Toxicology - 304 entries found
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Gambelunghe A., Buratta S., Ferrara G., Mozzi R., Marchetti C., Murgia N., Muzi G.
Phosphatidylserine metabolism in human lymphoblastic cells exposed to chromium (IV)
Hexavalent chromium compounds are widely found in working environments. These compounds can cause apoptosis in human cells, but the mechanisms underlying chromium-induced apoptosis are not clear. A marker of apoptosis is the exposure of phosphatidylserine on cell membrane and the modification of phosphatidylserine metabolism. The aim of this study was to verify whether chromium could cause phosphatidylserine exposure and modification of its metabolism in human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4). Phosphatidylserine exposure was evaluated by annexin V binding whereas phosphatidylserine metabolism was studied measuring the incorporation of [3H]serine. Cell treatment with hexavalent chromium increases phosphatidylserine exposure and cell apoptosis, but decreases the incorporation of [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.776-781. Illus. 27 ref.
Phosphatidylserine_metabolism_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Phosphorus and its inorganic compounds
Phosphore et composés inorganiques [in French]
Contents of this review article on phosphorus and its inorganic compounds: elemental phosphorus (white phosphorus, red phosphorus); phosphoric acid; phosphates; phosphorus chloride and oxychloride; phosphides; phosphine.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 3rd quarter 2011, No.172, 10p. 53 ref.
The implementation of REACH: Initial perspectives from government, industry, and civil society
The European Union's 2006 Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) legislation represents a new wave in regulating chemicals and has set far-reaching goals for protecting and enhancing public health, the environment and markets. Despite substantial public debate during the development and passage of the REACH legislation, in interviews conducted from 2009-2010, respondents from government, industry, and civil society expressed general agreement on some key issues in the implementation of REACH, which are addressed in this study. At the same time, respondents expressed nuanced differences in how some of the outstanding implementation issues should be addressed. Industry respondents' main concern was their ability to comply with REACH; while government respondents reported wanting to ensure they can implement and enforce it; and civil society respondents wanted to ensure that REACH accomplishes its ambitious goals.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.57-62. 10 ref.
Oyunbileg S., Sumberzul N., Oyuntogos L., Javzmaa J., Wang J.D.
Analysis of incidence rates of occupational diseases in Mongolia, 1986-2006
The purpose of this study was to determine incidence rates and time trends of major occupational diseases in Mongolia. Information about all 4598 patients from 1986 to 2006 who were diagnosed and registered with occupational diseases by the National Center of Workplace Conditions and Occupational Diseases was retrieved. There was an increasing trend in the incidence rates of reported occupational respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, toxic hepatitis and noise-induced hearing loss. Such a trend may result from both rapid industrialization in Mongolia and increased recognition of occupational disease. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.31-37. 26 ref.
de Haro L.
Dangerous aquatic animal species and marine toxicology
Animaux aquatiques dangereux et toxicologie marine [in French]
This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning dangerous aquatic species, including fish, medusa, mollusks and sea snakes that possess both venom and stings or spines. Furthermore, some toxins from marine species may be ingested by humans, giving rise to food poisoning.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 1st Quarter 2011, No.170, 16p. Illus. 100 ref.
Sellappa S., Sadhanandhan B., Francis A., Vasudevan S.G.
Evaluation of genotoxicity in petrol station workers in South India using micronucleus assay
In this study, the micronucleus (MN) frequency was assessed as a measure of genotoxicity in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa extracted from 110 service station attendants and 100 controls. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. The individuals used in the study were grouped based on their smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and tobacco chewing habits. After controlling for smoking, alcohol consumption, age and length of occupation, there was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells among the workers exposed to gasoline than in the unexposed control population. The significant increase in the induction of the MN in the exposed population suggests that the studied individuals may be at a higher risk of developing cancer and therefore should be monitored for possible long-term adverse effects of the exposure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.852-856. 32 ref.
Evaluation_of_genotoxicity.pdf [in English]
Cordier S., Lehébel A., Amar E., Anzivino-Viricel L., Hours M., Monfort C., Chevrier C., Chiron M., Robert-Gnansia E.
