the most recent pregnancy. TTP was compared between male greenhouse workers and non-exposed controls. The crude analyses did not show a decreased overall fecundability among greenhouse workers compared to the non-exposed reference group. However, when fecundability was assessed for primigravidous couples, duogravidous couples, and multigravidous couples separately, greenhouse workers were found to be less fecund when trying to conceive their first pregnancy. Among couples who already experienced one or more pregnancies, no association was seen between pesticide exposure and TTP after adjustment for confounders.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 21 ref.
Franko A., Dolžan V., Arnerić N., Dodič-Fikfak M.
The influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 on the development of asbestosis
Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the development of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 represent a risk factor for this disease. The study population included 262 workers with asbestosis and 265 matched controls. Information on cumulative asbestos exposure was available. A real-time PCR based on the 5' nuclease assay was designed for the analysis of the GSTP1 polymorphisms. The key finding was that GSTP1 genotype coding for an enzyme with high conjugation capacity versus genotypes resulting in intermediate and low enzyme activity significantly increases the risk of asbestosis (odds ratio 1.49).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.7-12. 29 ref.
Jönsson L.S., Jönsson B.A.G., Axmon A., Littorin M., Broberg K.
Influence of glutathione-related genes on symptoms and immunologic markers among vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of genetic variants on symptoms of the eyes and airways, headache and nausea, as well as on immunologic markers, among vulcanization workers in the Swedish rubber industry. Polymorphisms in genes, which are involved in the defence against reactive oxygen species and metabolism of toxic substances present in the vulcanization fumes, were analysed. A total of 145 exposed and 117 unexposed workers were included in the study. Data concerning symptoms and medical and occupational histories were obtained in structured interviews. Immunologic markers were analysed in blood. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analysed by TaqMan allelic discrimination and polymerase chain reaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that hereditary factors may influence the susceptibility to symptoms and the immunologic response of rubber industry workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.913-919. Illus. 36 ref.
Fucic A., Merlo D.F., Ceppi M., Lucas J.N.
Spontaneous abortions in female populations occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation
Over a period of 16 years, the occurrence of miscarriages in 61 women exposed to radioisotopes was compared to that reported in 170 X-ray exposed women. Chromosomal aberrations were measured in both radiation-exposed groups and in 53 non-exposed women. Women exposed to radioisotopes experienced at least a threefold higher rate of spontaneous abortions than those exposed to X-rays. Although X-ray and radioisotopes exposed women had significantly higher levels of chromosome aberration frequency than referents, there was no clear difference between radiation-exposed women. For exposure levels within standard recommended guidelines, radioisotopes are far more likely to play a role in the occurrence of spontaneous abortions than X-rays. This effect is not detectable by a difference in chromosome aberration frequency.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.873-879. 49 ref.
Hintsanen M., Elovainio M., Puttonen S., Kivimäki M., Lehtimäki T., Kähönen M., Juonala M., Rontu R., Viikari J.S.A., Raitakari O.T., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Val/met polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates the association between job strain and early atherosclerosis in young men
Several studies support job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Since the COMT gene influences dopamine transmission, dopaminergic activity might moderate effects of stress on CHD risk. This study examines whether COMT Val158Met polymorphism moderates the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. Participants were 347 women and 353 men from the population-based Young Finns study. Preclinical atherosclerosis was measured using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) ultrasound. The COMT polymorphism was found to moderate the job strain-IMT association in men. The findings support a general model in which the interaction between genotype and job strain is assumed to predispose to increased atherosclerotic processes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.649-657. Illus. 51 ref.
Yucesoy B., Kurzius-Spencer M., Johnson V.J., Fluharty K., Kashon M.L., Guerra S., Luster M.I., Burgess J.L.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with rate of decline in lung function
The objective of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants involved in cytokine expression are associated with the age-related rate of decline in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Gene polymorphisms were investigated in 374 active firefighters for whom the data of at least five pulmonary function tests were available. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that inter-individual variability in progressive decline in FEV1 may be explained in part by genetic variations within genes involved in inflammatory responses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.642-648. 37 ref.
Simcox A.A., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Does work as a nurse increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?
A population-based study was conducted to assess whether work as a nurse during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age. The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2568 newborns and included 128 newborns of nurses and 559 newborns of office workers as a reference group. The risk of low birth weight (odds ratio OR 1.02) and preterm delivery (OR 0.81) did not differ between newborns of nurses and office workers, but the risk of small-for-gestational-age was substantially higher among newborns of nurses (OR 1.99).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.590-592. 11 ref.
Langlieb A.M., DePaulo J.R.
Etiology of depression and implications on work environment
The aetiology of clinical forms of depression and their interaction with workplace factors are described based on selective literature searches. Substantial research exists on the causes of depression. The causes of clinical forms of depression are complex. Genetic factors, several specific brain disorders and gender, as well as life events or circumstances, are all involved in the causal pathway. Research addressing how the work environment impacts depression and its role in aggravating or alleviating depression is more limited. Research findings on the various causal connections in depressive disorders may provide some guides to treatment as well as to further research on depression in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.391-395. 25 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
Cytokines are believed to play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms that result in several diseases such as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms of CWP-related pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Genotyping was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction technique, coupled with fragment length polymorphism restriction. It was found that the TNFA (-238) variant was a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant was important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on both development and severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
Sallmén M., Neto M., Mayan O.N.
Reduced fertility among shoe manufacturing workers
To investigate whether fertility is reduced among female shoe manufacturing workers exposed to solvents, a retrospective study was conducted on time to pregnancy (TTP) among 250 Portuguese shoe manufacturing women workers exposed to solvents and 250 unexposed women working in other sectors. Data on TTP and related factors were collected by means of interviews, and exposure assessment was based on workplace atmosphere sampling. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Exposure to solvents was associated with reduced fertility. Overall, the findings provide further evidence that exposure to solvents is hazardous for female reproduction. The observed association may be related to any of the following solvents commonly used in shoe manufacturing: n-hexane and hexane isomers, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.65, No.8, p.518-524. 38 ref.
Lagoma Lorén L.
Chemical endocrine disruptors
Compuestos químicos alteradores endocrinos [in Spanish]
This article discusses the endocrine effects of certain chemical agents used in industry - the so-called endocrine disrupters - on the environment, animals and human health. In the majority of cases, the effects are irreversible. Preventive actions (precautionary principle, limitation of exposure, surveillance) are therefore essential.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2008, No.48, p.18-23. Illus. 5 ref.
Murashov V., Howard J.
The US must help set international standards for nanotechnology
A call for action by two prominent experts on the safety and health issues of nanotechnology. It is strongly urged that US government agencies and the private sector become more involved in international efforts to establish safety standards in the use of nanotechnology, and that all efforts for such standardization be based on sound science. The article reviews a current categorization effort for the hazards of nanotechnology, Safety Guide TC 229 published by the British Standards Institute (BSI), which proposes four hazard categories: fibrous; CMAR (those already classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, asthmagenic or reproductive toxicants); insoluble; soluble. The letter to the editor by P. Hatto and the rejoinder by the authors debate the actual state of knowledge and the basis behind the TC 229 document, which is not in fact a full British Standard.
Nature Nanotechnology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, p.635-636. Illus. 14 ref. Includes a letter to the editor ("International standards for risk management in nanotechnology"), by Hatto P., and a rejoinder by the original authors, published in the Apr. 2009 (Vol.4) of the same journal (p.205-206).
Martínez Plaza C.A.
Occupational stress and cancer
Estrés laboral y cáncer [in Spanish]
Working conditions and work organization constitute psychosocial risk factors possibly leading to stress, in turn leading to somatic or psychic diseases. Stress has an incidence on the central nervous, immune and endocrine systems, resulting in higher susceptibility to carcinogens. This article discusses the relationship between occupational stress and cancer, together with the various mechanisms involved. Several models and studies on the stress/cancer relationship are reviewed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2008, No.46, p.28-47. Illus. 77 ref.