Maternal residence near municipal waste incinerators and the risk of urinary tract birth defects
Waste incineration releases a mixture of chemicals with high embryotoxic potential into the atmosphere, including heavy metals, dioxins and dibenzofurans. A previous study reported an association between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and residence in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The objective of this study was to test this association. A population-based case-control study compared 304 infants diagnosed with urinary tract birth defects in the Rhône-Alpes region of France in 2001-2003 with a random sample of 226 population controls, frequency-matched for infant sex, year and place of birth. Exposure to dioxins in early pregnancy at the place of residence, used as a tracer of the mixture released by 21 active waste incinerators, was predicted with second-generation Gaussian modelling. Other industrial emissions of dioxins, population density and neighbourhood deprivation were also assessed. Individual risk factors including consumption of local food were obtained by interviews. Risk was increased for mothers exposed to dioxins above the median at the beginning of pregnancy (odds ratio 2.95). This study confirms the previous observation of a link between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and exposure to MSWI emissions in early pregnancy.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.493-499. 21 ref.
Maternal_residence.pdf [in English]
Phillips J.I., Green F.Y., Davies J.C., Murray J.
Pulmonary and systemic toxicity following exposure to nickel nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are being used in ever increasing numbers in a range of industrial and medical products. Questions surrounding their potential to cause toxic effects in humans have been raised. Although animal experiments predict that nanoparticles are more toxic than their larger counterparts there are few descriptions in the literature of human exposure. A case described in 1994 has been re-examined from a pathology perspective. The subject, a 38-year-old previously healthy male, inhaled nanoparticles of nickel while spraying nickel using a metal arc process. He died 13 days after being exposed and the cause of death at autopsy was adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nickel particles <25 nm in diameter were identified in lung macrophages using transmission electron microscopy. High levels of nickel were measured in his urine and his kidneys showing evidence of acute tubular necrosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.763-767. Illus. 24 ref.
Obiols Quinto J., Solans Lampurlanés X., García Martínez V.
Prevention of exposure to active ingredients in pharmaceutical industry laboratories
Industria farmacéutica: prevención de la exposición a principios activos en los laboratorios [in Spanish]
This information note explains the measures for preventing exposure to active ingredients in pharmaceutical industry laboratories depending on the forms in which these substances are handled (powder, liquid) and their level of toxicity.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 8p. 8 ref.
NTP_855.pdf [in Spanish]
El Yamani M., Brunet D., et al.
Principles for establishing French occupational exposure limits and comparison with the approach adopted at the European level
Principes de construction des valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle françaises et comparaison avec la méthodologie adoptée au niveau européen [in French]
This article presents an approach for establishing atmospheric occupational exposure limits. Inhalation is the main exposure pathway considered, although skin absorption is also taken into account. The article explains the scientific grounds on which are based the argumentation leading to the recommended values, and specifically distinguishes between chemicals acting through a mechanism implying a threshold and those without such a threshold. A comparison between the proposed approach and that of the European Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) is presented, with the help of examples illustrating each key point.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2010, No.124, p.399-412. Illus. 45 ref.
TC_133.pdf [in French]
Gasnier C., Benachour N., Clair E., Travert C., Langlois F., Laurant C., Decroix-Laporte C., Séralini G.E.
Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines
Glyphosate-based herbicides can provoke in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These herbicides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to better understand their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, this study investigates their mechanism of action and possible protection by medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 were monitored for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. All the four glyphosate formulations were found to provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Glyphosate is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant extracts Dig1 can to some extent protect human cell lines against these pollutants.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:28, 13p. Illus. 3 ref.
Dig1_protects_against_cell_death.pdf [in English]
Muller C., Mazer B., Salehi F., Audusseau S., Truchon G., Lambert J., L Espérance G., Chevalier G., Philippe S., Cloutier Y., Larivière P., Zayed J.
Evaluation of beryllium toxicity based on the chemical form and particle size
Evaluation de la toxicité du béryllium en fonction de la forme chimique et de la taille des particules [in French]
In recent years, various studies have been questioning the level of protection offered to workers by the threshold value for beryllium (Be) and its salts. The objective of this study was to verify, using an animal model, to what extent pulmonary effects are related to the chemical form of Be and the particle size. The results obtained confirm numerous correlations between tissue concentrations of Be and pulmonary effects similar to those observed in a worker following exposure. The results also reveal an association between particle size, lung concentrations, pulmonary inflammation, the production of certain cytokines, and the expression of certain lymphocytes. The effects also depend on the chemical form of Be. Clearly, the aerodynamic diameter and solubility played a significant role in pulmonary deposition and retention.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. viii, 45p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-637.pdf [in French]
Drolet D., Goyer N., Roberge B., Lavoué J., Coulombe M., Dufresne A.
Strategies for diagnosing workers' exposure to chemical substances
Stratégies de diagnostic de l'exposition des travailleurs aux substances chimiques [in French]
The IRSST needs to adapt the reference tools that it publishes for Quebec occupational health and safety professionals as a result of recent changes to the Regulation respecting occupational health and safety (RROHS). This involves reviewing and updating the "Sampling strategy" section of the Sampling guide for air contaminants in the workplace. This report consists of the update to the sampling strategy for exposure to toxic substances by inhalation.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xiv, 70p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 9.45. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-665.pdf [in French]
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]
Savolainen K., Pylkkänen L., Norppa H., Falck G., Lindberg H., Tuomi T., Vippola M., Alenius H., Hämeri K., Koivisto J., Brouwer D., Mark D., Bard D., Berges M., Jankowska E., Posniak M., Farmer P., Singh R., Krombach F., Bihari P., Kasper G., Seipenbusch M.
Nanotechnologies, engineered nanomaterials and occupational health and safety - A review
The significance of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and nanotechnologies is growing rapidly. Nanotechnology applications may have a positive marked impact on many aspects of human every day life. Hundreds of consumer nano-based products are already on the market. However, very little is known of the risks of ENM to occupational safety and health, even though workers are likely to be at extra risk compared with other potentially exposed groups of people, because of the higher levels of exposure at workplaces than in other environments. However, knowledge of the exposure to, or effects of, ENM on human safety and health in occupational environments is limited and does not allow reliable assessment of risks of ENM on workers' health. This article discusses several issues related to ENM in the workplaces which require marked attention.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.957-963. Illus. 55 ref.
Bhargava A.;, Punde R.P, Pathak N.;, Dabadghao S, Desikan P.;, Jain A.;, Maudar K.K.;, Mishra P.K.
Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: A study after two decades
Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 were injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. This study aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. Participants were divided into three groups: age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones; age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal; age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal. The status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) in these three groups was analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin-induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-208. Illus. 32 ref.
Status_of_inflammatory_biomarkers.pdf [in English]
Santos T., Romano D., Gadea R.
Trade Union priority list for REACH authorization
The purpose of the Trade Union Priority List is to contribute to the practical implementation of REACH, in particular the authorisation procedure by proposing substances of very high concern which, from a trade union perspective, should have priority for inclusion in the candidate list and potentially in the authorisation list. The resulting Trade Union List includes 568 substances. The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) took a very clear stance in favour of this reform because, by encouraging industry to develop safer substances, REACH combines increased competitiveness for European industry with improved protection of workers, consumers and the environment.
European Trade Union Confederation, International Trade Union House (ITUH), 5 Boulevard Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010. 117p. Illus.
Trade_Union_priority_list.pdf [in English]
Doixyde de carbone [in French]
While carbon dioxide (CO2) is harmless at low concentrations, its build-up in confined spaces is highly dangerous. Together with the often concomitant effects of anoxia, it then causes severe poisoning with a high mortality rate. Work in vats during fermentation processes and the sublimation of dry ice are two situations presenting the highest risks. On the other hand, CO2 is devoid of long-term health effects.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 5p. Illus. 22 ref.
International Labour Organization (ILO), International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Strontium and strontium compounds
Strontium is released into the environment by natural processes and as a result of human activities. Humans are exposed to strontium via drinking water and via uptake into food plants. Strontium compounds are also used in the manufacture of ceramics and glass products. This Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICAD) evaluates the scientific literature on the health and environmental effects of strontium and strontium compounds. It focuses on the stable isotopes of strontium and the radioactive isotopes of strontium are not reviewed. The acute oral and dermal toxicity of strontium salts is low. There are no reliable data on carcinogenicity of strontium compounds. There are few data on the genotoxicity of strontium compounds. A limited study reported that a single oral dose of strontium chloride induced chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow of mice. However, strontium compounds showed no activity in vitro. There were no effects on reproduction, fertility or foetal development in animal studies. Other findings are discussed. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2010. iv, 63p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref. Price: CHF 20.00; USD 20.00 (CHF 14.00 in developing countries).