Milham S., Ossiander E.M.
Low proportion of male births and low birth weight of sons of flour mill worker fathers
The Washington State Department of Health has collected and coded parental occupation information on birth certificates since 1980. These data were used to search for possible effects of parental occupational exposures on birth outcomes. There were 59 births (22 boys and 37 girls) where the father's occupation was specified as flour mill worker. The sex ratio of 0.373 was lower than the mean sex ratio of 0.512. The mean birth weight for flour mill workers' newborn boys was 3180g compared to an overall mean of 3511g for all newborn boys. The mean birth weight of flour mill workers' newborn girls was 3602 compared to an overall mean of 3389 for all newborn girls. The low prevalence of male infants born to fathers of flour mill workers suggests that fumigants that they are exposed to are causing testicular dysfunction, while the very low birth weight seen in these infants may be due to yet unknown genotoxic factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-158, 8 ref.
Multigner L., Ben Brik E., Arnaud I., Haguenoer J.M., Jouannet P., Auger J., Eustache F.
Glycol ethers and semen quality: A cross-sectional study among male workers in the Paris municipality
This study investigated the effects of past and current exposure to products containing glycol ethers on semen quality and reproductive hormones among men employed by the Paris Municipality. Between 2000 and 2001, 109 male volunteers provided semen, blood and urine samples and underwent a medical examination. Information on lifestyle, occupation, exposure and medical history was obtained by interview. According to their job and chemical products used during the period 1990-2000, participants were classified as either historically exposed or non-exposed. Current exposure levels to glycol ethers were evaluated by monitoring urinary metabolites. Previous exposure to glycol ethers was associated with declines in sperm concentration, motility and morphologically-normal sperm levels. No effect of previous glycol ether exposure on hormones levels was observed. By contrast, current glycol ether exposure levels were low and not correlated with either seminal quality or hormone levels.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.467-473. 39 ref.
Wang H., Chen W., Zheng H., Guo L., Liang H., Yang X., Bai Y., Sun J., Su Y., Chen Y., Yuan J., Bi Y., Wei Q., Wu T.
Association between plasma BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can induce both benzo[a]pyrene-r-7, t-8, t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. In this study, 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE were recruited in the same steel plant in northern China. BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations in plasma was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE-Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed but not in control group. The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.753-758. Illus. 40 ref.
Schulte P.A., Kelsey K.T., Vainio H.
The contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational health and safety
This editorial and the two comments it elicited discuss the contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational health. Genetic factors contribute to the variable responses of workers to occupational hazards - particularly chemical hazards, together with some biological and physical agents. Workers with susceptible genetic profiles may still be at unacceptably high risk even if exposed to low concentrations. There is a broad range of published evidence showing that genetic polymorphisms can lead to differential occupational disease risks in exposed workers. However collecting information on workers' genetic susceptibility raises ethical and legal questions about the way this information should be used.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.717-718; p.720-722. 32 ref.
Frey G.M., Ott M.G., Messerer P., Nasterlack M., Queisser-Luft A., Zober A.
Pregnancy protection program in a large chemical company: design and initial survey results
This series of two articles describe the pregnancy protection programme of a large German chemical company and investigate reproductive outcomes relative to maternal exposures. For the 1148 pregnancies having occurred between 1997 and 2002, outcomes were documented by questionnaires administered after the pregnancy announcement, end of pregnancy and one year later. Maternal exposures were assessed via job histories, workplace inspections and questionnaires. Overall outcomes are consistent with findings from population-based studies. Pregnancy losses (11.5%) did not differ significantly by type of work. Among pregnancy symptoms vaginal bleeding was weakly associated with two exposure measures (research chemicals and toluene). Preterm births (8.7%) were in agreement with general population norms and did not vary by maternal exposure category. Rates of malformation were marginally higher in infants born to women assigned to chemical versus office jobs. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.507-518. Illus. 22 ref.;519-525. 11 ref.
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