Indium and its compounds
Indium et composés [in French]
Indium and its compounds are mainly used in new technologies. Approximately 70% of indium is used for the production of indium tin oxide (ITO), which in turn is primarily used in the manufacture of electrodes for flat screens and touch screens. Based on animal experiments, indium phosphide is considered to be probably carcinogenic to humans. There are no data available on the metabolism of indium in humans. Occupational exposure to ITO particles has been linked to cases of pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax and emphysema. No cases of occupational poisoning have been reported with other indium compounds.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.168, 4p. 45 ref.
Dewitte J.D., Pougnet R., Eniafe-Eveillard M., Loddé B.
Toxicity of tin and its derivatives
Toxicité de l'étain et de ses dérivés [in French]
Tin is used in industry but also in veterinary and medical applications. Organo-tin compounds have long been used in marine antifouling paints. However, these compounds may present risks to marine life, in particular by causing endocrine disruption, and have been banned in the European Union in 2003. Cases of food poisoning, pneumoconiosis and skin irritation have been reported among humans exposed to tin and its compounds, as well as neurotoxic effects due to organo-tin compounds. Current French regulations do not require workers handling metallic tin or its compounds to be subjected to specific medical surveillance.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.168, 7p. Illus. 47 ref.
Vyskocil A., El Majidi N., Thuot R., Beaudry C., Charest-Tardif G., Tardif R., Gagnon F., Ska B., Turcot A., Drolet D., Aliyeva E., Viau C.
Effects of concentration peaks on styrene neurotoxicity in the fibreglass-reinforced plastics sector - Phase II
Effets des pics de concentration sur la neurotoxicité du styrène dans l'industrie de plastique renforcé de fibre de verre - Phase II [in French]
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to high concentrations of styrene, even for short periods, has harmful consequences on the health of workers who are regularly exposed. It involved workers exposed to styrene in the glass-reinforced plastics industry at average concentrations not exceeding the time-weighted average exposure value (TWAEV) of 213 mg/m3. In this industry, it is known that there are exposure peaks that exceed the values defined in occupational safety and health regulations. However at the exposure concentrations described, and for the exposure duration of the workers who participated in this study, styrene was found to have no appreciable effect on the neurosensory and neuropsychological performance. These findings do not justify lowering the current Quebec (Canada) styrene exposure limits.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xiii, 101p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-640.pdf [in French]
Nanomaterials: Health hazards and preventive measures
Nanomatériaux. Risques pour la santé et mesures de prévention [in French]
Given the many unknowns concerning the potential health effects of nanomaterials, it is important to limit occupational exposures. This leaflet summarizes the appropriate technical and personal protective measures to be adopted in laboratories or enterprises handling nano-objects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2009. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 0.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6064.pdf [in French]
Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Nanomaterials. Definitions, toxicological risk, characterisation of occupational exposure and prevention measures
Les nanomatériaux. Définitions, risques toxicologiques, caractérisation de l'exposition professionnelle et mesures de prévention [in French]
That workers are occupationally exposed to nanomaterials is already an established fact. Considering the many unknowns surrounding these new chemicals, their potential health effects and the problems faced in attempting to characterize exposures, quantitative risk assessments remain difficult to carry out in most occupational settings. In all work situations involving exposure to nanomaterials, the most appropriate course of action is therefore to apply caution and introduce specific policies aimed at avoiding risks. Although it is still too early to provide definitive answers, this guide brings together current knowledge concerning the characteristics and applications of these materials, their toxicology, the tools available for evaluating occupational exposure and finally the means of prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2009. 27p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: EUR 4.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6050/EN.pdf [in English]
ED_6050/FR.pdf [in French]
Chrysotile biopersistence - The misuse of biased studies
Although it is widely accepted that exposure to any asbestos type can increase the likelihood of lung cancer, mesothelioma, and non-malignant lung and pleural disorders, manufacturers and some chrysotile miners' unions contend that chrysotile either does not cause disease or that there is insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion. This article consists of a critical review of a recent publication that claims weak chrysotile carcinogenicity, and concludes that the findings contradict results obtained by independent scientists and can only be explained by an aggressive pre-treatment of fibres leading to rapid hydration and breaking of long fibres in the lungs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.102-106. 55 ref.
Acrilato de metilo [in Spanish]
Safety data sheet on methyl acrylate: Exposure limits: TWA 2ppmm. Adverse effects: harmful if inhaled, irritates the respiratory tract, toxic if ingested, may cause irritation to the gastrointestinal tract; contact with eyes may cause irritation, methyl acrylate is a lachrymator; skin contact may cause irritation and sensitization; methyl acrylate is harmful by percutaneaous absorbption; prolonged and repeated exposure to the substance can cause allergic reactions and a long-term exposure can cause depression of the nervous system: adverse effects on reproduction have been reported in animals.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 52, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, no date. 4p. Illus.
Tanarro Gozalo C., Gálvez Pérez V.
Nanoparticles: A small hazard?
Nanopartículas: ¿un riesgo pequeño? [in Spanish]
The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to the emergence of a large number of consumer products containing nanoparticles thanks to the improved product properties resulting from their use. As a result, a growing number of workers are exposed to new materials about which little is known of their toxicological characteristics. This article gives an overview of nanoparticles, the sectors where they can be found, the associated hazards and the preventive measures that can be adopted.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.33-44. Illus. 23 ref.
International Labour Organization (ILO), Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food
This criteria document describes general principles and methods for the risk assessment of additives, contaminants, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues and natural constituents in foods. It also includes general guidance on the risk assessment of novel and non-traditional whole foods. Some general guidance is also given on risk assessment related to upper levels for nutrients and other beneficial food components. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. lxix, 656p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Index.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals
Main topics covered by this criteria document on the principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals: risk analysis; basic concepts of dose-response modelling; when and why to use dose-response modelling; principles of dose-response modelling; communication of the results of dose-response modelling; conclusions and recommendation. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. xx, 137p. Illus. 100 ref.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241572392_eng.pdf [in English]
Nanotoxicology - Where do we stand?
Nanotoxicologie - Où en sommes-nous? [in French]
Nanoparticles can be absorbed by inhalation, ingestion and through the skin. Some nanoparticles agglutinate rapidly, which can influence their properties and their effects on the body. Despite numerous articles published on the toxicity of nanoparticles, there remains a pressing need for in vivo studies to inform dose-response relationships in animals and humans.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.10-11. Illus. 10 ref.
Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.
Rudén C., Hansson S.O.
Evidence-based toxicology: "sound science" in new disguise
The "evidence-based toxicology" departs radically from state-of-the-art toxicology by claiming that risks for humans can only be determined on the basis of human evidence. Just like the previous proposal of "sound science," "evidence-based toxicology" poses a heavy burden of proof on any effort to control exposures in order to reduce health risks to those exposed. The alleged connection between "evidence-based toxicology" and evidence-based medicine is misconceived, since the strict criteria for use of scientific data in evidence-based medicine concerns proof of therapeutic effects, while in "evidence-based toxicology" these criteria are applied to proof of harmful effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.299-306. 33 ref.
Evidence-based_toxicology.pdf [in English]
Manganese and its compounds
Manganèse et ses composés [in French]
Occupational exposures to manganese and its compounds are mainly encountered in the steel and smelting industries, as well as in welding. Other industries such as dry cell manufacture, glassworks, and the production of paints and pigments can give also rise to exposures, as can certain pesticides used in agriculture. Occupational exposure to manganese occurs almost exclusively through inhalation, with the lungs and the central nervous system being the main target organs. In cases of chronic exposure, neurological disorders and in particular perceptual-motor performance, constitute the main critical effect. Higher exposures (generally above 5mg/m3) give rise to Parkinson-like symptoms. The identification of groups of exposed workers is possible by means of determinations in blood or urine. Monitoring of manganese exposure rests mainly on atmospheric sampling. Acceptable occupational exposure levels are 0.050 and 0.200mg/m3 respectively for respirable and inhalable fractions. Replaces CIS 03-827.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 10p. 72 ref.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Hormesis in ecotoxicology
Hormesis in der Ökotoxikologie [in German]
In recent years, the term hormesis has been used in ecotoxicology to describe non-monotonic dose-response relationships. Main topics covered by this criteria document on hormesis in ecotoxicology: history; dose-response relationships; attempts at explaining hormesis and its mechanisms; similar phenomena; experimental design; statistical aspects; case study of a 21-d reproduction test with Daphnia magna; consequences for hazard evaluation.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. ix, 87p. (German); xi, 46p. (English). Illus. 87 ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
Reviewing toxicology literature - Accessing relevant information
Recherche documentaire en toxicologie - Accéder à l'information pertinente [in French]
This article proposes a systematic approach for reviewing toxicology literature, and describes the main sources of information available on the web, on CD-ROM and in print publications.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.91-105. 52 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TP%201/$File/TP1.pdf [in French]
The need for an independent entity to manage global chemicals agreements
Following a discussion on the roles and limitations of distinct entities under the United Nations system such as UNEP and UNECE, this article argues in favour of creating a single independent entity to manage global chemicals agreements.
2006, Vol.VI, No.3, p.17-20. 27 ref.
The_need_for_an_independent_entity_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Sass J., Simms S., Negin E.
Nanotechnologies: The promise and the peril
Topics addressed in this review article on nanotechnologies: current lack of data on toxicity and health hazards; insufficient government funding in the United States for safety and health research; role of private enterprise; recommendations of the Environmental Protection Agency; responses by public interest groups.
2006, Vol.VI, No.3, p.11-14, 74. 32 ref.
Nanotechnologies_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of February 2005: No studies are available on the metabolism of 2-chlorobenzothiazole or its mechanism of action. The 4-hour LC50 for rats is more than 79 mg 2-chlorobenzothiazole/m3. The oral LD50 for rats is between 100 and 200 mg/kg, being 50 mg/kg for mice. Acute symptoms of poisoning after inhalation and oral uptake are behavioural disturbances, breathing difficulties and spasms. During inhalation, irritation occurs to the conjunctiva of the eye and the nasal mucosa, whereas oral administration causes local irritation of the gastro-intestinal mucosa. Regardless of the exposure route, necropsy reveals emphysematous or edaematous lung lesions, increased iron deposits in the liver, liver necrosis and inflammation of the kidneys. Studies with repeated administration are lacking. The results of the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium give no indication of a mutagenic potential even in the cytotoxic range. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 34p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_256_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_256_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of November 2004: no studies are available on the mechanism of action or toxicokinetics of hexamethylene-bis-triacetone diamine (HMBTAD, common name of N,N-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-yl)hexane-1,6-diamine). The oral LD50 of HMBTAD in rats is between 820 and 880 mg/kg. Symptoms of poisoning are disturbed coordination, a decrease in triggered reflexes, jerking, light to heavy sedation and ataxia, tremor, a squatting position and hypothermia. Beginning at a concentration of 1000 mg HMBTAD/kg, paralysis of hind legs, ptosis and cyanosis were also observed. All treated animals had hyperaemia of the gastric and intestinal mucous membranes. HMBTAD is corrosive to the skin and eyes of rabbits. It is not sensitizing in guinea pigs. In the mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium and the HPRT gene mutation test with V79 cells, HMBTAD is not mutagenic at concentrations up to 5000 µg/plate. HMBTAD is not clastogenic in the chromosome aberration test with human peripheral lymphocytes. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of HMBTAD are not available. Available in vitro genotoxicity studies give negative results. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 35p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_254_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_254_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of November 2004: Studies are lacking on the toxicokinetics of triacetonamine (common name of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone) and the acute toxicity after inhalational uptake. The LD50 of triacetonamine in rats is between 1000 and 2000 mg/kg after oral uptake and higher than 2000 mg/kg after dermal uptake. Acute signs of poisoning are a rough coat, timidity, reduced movement, slight tremor, staggering, ataxia, cardiac dysrhythmia, a drop in blood pressure, breathing difficulty, hypothermia and a prone position. Validated investigations with repeated administration of triacetonamine are not available. Triacetonamine is corrosive to the skin and eyes of rabbits. In the maximization test, triacetonamine is sensitizing to guinea pigs. Triacetonamine is negative in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of triacetonamine are not available. In vitro genotoxicity investigations with bacteria gave negative results No studies exist on the genotoxicity in vivo. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 43p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
BUA_Report_255_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_255_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of February 2004: The toxicity of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde after oral administration is weak. The lowest LD50 in the rat and guinea pig are 1510 mg/kg and 1260 mg/kg, respectively. Dermal LD50 values reported in rabbits and guinea pigs are 5000 mg/kg and 11200 mg/kg, respectively. In humans, a 48h administration of a 20% solution to the skin of the back causes no irritation. 10% solutions are neither irritant nor sensitizing. It is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity tests with Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli. 4-Methoxybenzaldehyde showed no tumour-promoting effect in an initiation-promotion experiment with the endpoint skin papillomas. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xv, 77p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.00.
BUA_Report_250_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_250_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of April 2004: benzanthrone can be absorbed orally and by inhalation. It is of low acute toxicity (inhalation LC50 in the mouse is >5000 mg/m3; oral LD50 in the rat and guinea pig is >2000 mg/kg; dermal LD50 in the rabbit is >3000 mg/kg). In humans, target organs are the skin, nervous system, lung and liver. Benzanthone causes phototoxic dermatitis in humans, with photo-allergic reactions suspected in some cases. It is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimuriumstudies on the carcinogenic potential of benzanthrone are not available. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xv, 112p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 60.00.
BUA_Report_251_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_251_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of July 2004: 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene can be absorbed orally, dermally and by inhalation. In the rat, the oral LD50 is about 200 mg/kg and the dermal LD50 84 mg/kg. In general, the symptoms after acute 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene uptake are staggering, spasms, tremor, accelerated respiration or breathing sounds. Oral administration of 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene also leads to the formation of methemoglobin and Heinz bodies, whereas dermal administration causes cyanosis. Investigations are lacking on the toxicity after repeated uptake. After an exposure period of 15 minutes, undiluted 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene does not irritate the skin. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is slightly irritating to the rabbit eye. Studies on the allergenic effect are not available. Considering the structural similarity to such substances as 3-chloro-2,4-difluoronitrobenzene, a sensitizing potential cannot be ruled out. Data are not available on the reproductive toxicity. Against the backdrop of the fertility-damaging effects of other nitro-aromatics, an effect on the reproductive capacity cannot be excluded. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is positive in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium. No other investigations are available on the in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity in mammalian cells or on the carcinogenic potential. However a carcinogenic potential cannot be ruled out, considering the similarity to other nitro-aromatics. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 27p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_252_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_252_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of September 2004: 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol is of low acute toxicity. Eight-hour exposure to an atmosphere enriched with 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol does not cause symptoms of poisoning in rats. The oral and dermal LD50 in rats is higher than 200 mg/kg. Symptoms of poisoning after oral uptake are dyspnoea, apathy, lateral position, staggering, atony, narcotic condition with an absence of pain and corneal reflexes, a spastic gait, diarrhoea, salivation and lacrimation. In rabbits, 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol causes slight-to-moderate irritation to the skin and moderate irritation to the eye. In the maximization test in humans, a 4 % solution does not cause irritation or sensitization after 48-hour occlusive application. 3,7-Dimethyloctane-3-ol is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity test with various Salmonella typhimurium strains and V79 cells. It does not cause chromosome aberrations in V79 cells. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol are not available. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 53p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
BUA_Report_253_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_253_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT] [in English]
Picot A., Proust N.
Toxicology and chemistry of mineral and organo-mineral xenobiotics: The importance of speciation
Toxicochimie des xénobiotiques minéraux et organominéraux : importance de la spéciation [in French]
This information sheet provides information on the substance-specific characteristics of inorganic and organic mineral substances that can enter the body through various means of exposure. Contents: general aspects of speciation; main parameters to be taken into consideration during speciation (physical state of solids [including nanoparticles], liquids, and gases and vapours); structural data; electronegativity; reactivity; classification of elements according to different criteria; conclusions.
EMC - Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, Jan. 2006, 15p. Illus. 46 ref.
Manzanaro Arana R., Apellániz González A.
Toxicology of cadmium - Literature survey
Toxicología del cadmio: revisión bibiográfica [in Spanish]
Contents of this literature survey on the toxicology of cadmium: physical and chemical properties of cadmium; utilization; contamination sources; physiopathology; clinical effects of acute poisoning by ingestion (gastrointestinal effects, migraine, muscular pain) and by inhalation (bronchopulmonary changes, dyspnoea, cyanosis, migraine, vertigo and pulmonary oedema), as well as of chronic poisoning (yellow colouring of the teeth, respiratory disorders, renal disorders); medical treatment; prevention and limitation of exposure.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2006, No.178, p.38-47. Illus. 48 ref.
Winker R., Rüdiger H.W.
Reproductive toxicology in occupational settings: An update
The aim of this literature review was to study the relationship between occupational exposures and fertility, developmental effects and genetic changes that lead to genetic malformations or to genetic disease. It aimed in particular to assess whether occupational exposures are responsible for 15% involuntarily childless couples, 10-20% spontaneous abortions and 3% birth defects. The review identified some substances and occupational settings that may affect fertility function, but no reliable evidence was found for developmental effects of work conditions. The decreasing fertility of women in Western countries can be better explained by the increasing female reproduction age rather than by occupational exposures. Also, the rates for spontaneous abortions and birth defects cannot be explained by industrial exposures at the workplace.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 98 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/t5qm6h40818q5q28/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Viala A., Botta A.
This publication describes the basic principles of toxicology by explaining the mechanisms and symptoms resulting from the presence of toxic substances in the human body. It covers more than 25 chemicals or classes of chemicals. Each chapter includes the aetiology, mechanisms of toxic action, symptoms, medical treatment, prevention and analytical toxicology. It also covers waste, air, water and soil pollution, major hazards, substance abuse, smoking, pesticides, sports doping, and chemical and bacteriological weapons. A chapter on industrial toxicology covers the main classes of chemical toxins found in industry, their toxic effects and the prevention of toxic hazards.
Editions Tec & Doc, 14 rue de Provigny, 94236 Cachan, France, 2nd ed., 2005. 1094p. Illus. 92 ref. Index. Price: EUR 250.00.
Haufroid V., Lison D.
Mercapturic acids revisited as biomarkers of exposure to reactive chemicals in occupational toxicology: A minireview
This short literature review examines the use of mercapturic acids as a biological exposure index for electrophilic chemicals. The review considers the analytical methods available to measure mercapturic acids, the advantages of mercapturic acids compared to other well-validated biomarkers and the high inter-individual variability in mercapturic acids excretion. Recent field and experimental studies confirm the usefulness of mercapturic acids as a biological exposure index for electrophilic chemicals and highlight the advantages of a toxicogenetic approach for a better interpretation of the results of biological monitoring.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.343-354. Illus. 75 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/3pvxje0mrh1wqp9d9dcg/contributions/v/7/u/2/v7u2t32222p28q74.pdf [in English]
The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man
Glycol mono-ethers are liquids that combine the solubility characteristics of ethers and alcohols since both functional groups are present. As a result, they are widely used in solvent applications, including formulations such as paints, inks and cleaning fluids. Non-solvent applications include anti-icing agents in jet fuel, hydraulic system fluids and chemical intermediates. Glycol ethers have a high potential to penetrate the skin (as a liquid or vapour) and this represents the dominant potential route of exposure. The majority of glycol ethers are of low acute toxicity; the main effect seen in laboratory animals at high doses is narcosis, typical of many solvents. Some glycol ethers are eye irritants. Numerous studies with glycol ethers show that they do not exhibit genotoxic activity. Glycol ether exposure has been associated with anaemia, leukaemia, granulocytopenia, increased risk of abortion or reduced sperm count in painters, but these effects could be confounded by simultaneous exposure to other chemicals.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 4th ed., Feb. 2005. 202p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: EUR 125.00. Profiles of 44 substances are provided on a companion CD-ROM (included).
Particle toxicology: From coal mining to nanotechnology
Partikeltoxikologie: Vom Steinkohlenbergbau zur Nanotechnologie [in German]
Research into the toxicology of particulate matter is closely related to industrial operations and to certain materials such as coal, asbestos, glass wool and more recently, airborne dust. The study of the effects of inhaled particles is no longer limited to the lungs. It is now believed that the particles enter the bloodstream and that the inflammation of the lungs gives rise to systemic effects. Developments in the field of nanotechnology are causing new materials composed of ultrafine particles to appear, whose health hazards are still unknown even if inhalation exposure risks are considered minimal. Toxicological research efforts therefore need to be focused on the activity and biological effects of ultrafine particles as well as on the influence of their surface and their size on these effects.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2004, Vol.54, No.6, p.188-197. Illus. 51 ref.
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